Mary Grace Natividad S. Poe-Llamanzares v. COMELEC, G. R. Nos. 221697 & 221698-700, March 8, 2016
♦ Decision, Perez [J]
♦ Concurring Opinion, Sereno [CJ] Velasco Jr. [J] Leonen [J] Jardeleza [J]
♦ Separate Concurring Opinion, Caguioa [J]
♦ Dissenting Opinion, Carpio [J] Brion [J] Del Castillo [J] Perlas-Bernabe [J]
♦ Separate Dissenting Opinion, Leonardo-De Castro [J]

EN BANC

March 8, 2016

G.R. No. 221697

MARY GRACE NATIVIDAD S. POE-LLAMANZARES, Petitioners,
vs.
COMELEC AND ESTRELLA C. ELAMPARO Respondents.

x - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - x

G.R. No. 221698-700

MARY GRACE NATIVIDAD S. POE-LLAMANZARES, Petitioners,
vs.
COMELEC, FRANCISCO S. TATAD, ANTONIO P. CONTRERAS AND AMADO D. VALDEZ Respondents.

CONCURRING OPINION

SERENO, CJ.:

It is important for every Member of this Court to be and to remain professionally indifferent to the outcome of the 2016 presidential election. Whether it turns out to be for a candidate who best represents one's personal aspirations for the country or who raises one's fears, is a future event we must be blind to while we sit as magistrates. We are not the electorate, and at this particular juncture of history, our only role is to adjudicate as our unfettered conscience dictates. We have no master but the law, no drumbeater but reason, and in our hearts must lie only the love for truth and for justice. This is what the Constitution requires of us.

It is apropos at this point to recall the principles that Justice Angelina Sandoval-Gutierrez evoked in her concurring opinion in Tecson v. COMELEC, 1 the landmark case involving as respondent a presidential candidate for 2014, the late Ronald Allan Kelly-Poe:

x x x x

Let it not be forgotten that the historic core of our democratic system is political liberty, which is the right and opportunity to choose those who will lead the governed with their consent. This right to choose cannot be subtly interfered with through the elimination of the electoral choice. The present bid to disqualify respondent Poe from the presidential race is a clear attempt to eliminate him as one of the choices. This Court should resist such attempt. The right to choose is the single factor that controls the ambitions of those who would impose through force or stealth their will on the majority of citizens. We should not only welcome electoral competition, we should cherish it. Disqualifying a candidate, particularly the popular one, on the basis of doubtful claims does not result to a genuine, free and fair election. It results to violence. x x x. We have seen Edsa I and Edsa II, thus, we know that when democracy operates as intended, an aroused public can replace those who govern in a manner beyond the parameters established by public consent.2

x x x x

When the people vote on May 10 and cast their ballots for President, they will be exercising a sovereign right. They may vote for respondent Poe, or they may not. When they vote, they will consider a myriad of issues, some relevant, others trivial, including the eligibility of the candidates, their qualities of leadership, their honesty and sincerity, perhaps including their legitimacy. That is their prerogative. After the election, and only after, and that is what the Constitution mandates, the election of whoever is proclaimed winner may be challenged in an election contest or a petition for quo warranto. Where the challenge is because of ineligibility, he will be ousted only if this Court exerts utmost effort to resolve the issue in a manner that would give effect to the will of the majority, for it is merely sound public policy to cause elective offices to be filled by those who are the choice of the majority.3

That is what the COMELEC rulings in these cases would have precisely accomplished had they been affirmed: the illegitimate elimination of an electoral choice, a choice who appears to be one of the frontrunners in all the relevant surveys. For the reasons set forth below, I concur with Justice Jose Portugal Perez, and am herein expounding in detail the reasons for such concurrence.

With the majority of the Members of the Court declaring, by a vote of 9 as against 6, that petitioner Mary Grace Poe-Llamanzares has no legal impediment to run for the presidency, it is most unfortunate that one of the Dissenting Opinions opens with a statement that tries to cast uncertainty on an already tense situation. The dissent gives excessive weight to the fact that there are 5 Justices in the minority who believe that petitioner does not have the qualifications for presidency, while ignoring the reality that there at least 7 Justices who believe that petitioner possesses these qualifications.

Note that the fallo needed only to dispose of the grant or denial of the petitions and nothing more. Ideally, no further interpretation of the votes should have been made. Unfortunately, there are attempts to make such an interpretation. We therefore need to look to our internal rules for clarification on the matter to avoid exacerbating matters.

If we were to apply the rules on voting in the Internal Rules of the Supreme Court, it is clear that the Court decided on the matter of petitioner's intrinsic qualifications in accordance with Rule 12, Section 1 of these rules:

Section 1.Voting requirements. - (a) All decisions and actions in Court en bane cases shall be made up upon the concurrence of the majority of the Members of the Court who actually took part in the deliberation on the issues or issues involved and voted on them.

Out of the 12 Members who voted on the substantive question on citizenship, a clear majority of 7 voted in favor of petitioner. As to residency, 7 out of 13 voted that petitioner complied with the 10-year residency requirement. These votes, as explained in the extended opinions submitted by the members of the majority, must be respected. Granting therefore that we need to address the question of substantive qualifications of petitioner, she clearly possesses the qualifications for presidency on the matter of residency and citizenship.

I.
The Proceedings Before the Court

On 28 December 2015, petitioner filed two separate Petitions for Certiorari before this Court assailing the Resolutions dated 23 December 2015 of the COMELEC En Banc, which ordered the cancellation of her Certificate of Candidacy (CoC) for the 2016 presidential elections.4 Both petitions included a prayer for the issuance of Temporary Restraining Orders (TRO) against the COMELEC.

In the afternoon of 28 December 2015, by my authority as Chief Justice and upon the written recommendation of the Members-in-Charge, the Court issued two separate orders enjoining COMELEC and its representatives from implementing the assailed Resolutions, pursuant to Section 6(g), Rule 7 of the Supreme Court Internal Rules.5

The issuance of the TROs was confirmed by the Court En Banc, voting 12-3, in Resolutions dated 12 January 2016. In the same resolutions, the Court ordered the consolidation of the two petitions.

Oral arguments were then held on the following dates: January 19 and 26; February 2, 9 and 16, 2016. During these proceedings, the parties were ordered in open court to submit their Memoranda within five days from the conclusion of the oral arguments, after which the consolidated petitions would be deemed submitted for resolution.

On 29 February 2016, the draft report of the Member-in-Charge was circulated to the Members of the Court. The Court then decided to schedule the deliberations on the case on 8 March 2016. A reserved date - 9 March 2016 - was also agreed upon, in the event that a decision is not reached during the 8 March 2016 session.

In keeping with the above schedule, the Members of the Court deliberated and voted on the case on 8 March 2016.

II
COMELEC exceeded its jurisdiction when it ruled on petitioner's qualifications under Section 78 of the Omnibus Election Code.

The brief reasons why the COMELEC exceeded its jurisdiction when it ruled on petitioner's qualifications are as follows.

First, Section 78 of Batas Pambansa Bilang 118, or the Omnibus Election Code (OEC), does not allow the COMELEC to rule on the qualifications of candidates. Its power to cancel a Certificate of Candidacy (CoC) is circumscribed within the confines of Section 78 of the OEC that provides for a summary proceeding to determine the existence of the exclusive ground that any representation made by the candidate regarding a Section 74 matter was false. Section 74 requires, among others a statement by the candidate on his eligibility for office. To authorize the COMELEC to go beyond its mandate and rule on the intrinsic qualification of petitioner, and henceforth, of every candidate, is an outcome clearly prohibited by the Constitution and by the OEC.

Second, even assuming that the COMELEC may go beyond the determination of patent falsity of the CoC, its decision to cancel petitioner's CoC must still be reversed. The factual circumstances surrounding petitioner's claims of residency and citizenship show that there was neither intent to deceive nor false representation on her part. Worse, the COMELEC's unmerited use of this Court's dissenting opinions as if they were pronouncements of the Court itself6 misleads both the Court and the public, as it evinces a refusal to acknowledge a dissent's proper place - not as law, but as the personal views of an individual member of this Court. Most egregiously, the COMELEC blatantly disregarded a long line of decisions by this Court to come up with its conclusions.

The Power of the COMELEC Prior
to Section 78 of the Omnibus
Election Code

Prior to the OEC, the power of the COMELEC in relation to the filing of CoCs had been described as ministerial and administrative.7 In 1985, the OEC was passed, empowering the COMELEC to grant or deny due course to a petition to cancel a CoC. The right to file a verified petition under Section 78 was given to any person on the ground of material representation of the contents of the CoC as provided for under Section 74. Among the statements a candidate is required to make in the CoC, is that he or she is eligible for the office the candidate seeks.

The fundamental requirements for electoral office are found in the Constitution. With respect to the petitions at hand, these are the natural-born Filipino citizenship and the 10-year residency requirements for President found under Section 2, Article VII in relation to Section 1, Article IV of the Constitution.

In the deliberations of the Batasang Pambansa on what would turn out to be Section 78 of the Omnibus Election Code or Batas Pambansa Bilang (BP) 881, the lawmakers emphasized that the fear of partisanship on the part of the COMELEC makes it imperative that it must only be for the strongest of reasons, i.e., material misrepresentation on the face of the CoC, that the COMELEC can reject any such certificates. Otherwise, to allow greater power than the quasi-ministerial duty of accepting facially compliant CoCs would open the door for COMELEC to engage in partisanship; the COMELEC may target any candidate at will. The fear was so real to the lawmakers that they characterized the power to receive CoCs not only as summary, but initially as, "ministerial." Allow me to quote:

HON. ADAZA. Why should we give the Comelec power to deny or to give due course when the acceptance of the certificate of candidacy is ministerial?

HON. FERNAN. Iyon na nga ang sinasabi ko eh.

THE CHAIRMAN. Baka iyong residences, this must be summary. He is not a resident of the ano, why will you wait? Automatically disqualified siya. Suppose he is not a natural born citizen.

HON. ADAZA. No, but we can specify the grounds here. Kasi, they can use this power to expand.

THE CHAIRMAN. Yeah, that is under this article nga.

HON. ADAZA. Iyon na nga, but let's make particular reference. Remember, Nonoy, this is a new provision which gives authority to the Comelec. This was never there before. Ikansel na natin yan.

HON. GONZALES. At saka the Constitution says, di ba? "The Commission on Election is the sole judge of all the contest." This merely refers to contest e. Petition fang to give due course e. You will only be declared disqualified.

THE CHAIRMAN. No, no, because, clearly, he is a non-resident. Oh, why can we not file a petition? Supposing he is not a natural born citizen? Why?

HON. GONZALES. This is a very very serious question. This should be declared only in proper election contest, properly litigated but never in a summary proceedings.

THE CHAIRMAN. We will not use the word, the phrase "due course", "seeking the cancellation of the Certificate of Candidacy". For example, si Ading, is a resident of Cebu and he runs in Davao City.

HON. ADAZA. He is a resident of Cebu but he runs in Lapu-Lapu? lkaw, you are already threatening him ah.

THE CHAIRMAN. These are the cases I am sure, that are ...

HON. ADAZA. I see. No, no, but let us get rid of the provision. This is dangerous.

THE CHAIRMAN. No but, if you know that your opponent is not elected or suppose ...

HON. ADAZA. File the proper petition like before without providing this.

THE CHAIRMAN. But in the mean time, why ...

HON. SITOY. My proposal is to delete the phrase "to deny due course", go direct to "seeking the cancellation of the Certificate of Candidacy."

HON. ASOK. Every Certificate of Candidacy should be presumed accepted. It should be presumed accepted.

THE CHAIRMAN. Suppose on the basis of. ..

HON. SITOY. That's why, my proposal is, "any person seeking the cancellation of a Certificate of Candidacy".

HON. FERNAN. But where are the grounds here?

HON. ADAZA. Noy, let's hold this. Hold muna ito. This is dangerous e.

THE CHAIRMAN. Okay, okay.

HON. GONZALES. Ginagamit lamang ng Comelec ang "before" if it is claimed that a candidate is an official or that his Certificate of Candidacy has been filed in bad faith, iyon lang. Pero you cannot go to the intrinsic qualifications and disqualifications of candidates.

HON. DELOS REYES. Which are taken up in an ordinary protest.

HON. GONZALES. Dito ba, kasama iyong proceedings sa ... ? What I'm saying is: Kagaya iyong nabanggit kay Nonoy, natural course of margin, imagine, it will eventually reach the Supreme Court. The moment that the disqualification is pending, lalong lalo na kung may decision ng Comelec and yet pending pa before the Supreme Court, that already adversely affect a candidate, mabigat na iyan. So, what I'm saying is, on this disqualification sub-judice, alisin ito except if on the ground that he is a nuisance candidate or that his Certificate of Candidacy has been filed in bad faith. But if his Certificate of Candidacy appears to be regular and valid on the basis that his certificate has been filed on time, then it should be given due couse.8

The same concerns were raised when the provision was taken up again:

THE PRESIDING OFFICER. No. 10, the power of the Commission to deny due course to or cancel a certificate of candidacy. What is the specific ano, Tessie?

HON. ADAZA. Page 45.

THE PRESIDING OFFICER. Section 71.

HON. ADAZA. Kasi kay Neptali ito and it is also contained in our previous proposal, "Any person seeking to deny due course to or cancel. . . " our proposal here is that it should not be made to appear that the Commission on Elections has the authority to deny due course to or cancel the certificate of candidacy. I mean their duty should be ministerial, the acceptance, except in cases where they are nuisance candidates.

THE PRESIDING OFFICER. In case of nuisance, who will determine, hindi ba Comelec iyan?

HON. ADAZA. Iyon na nga, except in those cases, eh. Ito, this covers a provision not only in reference to nuisance candidates.

HON. CUENCO. Will you read the provision?

HON. ADAZA. "Any person seeking due course to or the cancellation ... " because our position here is that these are matters that should be contained in an election protest or in a quo warranto proceedings, eh. You know, you can be given a lot of problems in the course of the campaign.

HON. ASOK. But we already have a specific provision on this.

HON. ADAZA. (MP Adaza reading the provision.) You know, we should not have this as a provision anymore because whatever matters will be raised respecting this certificate of candidacy, these are normal issues for protest or quo warranto, eh.

HON. CUENCO. So you now want to remove this power from the Comelec?

HON. ADAZA. This power from the Comelec. This is the new provision, eh. They should not have this. All of us can be bothered, eh.

HON. CUENCO. So in that case how can the Comelec cancel the certificate of candidacy when you said. . .

HON. ADAZA. Only with respect to the nuisance candidates. There is no specific provision.

HON. ASOK. There is already a specific provision for nuisance candidates.

HON. ADAZA. This one refers to other candidates who are not nuisance candidates, but most particularly refers to matters that are involved in protest and quo warranto proceedings. Why should we expand their other provisions before. You know, you can get bothered.

HON. CUENCO. Everybody will be vulnerable?

HON. ADAZA. Yeah, everybody will be vulnerable, eh.

HON. CUENCO. Even if you are a serious candidate?

HON. ADAZA. Even if you are a serious candidate because, for instance, they will file a petition for quo warranto, they can file a petition to the Comelec to cancel your certificate of candidacy. These are actually grounds for protest or for quo warranto proceedings.

x x x x

HON. CUENCO. By merely alleging, for example, that you are a subversive.

HON. ADAZA. Oo, iyon na nga, eh.

x x x x

THE PRESIDING OFFICER. Suppose you are disqualified, you do not have the necessary qualifications, the Comelec can motu propio cancel it.

HON. CUENCO. On what ground, Mr. Chairman?

THE PRESIDING OFFICER. You are disqualified. Let's say, wala kang residence or kuwan ...

HON. ADAZA. Ah, that's the problem.

THE PRESIDING OFFICER. That's why.

HON. ADAZA. We should not allow that thing to crop up within the powers of the Comelec because anyone can create problem for everybody. You know, that's a proper subject for protest or quo warranto. But not to empower the Comelec to cancel. That's a very dangerous provision. It can reach all of us.

THE PRESIDING OFFICER. Hindi, if you are a resident pero iyong, let's say a new comer comes to Misamis Oriental, 3 months before and file his Certificate of Candidacy.

HON. ADAZA. Never mind, file the necessary petition.

THE PRESIDING OFFICER. These are the cases they say, that will be involved.

HON. ADAZA. I think we should kuwan that e.

THE PRESIDING OFFICER. Iyon talagang non-resident and then he goes there and file his certificate, You can, how can anybody stop him, di ba?

HON. ADAZA. No, let me cite to you cases, most people running for instance in the last Batasan, especially in the highly urbanized city, they were residence in one particular city but actually running in the province. You see, how you can be bothered if you empower the Comelec with this authority to cancel, there would have been many that would have been cancelled.

THE PRESIDING OFFICER. There were many who tried to beat the deadline.

HON. ADAZA. No, there are many who did not beat the deadline, I know.

HON. LOOD. The matter of point is the word Article 8, Article 8, provides full responsibility for ...

HON. ADAZA. Which one? That's right.

HON. LOOD. That's why it includes full ... (Unintelligible).

HON. ADAZA. No, it's very dangerous. We will be all in serious trouble. Besides, that covered already by specific provisions. So, can we agree. Anyway it is this new provision which is dangerous.

HON CUENCO. So, you want the entire provision?

HON. LOOD. Unless we make exception.9

The Summary Nature of Proceedings
under Section 78 Only Allow the
COMELEC to Rule on Patent
Material Misrepresentation of Facts
on Residency and Citizenship, not of
Conclusions of Law, and especially,
not in the Absence of Established
Legal Doctrines on the Matter

The original intent of the legislature was clear: to make the denial of due course or cancellation of certificate of candidacy before the COMELEC a summary proceeding that would not go into the intrinsic validity of the qualifications of the candidate, even to the point of making the power merely ministerial in the absence of patent defects. There was concern among some other members about giving the COMELEC the power to deny due course to or cancel outright the certificate of candidacy. As such, the proposal was to remove Section 78 entirely or to lay down specific parameters in order to limit the power of the COMELEC under the provision. Thus, in interpreting the language of Section 78 as presently crafted, those intended limitations must be kept in mind. This includes retaining the summary nature of Section 78 proceedings.

Reyes v. Commission on Elections 10 provides an insight into the summary nature of a Section 78 proceeding:

The special action before the COMELEC which was a Petition to Cancel Certificate of Candidacy was a SUMMARY PROCEEDING or one "heard summarily." The nature of the proceedings is best indicated by the COMELEC Rule on Special Actions, Rule 23, Section 4 of which states that the Commission may designate any of its officials who are members of the Philippine Bar to hear the case and to receive evidence. COMELEC Rule 17 further provides in Section 3 that when the proceedings are authorized to be summary, in lieu of oral testimonies, the parties may, after due notice, be required to submit their position paper together with affidavits, counter-affidavits and other documentary evidence; ... and that "[t]his provision shall likewise apply to cases where the hearing and reception of evidence are delegated by the Commission or the Division to any of its officials .... "

x x x x

In fact, in summary proceedings like the special action of filing a petition to deny due course or to cancel a certificate of candidacy, oral testimony is dispensed with and, instead, parties are required to submit their position paper together with affidavits, counter affidavits and other pieces of documentary evidence.

The Summary nature of Section 78 proceeding implies the simplicity of subject-matter11 as it does away with long drawn and complicated trial-type litigation. Considering its nature, the implication therefore, is that Section 78 cases contemplate simple issues only. Any issue that is complex would entail the use of discretion, the exercise of which is reserved to the appropriate election tribunal. With greater reason then, claims of candidate on a matter of opinion on unsettled questions of law, cannot be the basis for the denial of a CoC.

Section 78 Proceedings Cannot Take
the Place of a Quo Warranto
Proceeding or an Electoral Protest

The danger of the COMELEC effectively thwarting the voter's will was clearly articulated by Justice Vicente V. Mendoza in his separate opinion in the case involving Mrs. Imelda Romualdez Marcos.12 The Court voted to grant the Rule 64 Petition of Mrs. Marcos to invalidate the COMELEC's Resolution denying her Amended CoC. Justice Mendoza wanted the Court to do so on the prior threshold issue of jurisdiction, i.e., that the COMELEC did not have even the power to assume jurisdiction over the petition of Cirilo Montejo because it was in effect a petition for disqualification. Thus, the COMELEC resolution was utterly void. Justice Mendoza explains Section 78 in relation to petitions for disqualification under the Constitution and relevant laws. The allegations in the Montejo's petition were characterized, thus:

The petition filed by private respondent Cirilo Roy Montejo in the COMELEC, while entitled "For Cancellation and Disqualification," contained no allegation that private respondent Imelda Romualdez-Marcos made material representations in her certificate of candidacy which were false, it sought her disqualification on the ground that "on the basis of her Voter Registration Record and Certificate of Candidacy, [she] is disqualified from running for the position of Representative, considering that on election day, May 8, 1995, [she] would have resided less than ten (10) months in the district where she is seeking to be elected." For its part, the COMELEC's Second Division, in its resolution of April 24, 1995, cancelled her certificate of candidacy and corrected certificate of candidacy on the basis of its finding that petitioner is "not qualified to run for the position of Member of the House of Representatives for the First Legislative District of Leyte" and not because of any finding that she had made false representations as to material matters in her certificate of candidacy.

Montejo's petition before the COMELEC was therefore not a petition for cancellation of certificate of candidacy under § 78 of the Omnibus Election Code, but essentially a petition to declare private respondent ineligible. It is important to note this, because, as will presently be explained, proceedings under § 78 have for their purpose to disqualify a person from being a candidate, whereas quo warranto proceedings have for their purpose to disqualify a person from holding public office. Jurisdiction over quo warranto proceedings involving members of the House of Representatives is vested in the Electoral Tribunal of that body.13

Justice Mendoza opined that the COMELEC has no power to disqualify candidates on the ground of ineligibility, elaborating thus:

In my view the issue in this case is whether the Commission on Elections has the power to disqualify candidates on the ground that they lack eligibility for the office to which they seek to be elected. I think that it has none and that the qualifications of candidates may be questioned only in the event they are elected, by filing a petition for quo warranto or an election protest in the appropriate forum, not necessarily in the COMELEC but, as in this case, in the House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal. That the parties in this case took part in the proceedings in the COMELEC is of no moment. Such proceedings were unauthorized and were not rendered valid by their agreement to submit their dispute to that body.

The various election laws will be searched in vain for authorized proceedings for determining a candidate's qualifications for an office before his election. There are none in the Omnibus Election Code (B.P. Blg. 881 ), in the Electoral Reforms Law of 1987 (R.A. No. 6646), or in the law providing for synchronized elections (R.A. No. 7166). There are, in other words, no provisions for pre-proclamation contests but only election protests or quo warranto proceedings against winning candidates.

To be sure, there are provisions denominated for "disqualification," but they are not concerned with a declaration of the ineligibility of a candidate. These provisions are concerned with the incapacity (due to insanity, incompetence or conviction of an offense) of a person either to be a candidate or to continue as a candidate for public office. There is also a provision for the denial or cancellation of certificates of candidacy, but it applies only to cases involving false representations as to certain matters required by law to be stated in the certificates.14

He then proceeded to cite the three reasons explaining the absence of an authorized proceeding for determining before election the qualifications of a candidate:

First is the fact that unless a candidate wins and is proclaimed elected, there is no necessity for determining his eligibility for the office. In contrast, whether an individual should be disqualified as a candidate for acts constituting election offenses (e.g., vote buying, over spending, commission of prohibited acts) is a prejudicial question which should be determined lest he wins because of the very acts for which his disqualification is being sought. That is why it is provided that if the grounds for disqualification are established, a candidate will not be voted for; if he has been voted for, the votes in his favor will not be counted; and if for some reason he has been voted for and he has won, either he will not be proclaimed or his proclamation will be set aside.

Second is the fact that the determination of a candidate's eligibility, e.g., his citizenship or, as in this case, his domicile, may take a long time to make, extending beyond the beginning of the term of the office. This is amply demonstrated in the companion case (G.R. No. 120265, Agapito A. Aquino v. COMELEC) where the determination of Aquino's residence was still pending in the COMELEC even after the elections of May 8, 1995. This is contrary to the summary character of proceedings relating to certificates of candidacy. That is why the law makes the receipt of certificates of candidacy a ministerial duty of the COMELEC and its officers. The law is satisfied if candidates state in their certificates of candidacy that they are eligible for the position which they seek to fill, leaving the determination of their qualifications to be made after the election and only in the event they are elected. Only in cases involving charges of false representations made in certificates of candidacy is the COMELEC given jurisdiction.

Third is the policy underlying the prohibition against pre-proclamation cases in elections for President, Vice President, Senators and members of the House of Representatives. (R.A. No. 7166, § 15) The purpose is to preserve the prerogatives of the House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal and the other Tribunals as "sole judges" under the Constitution of the election, returns and qualifications of members of Congress or of the President and Vice President, as the case may be.15

The legal differentiation between Section 78 vis-a-vis quo warranto proceedings and electoral protests made by Justice Mendoza in the Romualdez Marcos case was completely adopted, and affirmed by a unanimous Court in Fermin v. COMELEC.16 Fermin v. COMELEC has been affirmed in Munder v. Commission on Elections, 17 Agustin v. Commission on Elections18 Talaga v. Commission on Elections, 19 Mitra v. Commission on Elections, 20 Hayundini v. Commission on Elections, 21 Aratea v. Commission on Elections 22 Gonzalez v.Commission on Elections 23 Jalosjos, Jr. v. Commission on Elections, 24 Dela Cruz v. Commission on Elections, 25 and Maruhom v. COMELEC,26, thus the Mendoza formulation has become settled doctrine.

It is clear that what the minority herein is attempting to accomplish is to authorize the COMELEC to rule on the intrinsic qualifications of petitioner, and henceforth, of every candidate - an outcome clearly prohibited by the Constitution and by the Omnibus Election Code. That this was also the objective of the minority justices in Tecson v. COMELEC should warn us that the proposal of the minority herein will result in the direct reversal of the said case.

In Tecson, the COMELEC contended it did not have the jurisdiction to rule on the qualification of Ronald Allan Kelley Poe. The COMELEC stated that it could only rule that FPJ did not commit material misrepresentation in claiming that he was a natural-born Filipino citizen, there being substantial basis to support his belief that he was the son of a Filipino. The Court upheld this conclusion of the COMELEC, and in the dispositive conclusions portion of the Decision held:

(4) But while the totality of the evidence may not establish conclusively that respondent FPJ is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, the evidence on hand still would preponderate in his favor enough to hold that he cannot be held guilty of having made a material misrepresentation in his certificate of candidacy in violation of Section 78, in relation to Section 74, of the Omnibus Election Code. Petitioner has utterly failed to substantiate his case before the Court, notwithstanding the ample opportunity given to the parties to present their position and evidence, and to prove whether or not there has been material misrepresentation, which, as so ruled in Romualdez-Marcos vs. COMELEC, must not only be material, but also deliberate and willful.

The Court made two important rulings on this particular point. First, that Mr. Fornier, the petitioner in the COMELEC case to deny Mr. Poe's CoC, had the burden to prove that Mr. Poe committed material misrepresentation. Second, even assuming that the petitioner therein was able to make out a prima facie case of material misrepresentation, the evidence on Mister Poe's side preponderated in favor of the conclusion that he did not make any material misrepresentation. Thus, the COMELEC was correct in saying that there was no basis to grant Fornier's Section 78 petition. Mr. Poe, We said, did not have to conclusively establish his natural-born citizenship; preponderance of evidence was sufficient to prove his right to be a candidate for President.

It is absolutely offensive to Our concept of due process for the COMELEC to insist on its own interpretation of an area of the Constitution that this Court has yet to squarely rule upon, such as the citizenship of a foundling. It was also most unfair of COMELEC to suddenly impose a previously non-existing formal requirement on candidates-such as a permanent resident visa or citizenship itself-to begin the tolling of the required duration of residency. Neither statutes nor jurisprudence require those matters. COMELEC grossly acted beyond its jurisdiction by usurping the powers of the legislature and the judiciary.

Section 78 and Material Misrepresentation

It must be emphasized that all the decisions of the COMELEC where the Court upheld its denial of a CoC on the basis of an alleged misrepresentation pertaining to citizenship and residency, were all denials on matters of fact that were either uncontroverted, or factual matters that were proven to be false. None of them had to do with any question of law.

In the following cases, we upheld the COMELEC'S denial of the CoCs: Labo, Jr. v. COMELEC27, (Labo's statement that he was a natural-born citizen was disproved on the ground that he failed to submit any evidence proving his reacquisition of Philippine citizenship); Abella v . COMELEC28 (Abella, a candidate for governor of Leyte, and undisputedly a resident of Ormoc City, an independent component city, failed to establish a new domicile in Kananga, Leyte ); Domino v. Commission on Elections, 29 (the lease contract over a residence in Sarangani Province failed to produce the kind of permanency necessary to establish abandonment of one's original domicile); Caballero v. Commission on Elections, 30 (petitioner, who had effectively transferred his domicile of choice in Canada, failed to present competent evidence to prove that he was able to re-establish his residence in Uyugan); Jalosjos v. Commission on Elections, 31 (Svetlana Jalosjos, whose domicile of origin was San Juan, Metro Manila, failed to acquire a domicile of choice in Baliangao, Misamis Occidental, prior to the May 2010 elections); Aquino v. Commission on Elections, 32 (Aquino, whose domicile of origin was San Jose, Concepcion, Tarlac, failed to established a new domicile in the Second District of Makati City on the mere basis of a lease agreement of a condominium unit); Reyes v. Commission on Elections33 (where petitioner, who previously admitted that she was a holder of a U.S. passport, failed to submit proof that she reacquired her Filipino citizenship under RA 9225 or that she maintained her domicile of origin in Boac, Marinduque ); Dumpit-Michelena v. Boado34 (candidate Dumpit-Michelena was not a resident of Agoo, La Union - voter's registration at Naguilian, La Union and joint affidavit of all barangay officials of San Julian West, Agoo taken as proof that she was not a resident of the barangay); Hayudini v. Commission on Elections35 (candidate Hayudini was not a resident of South Ubian, Tawi-Tawi - based on a final RTC Decision ordering the deletion of Hayudini's name in Barangay Bintawlan's permanent list of voters); Velasco v. Commission on Elections36 (court ruling that he was not a registered voter of Sasmuan, Pampanga); Bautista v. Commission on Elections37 (admission that he was not a registered voter of Lumbangan, Nasugbu, Batangas where he was running as punong barangay); Ugdoracion, Jr. v. Commission on Elections38 (admission that he was at the time of the filing of the CoC still a holder of a then valid green card); and Jalosjos v. Commission on Elections39 (temporary and intermittent stay in a stranger's house does not amount to residence).

In fact, in the only case of material misrepresentation on citizenship where the Supreme Court agreed to a Section 78 denial by the COMELEC, was in the case of Mr. Ramon L. Labo, Jr. of Baguio City40 who had previously been declared by the Supreme Court itself as not a Filipino citizen.41 In the Labo case, there was a prior binding conclusion of law that justified the action of the COMELEC in denying the CoC.1âwphi1 It is important to emphasize this considering the dangers of an overly broad reading of the COMELEC's power under Section 78.

A candidate commences the process of being voted into office by filing a certificate of candidacy (CoC). A candidate states in his CoC, among others, that he is eligible to run for public office, as provided under Section 74 of the Omnibus Election Code. Thus:

Sec. 74. Contents of certificate of candidacy. - The certificate of candidacy shall state that the person filing it is announcing his candidacy for the office stated therein and that he is eligible for said office; if for Member of the Batasang Pambansa, the province, including its component cities, highly urbanized city or district or sector which he seeks to represent; the political party to which he belongs; civil status; his date of birth; residence; his post office address for all election purposes; his profession or occupation; that he will support and defend the Constitution of the Philippines and will maintain true faith and allegiance thereto; that he will obey the laws, legal orders, and decrees promulgated by the duly constituted authorities; that he is not a permanent resident or immigrant to a foreign country; that the obligation imposed by his oath is assumed voluntarily, without mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that the facts stated in the certificate of candidacy are true to the best of his knowledge.

As used in Section 74, the word "eligible" means having the right to run for elective public office; that is, having all the qualifications and none of the ineligibilities.42 The remedy to remove from the electoral ballot, the names of candidates who are not actually eligible, but who still state under oath in their CoCs that they are eligible to run for public office, is for any person to file a petition under Section 78, which provides:

Sec. 78. Petition to deny due course to or cancel a certificate of candidacy. - A verified petition seeking to deny due course or to cancel a certificate of candidacy may be filed by any person exclusively on the ground that any material representation contained therein as required under Section 74 hereof is false. The petition may be filed at any time not later than twenty-five days from the time of the filing of the certificate of candidacy and shall be decided, after due notice and hearing, not later than fifteen days before the election. (Emphasis supplied)

How Legally Significant is the Intent
to Deceive for a Section 78 OEC
Petition to Prosper?

It was proposed by Justice Dante O. Tinga in his Dissenting Opinion in Tecson v. COMELEC that the intent to deceive was never contemplated as an essential element to prove a Section 78 petition.43 The problem with this opinion is that it remains a proposed reversal of a doctrine that remains firmly entrenched in our jurisprudence. In a long line of cases, starting with Romualdez-Marcos v. COMELEC44 in 1995, this Court has invariably held that intent to deceive the electorate is an essential element for a Section 78 petition to prosper.

In Romualdez-Marcos, the Court ruled that it is the fact of the qualification, not a statement in a certificate of candidacy, which ought to be decisive in determining whether or not an individual has satisfied the constitution's qualification requirements. The statement in the certificate of candidacy becomes material only when there is or appears to be a deliberate attempt to mislead, misinform, or hide a fact which would otherwise render a candidate ineligible.45

This ruling was adopted by the Court in a long line of cases, in which it was ruled that aside from the requirement of materiality, a petition under Section 78 must also show that there was malicious intent to deceive the electorate as to the candidate's qualifications for public office.

In Salcedo II v. COMELEC, 46 the Court affirmed the decision of the COMELEC denying the petition to cancel the CoC filed by Ermelita Cacao Salcedo, a candidate for mayor of Sara, Iloilo. Apart from finding that the use of the surname "Salcedo" was not a material qualification covered by Section 78, the Court also declared that there was no intention on the part of the candidate to mislead or deceive the public as to her identity. We concluded that, in fact, there was no showing that the voters of the municipality were deceived by Salcedo's use of such surname; consequently, the COMELEC correctly refused to cancel her CoC.

On the other hand, in Velasco v. COMELEC,47 We upheld the cancellation of the CoC filed by Nardo Velasco because he made a material misrepresentation as to his registration as a voter. In Our discussion, We emphasized that Velasco knew that his registration as a voter had already been denied by the RTC, but he still stated under oath in his CoC that he was a voter of Sasmuan.48 This was considered sufficient basis for the COMELEC to grant the Section 78 petition.49

In Justimbaste v. Commission on Elections, 50 this Court sustained the COMELEC's dismissal of the petition of cancellation filed against Rustico B. Balderian because there was no showing that he had the intent to deceive the voting public as to his identity when he used his Filipino name, instead of his Chinese name, in his CoC.

On the other hand, in Maruhom v. COMELEC, 51 We upheld the cancellation of the CoC of Jamela Salic Maruhom because she had subsisting voter registrations in both the municipalities of Marawi and Marantao in Lanao del Sur. We emphasized that Maruhom deliberately attempted to conceal this fact from the electorate as it would have rendered her ineligible to run as mayor of Marantao.

The element of intent was again required by this Court in Mitra v COMELEC. 52 In that case, We reversed the ruling of the COMELEC, which cancelled the CoC filed by Abraham Kahlil B. Mitra because the commission "failed to critically consider whether Mitra deliberately attempted to mislead, misinform or hide a fact that would otherwise render him ineligible for the position of Governor of Palawan." Upon an examination of the evidence in that case, We concluded that there was no basis for the COMELEC's conclusion that Mitra deliberately attempted to mislead the Palawan electorate.

The presence of intent to deceive the electorate was also a controlling factor in the decision of the Court in Panlaqui v. COMELEC. 53 We ruled that the decision of the Regional Trial Court to exclude Nardo Velasco as a voter did not result in the cancellation of his CoC for mayor of Sasmuan, Pampanga. Said this Court:

It is not within the province of the RTC in a voter's inclusion/exclusion proceedings to take cognizance of and determine the presence of a false representation of a material fact. It has no jurisdiction to try the issues of whether the misrepresentation relates to material fact and whether there was an intention to deceive the electorate in terms of one's qualifications for public office. The finding that Velasco was not qualified to vote due to lack of residency requirement does not translate into a finding of a deliberate attempt to mislead, misinform, or hide a fact which would otherwise render him ineligible.

In Gonzales v COMELEC, 54 the Court distinguished between a petition for cancellation under Section 78 and a petition for cancellation under Section 68 of the OEC, in order to determine whether the petition filed against Ramon Gonzales was filed on time. We declared that a Section 78 petition must pertain to a false representation on a material matter that is made with the deliberate intent to mislead, misinform, or hide a fact which would otherwise render a candidate ineligible. Upon finding these elements in the petition filed against Fernando V. Gonzales, We ruled that the applicable period for filing the petition is that prescribed under Section 78 i.e. within twenty-five days from the filing of the COC. Since the petition was filed beyond this period, this Court declared that the COMELEC erred in giving due course to the same.

The requirement of intent was likewise reiterated in Tecson v. COMELEC, 55 Ugdoracion, Jr. v. Commission on Elections, 56 Fermin v. Commission on Elections, 57 Aratea v. Commission on Elections58 and Talaga v. Commission on Elections. 59

It has been claimed, however, that this Court in Tagolino v. HRET, 60 abandoned this requisite when it stated that "deliberateness of the misrepresentation, much less one's intent to defraud, is of bare significance in a Section 78 petition as it is enough that the person's declaration of a material qualification in the [certificate of candidacy] be false." In that case, the Court, using Miranda v. Abaya61 as basis, stated that:

In this relation, jurisprudence holds that an express finding that the person committed any deliberate misrepresentation is of little consequence in the determination of whether one's CoC should be deemed cancelled or not. What remains material is that the petition essentially seeks to deny due course to and/or cancel the CoC on the basis of one's ineligibility and that the same be granted without any qualification.62

It is important to note that the statement regarding intent to deceive was only an obiter dictum. The primary issue in both Tagolino and Miranda is whether a candidate whose certificate of candidacy had been denied due course or cancelled may be validly substituted in the electoral process. In other words, the cases dealt with the effect of the denial of due course or cancellation of a certificate of candidacy, and not on the validity or soundness of the denial or cancellation itself.

Furthermore, in Miranda, We clarified the COMELEC's use of the word "disqualified" when granting a petition that prays for the denial of due course or cancellation of a certificate of candidacy. This Court said:

From a plain reading of the dispositive portion of the Comelec resolution of May 5, 1998 in SPA No. 98-019, it is sufficiently clear that the prayer specifically and particularly sought in the petition was GRANTED, there being no qualification on the matter whatsoever. The disqualification was simply ruled over and above the granting of the specific prayer for denial of due course and cancellation of the certificate of candidacy.63

Clearly, the phrase "no qualification" in Miranda, which was essentially echoed in Tagolino, referred to the ruling of the COMELEC to grant the petition to deny due course to or cancel the certificate of candidacy. It did not refer to the false representation made by the candidate in his certificate of candidacy.

At any rate, after Tagolino, We reiterated the requirement of deceit for a Section 78 petition to prosper in four more cases.64 Our most recent pronouncements in Jalover v. Osmena, 65 reiterated that a petition under Section 78 cannot prosper in a situation where the intent to deceive or defraud is patently absent, or where no deception of the electorate results. Furthermore, the misrepresentation cannot be the result of a mere innocuous mistake, but must pertain to a material fact.

Said Justice Arturo D. Brion in the 2014 unanimous Jalover v. Osmena decision:

Separate from the requirement of materiality, a false representation under Section 78 must consist of a deliberate attempt to mislead, misinform, or hide a fact, which would otherwise render a candidate ineligible." (citing Ugdoracion, Jr. v. Commission on Elections) In other words, it must be made with the intention to deceive the electorate as to the would-be candidate's qualifications for public office. In Mitra v. COMELEC, we held that the misrepresentation that Section 78 addresses cannot be the result of a mere innocuous mistake, and cannot exist in a situation where the intent to deceive is patently absent, or where no deception of the electorate results. The deliberate character of the misrepresentation necessarily follows from a consideration of the consequences of any material falsity: a candidate who falsifies a material fact cannot run.

Thus, a petition to deny due course to or cancel a certificate of candidacy according to the prevailing decisions of this Court still requires the following essential allegations: (1) the candidate made a representation in the certificate; (2) the representation pertains to a material matter which would affect the substantive rights of the candidate (the right to run for the election); and (3) the candidate made the false representation with the intention to deceive the electorate as to his qualification for public office or deliberately attempted to mislead, misinform, or hide a fact which would otherwise render him ineligible.66

Romualdez- Marcos v. COMELEC is again worth recalling.67 We ruled therein that it is the fact of the disqualification, not a statement in a certificate of candidacy which ought to be decisive in determining whether or not an individual has satisfied the constitution's qualification requirements. The statement in the certificate of candidacy becomes material only when there is or appears to be a deliberate attempt to mislead, misinform or hide a fact which would otherwise render a candidate ineligible.68

In Mitra v. COMELEC,69 We gave importance to the character of a representation made by a candidate in the certificate of candidacy. This Court found grave abuse of discretion on the part of the COMELEC when it failed to take into account whether there had been a deliberate misrepresentation in Mitra's certificate of candidacy.70 The COMELEC cannot simply assume that an error in the certificate of candidacy was necessarily a deliberate falsity in a material representation.71

It must be emphasized that under Section 78, it is not enough that a person lacks the relevant qualification; he must have also made a false representation of the lack of qualification in the certificate of candidacy.72 The denial of due course to, or the cancellation of the certificate of candidacy, is not based on the lack of qualifications but on a finding that the candidate made a material representation that is false, which relates to the qualifications required of the public office the candidate is running for.73

Considering that intent to deceive is a material element for a successful petition under Section 78, a claim of good faith is a valid defense. Misrepresentation means the act of making a false or misleading assertion about something, usually with the intent to deceive.74 It is not just written or spoken words, but also any other conduct that amounts to a false assertion.75 A material misrepresentation is a false statement to which a reasonable person would attach importance in deciding how to act in the transaction in question or to which the maker knows or has reason to know that the recipient attaches some importance.76

In the sphere of election laws, a material misrepresentation pertains to a candidate's act with the intention to gain an advantage by deceitfully claiming possession of all the qualifications and none of the disqualifications when the contrary is true.

A material misrepresentation is incompatible with a claim of good faith. Good faith encompasses, among other things, an honest belief, the absence of malice and the absence of a design to defraud or to seek an unconscionable advantage.77 It implies honesty of intention and honest belief in the validity of one's right, ignorance of a contrary claim, and absence of intention to deceive another.78

Burden of Proof in Section 78 Proceedings

Section 1, Rule 131 of the Revised Rules on Evidence defines burden of proof as "the duty of a party to present evidence on the facts in issue necessary to establish his claim" "by the amount of evidence required by law." When it comes to a Section 78 proceeding, it is the petitioner who has the burden of establishing material misrepresentation in a CoC.79

Since the COMELEC is a quasi-judicial body, the petitioner must establish his case of material misrepresentation by substantial evidence.80 Substantial evidence is that amount of relevant evidence which a reasonable mind might accept as adequate to justify a conclusion.

Burden of proof never shifts.81 It is the burden of evidence that shifts.82 Hence, in a Section 78 proceeding, if the petitioner comes up with a prima facie case of material misrepresentation, the burden of evidence shifts to the respondent.

In this case, respondents had the burden to establish the following: (1) falsity of the representations made by petitioner with regard to her citizenship and residence; and (2) intent to deceive or mislead the electorate.

On residence

As will be further discussed below, respondents mainly relied on the representation that petitioner previously made in her 2012 CoC for the position of Senator to establish the requirements of falsity and intent to deceive. Petitioner, however, has shown by an abundance of substantial evidence that her residence in the Philippines commenced on 24 May 2005 and that the statement she made in the 2012 CoC was due to honest mistake. But respondents failed to meet head on this evidence. Hence, they failed to discharge their burden of proving material misrepresentation with respect to residency.

Furthermore, the COMELEC unreasonably shifted the burden of proof to petitioner, declaring that she had the burden to show that she possessed the qualifications to run for President. As previously discussed, respondents had the burden to establish the key elements for a Section 78 petition to prosper.

On citizenship

With respect to the issue of citizenship, respondents leaned heavily on petitioner's admission that she was a foundling. Nevertheless, this did not establish the falsity of petitioner's claim that she was a natural-born citizen. Presumptions operated profoundly in her favor to the effect that a foundling is a natural-born citizen. Further, she had a right to rely on these legal presumptions, thus negating the notion of deception on her part. Thus, respondents failed to discharge their burden of proving material misrepresentation with respect to residency.

Yet, the COMELEC unfairly placed the burden of proof on petitioner when, for reasons already discussed, the onus properly fell on respondents. This point will be more comprehensively discussed below.

III.
The COMELEC acted with grave abuse of discretion when it cancelled petitioner's 2016 Certificate of Candidacy in the absence of any material misrepresentation on residency or citizenship.

In my view, the fact that the COMELEC went beyond an examination of the patent falsity of the representations in the CoC is enough to demonstrate its grave abuse of discretion. I maintain that a Section 78 proceeding must deal solely with "patent defects in the certificates" and not the question of eligibility or ineligibility. The commission clearly exceeded the limited authority granted to it under Section 78 of the OEC when it determined petitioner's intrinsic qualifications, not on the basis of any uncontroverted fact, but on questions of law.

With this conclusion, the Court already has sufficient justification to reverse and set aside the assailed COMELEC Resolutions. Consequently, I believe that it is no longer necessary for us to decide questions pertaining to petitioner's qualifications.

However, given the factual milieu of this case and its significance to the upcoming electoral exercise, I am likewise mindful of the duty of the Court to allay the doubts created by the COMELEC ruling in the minds of the voting public. Furthermore, the dissents have already gone to the intrinsic qualification of petitioner as to cast doubt on her viability as a candidate. These positions must be squarely addressed; hence this extended opinion is inevitable.

Grave Abuse of Discretion

In Mitra v. COMELEC,83 this Court held that COMELEC's use of wrong or irrelevant considerations in the resolution of an issue constitutes grave abuse of discretion:

As a concept, "grave abuse of discretion" defies exact definition; generally, it refers to "capricious or whimsical exercise of judgment as is equivalent to lack of jurisdiction;" the abuse of discretion must be patent and gross as to amount to an evasion of a positive duty or a virtual refusal to perform a duty enjoined by law, or to act at all in contemplation of law, as where the power is exercised in an arbitrary and despotic manner by reason of passion and hostility. Mere abuse of discretion is not enough; it must be grave. We have held, too, that the use of wrong or irrelevant considerations in deciding an issue is sufficient to taint a decision-maker's action with grave abuse of discretion.

Closely related with the limited focus of the present petition is the condition, under Section 5, Rule 64 of the Rules of Court, that findings of fact of the COMELEC, supported by substantial evidence, shall be final and non-reviewable. Substantial evidence is that degree of evidence that a reasonable mind might accept to support a conclusion.

In light of our limited authority to review findings of fact, we do not ordinarily review in a certiorari case the COMELEC's appreciation and evaluation of evidence. Any misstep by the COMELEC in this regard generally involves an error of judgment, not of jurisdiction. (Emphasis supplied)

For reasons discussed below, I find that the COMELEC committed a grossly unreasonable appreciation of both the evidence presented by petitioner to prove her residency, as well the legal standards applicable to her as a foundling. For purposes of clarity, I will discuss residency and citizenship separately.

In Sabili, 84 we noted that the Court does not ordinarily review the COMELEC's appreciation and evaluation of evidence. However, when the appreciation and evaluation of evidence is so grossly unreasonable as to turn into an error of jurisdiction, the Court is duty-bound to intervene. In that case, petitioner was able to show that the COMELEC relied on wrong or irrelevant considerations - like property ownership in another municipality - in deciding the issue of whether petitioner made a material misrepresentation regarding his residence.

IV.
A. ON RESIDENCY

The COMELEC made two findings as far as petitioner's compliance with the 10-year residency requirement is concerned. First, petitioner committed a false material representation regarding her residency in her 2016 CoC for President, as shown by her declaration in her 2013 CoC for senator. Second, petitioner's alien citizenship at the time she allegedly abandoned her domicile in the US was a legal impediment which prevented her from re-establishing her domicile in the Philippines, considering her failure to obtain an authorization from the Bureau of Immigration as permanent resident in the country early enough to start the count of the 10-year residency requirement.

These conclusions reveal the failure of the COMELEC to properly appreciate and evaluate evidence, so much so that it overstepped the limits of its discretion to the point of being grossly unreasonable.

There was no deliberate intent on the
part of petitioner to make a material
misrepresentation as to her residency.

In the assailed Resolutions, the COMELEC had concluded that petitioner committed a false material representation about her residency in her 2016 CoC for president on the basis of her declaration in her 2013 CoC for senator. According to the Commission, this 2012 declaration showed a deliberate intent to mislead the electorate and the public at large.

Public respondent's conclusions are unjustified. In the first place, the COMELEC misapplied the concepts of admissions and honest mistake in weighing the evidence presented by petitioner. As will be discussed below, declarations against interest are not conclusive evidence and must still be evaluated to determine their probative value. Neither does the declaration in her 2013 CoC foreclose the presentation of evidence of petitioner's good faith and honest belief that she has complied with the 10-year residency requirement for presidential candidates.

Admissions against Interest

Admissions against interest are governed by Section 26, Rule 130 of the Rules of Court, which provides:

Sec. 26. Admissions of a party. - The act, declaration or omission of a party as to a relevant fact may be given in evidence against him.

It is well to emphasize that admissions against interest fall under the rules of admissibility.85 Admissions against interest pass the test of relevance and competence. They, however, do not guarantee their own probative value and conclusiveness. Like all evidence, they must be weighed and calibrated by the court against all other pieces at hand. Also, a party against whom an admission against interest is offered may properly refute such declaration by adducing contrary evidence.86

To be admissible, an admission must (1) involve matters of fact, and not of law; (2) be categorical and definite; (3) be knowingly and voluntarily made; and (4) be adverse to the admitter' s interests, otherwise it would be self-serving and inadmissible.87 An admission against interest must consist of a categorical statement or document pertaining to a matter of fact. If the statement or document pertains to a conclusion of law or necessitates prior settlement of questions of law, it cannot be regarded as an admission against interest.88

Even a judicial admission, which does not require proof, for judicial admissions under Section 4, Rule 129 of the Rules of Court89 But even then, contrary evidence may be admitted to show that the admission was made through palpable mistake. In Bitong v. CA,90 the Court ruled that although acts or facts admitted in a pleading do not require proof and can no longer be contradicted, evidence aliunde can be presented to show that the admission was made through palpable mistake. Said the Court:

A party whose pleading is admitted as an admission against interest is entitled to overcome by evidence the apparent inconsistency, and it is competent for the party against whom the pleading is offered to show that the statements were inadvertently made or were made under a mistake of fact. In addition, a party against whom a single clause or paragraph of a pleading is offered may have the right to introduce other paragraphs which tend to destroy the admission in the paragraph offered by the adversary.

Every alleged admission is taken as an entirety of the fact which makes for the one side with the qualifications which limit, modify or destroy its effect on the other side. The reason for this is, where part of a statement of a party is used against him as an admission, the court should weigh any other portion connected with the statement, which tends to neutralize or explain the portion which is against interest.

In other words, while the admission is admissible in evidence, its probative value is to be determined from the whole statement and others intimately related or connected therewith as an integrated unit.91

COMELEC Conclusions on Admission
against Interest

In the Resolution dated 1 December 2015 of the Second Division in SPA No. 15-001 (Elamparo v. Llamanzares), the COMELEC ruled as follows:

Respondent ran for Senator in the May 13, 2013 Senatorial Elections. In her COC for Senator, she answered "6 years and 6 months" in the space provided for the candidate's period of residence in the Philippines. Based on her own declaration, respondent admitted under oath that she has been a resident of the country only since November 2006.

Undeniably, this falls short by 6 months of the required May 2006 commencement of the residence in the Philippines in order for respondent to qualify as a candidate for President of the Philippines in the May 9, 2016 elections. If we reckon her period of residency from November 2006, as she herself declared, she will be a resident of the Philippines by May 9, 2016 only for a period of 9 years and 6 months.

As correctly pointed out by petitioner, this sworn statement by respondent is an admission against her interest.

Section 26, Rule 130, Rules of Court (which is of suppletory application) expressly states:

Section 26. Admission of a party. - The act, declaration or omission of a party as to a relevant fact may be given in evidence against him.

The rationale for the rule was explained by the Supreme Court in Manila Electric Company v. Heirs of Spouses Dionisio Deloy:

Being an admission against interest, the documents are the best evidence which affords the greatest certainty of the facts in dispute. The rationale for the rule is based on the presumption that no man would declare anything against himself UNLESS SUCH DECLARATION WAS TRUE. Thus, it is fair to presume that the declaration corresponds to the truth, and it is his fault if it does not.

Respondent's representation in her COC for Senator that she had been a resident of the Philippines for a period of 6 years and 6 months by May 2013 is an admission that is binding on her. After all, she should not have declared it under oath if such declaration was not true.

Respondent's convenient defense that she committed an honest mistake on a difficult question of law, when she stated in her COC for Senator that her period of residence in the Philippines before May 13, 2013 was 6 years and 6 months, is at best self-serving. It cannot overturn the weight given to the admission against interest voluntarily made by respondent.

Assuming arguendo that as now belatedly claimed the same was due to an honest mistake, no evidence has been shown that there was an attempt to rectify the so-called honest mistake. The attempt to correct it in her present COC filed only on October 15, 2015 cannot serve to outweigh the probative weight that has to be accorded to the admission against interest in her 2013 COC for Senator.

Certainly, it is beyond question that her declaration in her 2013 COC for Senator, under oath at that, that she has been a resident of the Philippines since November 2006 still stands in the record of this Commission as an official document, which may be given in evidence against her, and the probative weight and binding effect of which is neither obliterated by the passing of time nor by the belated attempt to correct it in her present COC for President of the Philippines. Respondent cannot now declare an earlier period of residence. Respondent is already stopped from doing so. If allowed to repudiate at this late stage her prior sworn declaration, We will be opening the floodgates for candidates to commit material misrepresentations in their COCs and escape responsibility for the same through the mere expedient of conveniently changing their story in a subsequent COC. Worse, We will be allowing a candidate to run for President when the COC for Senator earlier submitted to the Commission contains a material fact or data barring her from running for the position she now seeks to be elected to. Surely, to rule otherwise would be to tolerate a cavalier attitude to the requirement of putting in the correct data in a COC. In fact, the COC filer, in that same COC, certifies under oath that the data given are indeed "true and correct".

As shown by the . above-cited Resolution, the COMELEC Second Division regarded the declaration of petitioner in her 2013 certificate of candidacy for senator - that she had been a resident of the Philippines only since November 2006 - as a binding and conclusive statement that she can no longer refute. It appeared to confuse admissions against interest with judicial admissions.

However, in the Resolution dated 23 December 2015 of the En Banc, COMELEC conceded that such statement may indeed be overcome by petitioner through the presentation of competent evidence of greater weight. According to the COMELEC En Banc:

On the allegation that the Second Division chose to rely solely on the declarations of respondent in her 2013 COC: we are not persuaded. Again, the Second Division was not constrained to mention every bit of evidence it considered in arriving at the assailed Resolution. Concededly, however, it did put ample attention on Respondent's 2013 COC, but not without good reason.

To recall, Respondent, in her 2013 COC for Senator, indicated, under oath, that her period of residence in the Philippines from May 13, 2013 is "6 years and 6 months." Following this, she became a resident on November 2006. This is entirely inconsistent with her declaration in the present 2016 COC for president that immediately before the May 9, 2016 elections, she will be a resident of the country for "10 years and 11 months," following which she was a resident since May, 2005. -The Second Division struck respondent's arguments mainly on the basis of this contradiction.

Respondent cannot fault the Second Division for using her statements in the 2013 COC against her. Indeed, the Second Division correctly found that this is an admission against her interest. Being such, it is "the best evidence which affords the greatest certainty of the facts in dispute. The rationale for the rule is based on the presumption that no man would declare anything against himself unless such declaration was true. Thus, it is fair to presume that the declaration corresponds with the truth, and it is his fault if it does not."

Moreover, a COC, being a notarial document, has in its favor the presumption of regularity. To contradict the facts stated therein, there must be evidence that is clear, convincing and more than merely preponderant. In order for a declarant to impugn a notarial document which he himself executed, it is not enough for him to merely execute a subsequent notarial document. After executing an affidavit voluntarily wherein admissions and declarations against the affiant's own interest are made under the solemnity of an oath, the affiant cannot just be allowed to spurn them and undo what he has done.

Yes, the statement in the 2013 COC, albeit an admission against interest, may later be impugned by respondent. However, she cannot do this by the mere expedient of filing her 2016 COC and claiming that the declarations in the previous one were "honest mistakes". The burden is upon her to show, by clear, convincing and more than preponderant evidence, that, indeed, it is the latter COC that is correct and that the statements made in the 2013 COC were done without bad faith. Unfortunately for respondent, she failed to discharge this heavy burden.

As shown by the foregoing, the COMELEC en banc had a proper understanding of an admission against interest - that it is one piece of evidence that should be evaluated against all other pieces presented before it.

The COMELEC was wrong, however, in ruling that petitioner attempted to overcome the alleged admission against interest merely by filing her 2016 CoC for president. Petitioner submitted severed various many and varied pieces of evidence to prove her declaration in her 2016 certificate of candidacy for president that as of May 2005, she had definitely abandoned her residence in the US and intended to reside permanently in the Philippines. They are the following:

1. Petitioner's US passport showing that she returned to the Philippines on 24 May 2005 and from then would always return to the Philippines after every trip to a foreign country.

2. Email exchanges showing that as early as March 2005, petitioner had begun the process of relocating and reestablishing her residence in the Philippines and had all of the family's valuable movable properties packed and stored for shipping to the Philippines.

3. School records of petitioner's school-aged children showing that they began attending Philippine schools starting June 2005.

4. Identification card issued by the BIR to petitioner on 22 July 2005.

5. Condominium Certificate of Title covering a unit with parking slot acquired in the second half of 2005 which petitioner's family used as residence pending the completion of their intended permanent family home.

6. Receipts dated 23 February 2006 showing that petitioner had supervised the packing and disposal of some of the family's household belongings.

7. Confirmation of receipt of the request for change of address sent by the US Postal Service on 28 March 2006;

8. Final settlement of the selling of the family home in the US as of 27 April 2006.

9. Transfer Certificate of Title dated 1 June 2006 showing the acquisition of a vacant lot where the family built their family home.

10. Questionnaire issued by the US Department of State - Bureau of Consular Affairs regarding the possible loss of US citizenship, in which petitioner answered that she had been a resident of the Philippines since May 2005.

11. Affidavits of petitioner's mother and husband attesting to the decision of the family to move to the Philippines in early 2005 shortly after the death of petitioner's father.

Unfortunately, the COMELEC En Banc found that these pieces of evidence failed to overcome the probative weight of the alleged admission against interest. According to the COMELEC, the discrepancy between petitioner's 2013 and 2016 certificates of candidacy only goes to show that she suits her declarations regarding her period of residency in the Philippines when it would be to her advantage. Hence, her deliberate attempt to mislead, misinform, or hide the fact of her ineligibility insofar as residency is concerned.

The statement that she would be a resident of the Philippines for six years and six months as of May 2013 (reckoned from November 2006) in her 2013 certificate of candidacy was admittedly made under oath. However, while notarized documents fall under the category of public documents,92 they are not deemed prima facie evidence of the facts therein stated.93 Section 23, Rule 132 of the Rules of Court states:

Sec. 23. Public documents as evidence. - Documents consisting of entries in public records made in the performance of a duty by a public officer are prima facie evidence of the facts therein stated. All other public documents are evidence, even against a third person, of the fact which gave rise to their execution and of the date of the latter.

Clearly, notarized documents are merely proof of the fact which gave rise to their execution and of the date stated therein.94 They require no further proof to be admissible, because the certificate of acknowledgement serves as the prima facie evidence of its execution.95

Thus while petitioner's 2013 certificate of candidacy may be presented as proof of its regularity and due execution, it is not prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein, i.e. the declaration that she essentially became a resident of the Philippines only in November 2006. Furthermore, while a notarized document carries the evidentiary weight conferred upon it with respect to its due execution and regularity, even such presumption is not absolute as it may be rebutted by clear and convincing evidence to the contrary.96

Thus, where the document or its contents are in question, the person who executed the same may submit contrary evidence to establish the truth of the matter. In this case, petitioner submitted the above-cited pieces of evidence to prove that her 2016 certificate of candidacy declared the truth about her residence in the Philippines, and that her declaration in her 2013 certificate of candidacy was the result of an honest mistake.

Honest Mistake

The COMELEC gave scant consideration to petitioner's assertion that she made an honest mistake in her 2013 certificate of candidacy for senator. The Commission hypothesized that if petitioner truly believed that the period of residency would be counted backwards from the day of filing the CoC for Senator in October 2012, she should always reckon her residency from April 2006. The COMELEC observed that the period of residency indicated in the 2015 CoC for President was reckoned from May 2005. The COMELEC took the alleged unexplained inconsistency as a badge of intent to deceive the electorate.

To a malicious mind, the assertions of petitioner are nothing but sinister. Considering the contradicting and inconsistent dates alleged before the COMELEC, an indiscriminate observer may be tempted to think the worst and disbelieve a claim to the common experience of human mistake.

United States v. Ah Chong, 97 has taught generations of lawyers that the question as to whether one honestly, in good faith, and without fault or negligence fell into the mistake, is to be determined by the circumstances as they appeared to him at the time when the mistake was made, and the effect which the surrounding circumstances might reasonably be expected to have on his mind, in forming the intent upon which he acted.

In the petitions before us, petitioner explained her mistake in the following manner:

5.268. [Petitioner] committed an honest mistake when she stated in her COC for Senator that her "PERIOD OF RESIDENCE BEFORE MAY 13, 2013" is "6" years and "6" months.

5.268.1. Only a two-year period of residence in the Philippines is required to qualify as a member of the Senate of the Republic of the Philippines. [Petitioner] sincerely had no doubt that she had satisfied this residence requirement. She even accomplished her COC for Senator without the assistance of a lawyer. x x x

5.268.2. It is no wonder that [petitioner] did not know that the use of the phrase "Period of Residence in the Philippines before May 13, 2013" in her COC for Senator, actually referred to the period immediately preceding 13 May 2013, or to her period of residence on the day right before the 13 May 2013 elections. [Petitioner] therefore interpreted this phrase to mean her period of residence in the Philippines as of the submission of COCs in October 2012 (which is technically also a period "before May 13, 2013").

5.268.3. In terms of abandoning her domicile in the U.S.A. and permanently relocating to the Philippines, nothing significant happened in "November 2006." Moreover, private respondent was not able to present any evidence which would show that [petitioner] returned to the Philippines with the intention to reside here permanently only in November 2006. Thus, there would have been no logical reason for [petitioner] to reckon the start of her residence in the Philippines from this month. Even the COMELEC considered a date other than November 2006 as the reckoning point of [petitioner's] residence (i.e., August 2006). This date is, of course, not the day [petitioner] established her domicile in the Philippines. Nonetheless, that even the COMELEC had another date in mind bolsters the fact that [petitioner]'s representation in her COC for Senator regarding her period of residence was based on her honest misunderstanding of what was asked of her in Item No. 7 of her COC for Senator, and that she indeed counted backward from October 2012 (instead of from 13 May 2013).

x x x x

When [petitioner] accomplished her COC for Senator, she reckoned her residence in the Philippines from March-April 2006, which is when (to her recollection at the time she signed this COC) she and her family had substantially wound up their affairs in the U.S.A. in connection with their relocation to the Philippines. Specifically, March 2006 was when [petitioner] arrived in the Philippines after her last lengthy stay in the U.S.A., and April 2006 was when she and her husband were finally able to sell their house in the U.S.A. The month of April 2006 is also when [petitioner's] husband had resigned from his job in the U.S.A. The period between March-April 2006 to September 2012 is around six (6) years and six (6) months. Therefore, this is the period [petitioner] indicated (albeit, mistakenly) in her COC for Senator as her "Period of Residence in the Philippines before May 13, 2013."

5.268.7. This erroneous understanding of the commencement of her residence in the Philippines, together with the confusing question in Item No. 7 of her COC for Senator, explains why [petitioner] mistakenly indicated in that COC that her "Period of Residence in the Philippines before May 13, 2013" would be "6" years and "6" months.

5.268.8. [Petitioner] was later advised (only last year, 2015) by legal counsel that the concept of "residence," for purposes of election law, takes into account the period when she was physically present in the Philippines starting from 24 May 2005, (after having already abandoned her residence in the U.S.A., coupled with the intent to reside in the Philippines) and not just the period after her U.S.A. residence was sold and when her family was already complete in the country, after her husband's return. [Petitioner]'s period of residence in her COC for Senator should, therefore, have been counted.from 24 May 2005, and extended all the way "up to the day before" the 13 May 2013 elections. [Petitioner] realized only last year, 2015, that she should have stated "7" years and "11" months (instead of "6" years and "6" months) as her period of residence in her COC for Senator.98 (Emphases supplied)

To an open mind, the foregoing explanation proffered by petitioner does not appear to be concocted, implausible, or the product of mere afterthought. The circumstances as they appeared to her at the time she accomplished her 2013 certificate of candidacy for senator, without the assistance of counsel, may indeed reasonably cause her to fill up the residency item with the answer "6 years and 6 months." It does not necessarily mean, however, that she had not been residing in the Philippines on a permanent basis for a period longer than that.

The fact that it was the first time that petitioner ran for public office; that only a two-year period of residence in the country is required for those running as senator; and that the item in the certificate of candidacy providing "Period of Residence in the Philippines before May 13, 2013" could be open to an interpretation different from that required, should have been taken into consideration in appreciating whether petitioner made the subject entry honestly, in good faith, and without fault or negligence.

The surrounding circumstances in this case do not exclude the possibility that petitioner made an honest mistake, both in reckoning her period of residence in the Philippines as well as determining the proper end period of such residence at the time. That petitioner is running for the highest public office in the country should not be the only standard by which we weigh her actions and ultimately her mistakes. Not all mistakes are made with evil motives, in much the same way that not all good deeds are done with pure intentions. Good faith is always presumed, and in the face of tangible evidence presented to prove the truth of the matter, which is independent of the circumstances that caused petitioner to make that fateful statement of "6 years and 6 months," it would be difficult to dismiss her contention that such is the result of an honest mistake.

To reiterate, the COMELEC incorrectly applied the rule on admissions in order to conclude that petitioner deliberately misrepresented her qualifications-notwithstanding a reasonable explanation as to her honest mistake, and despite the numerous pieces of evidence submitted to prove her claims.

If petitioner honestly believed that she can reckon her residency in the Philippines from May 2005 because she had already relocated to the country with the intent to reside here permanently, then her statement in her 2016 certificate of candidacy for president cannot be deemed to have been made with intent to deceive the voting public. The COMELEC has clearly failed to prove the element of deliberate intent to deceive, which is necessary to cancel certificates of candidacy under Section 78.

In any case, the single declaration of petitioner in her 2013 certificate of candidacy for senator cannot be deemed to overthrow the entirety of evidence showing that her residence in the Philippines commenced in May 2005.

Petitioner was able to prove the fact of
the reestablishment of her domicile in
the Philippines since May 2005.

Section 2, Article VII of the Constitution requires that a candidate for president be "a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election." The term residence, as it is used in the 1987 Constitution and previous Constitutions, has been understood to be synonymous with domicile.99 Domicile means not only the intention to reside in one place, but also personal presence therein coupled with conduct indicative of such intention.100 It is the permanent home and the place to which one intends to return whenever absent for business or pleasure as shown by facts and circumstances that disclose such intent.101

Domicile is classified into three: (1) domicile of origin, which is acquired at birth by every person; and (2) domicile of choice, which is acquired upon abandonment of the domicile of origin; and (3) domicile by operation of law, which the law attributes to a person independently of his residence of intention.102

Domicile by operation of law applies to infants, incompetents, and other persons under disabilities that prevent them from acquiring a domicile of choice.103 It also accrues by virtue of marriage when the husband and wife fix the family domicile.104

A person's domicile of origin is the domicile of his parents.105 It is not easily lost and continues even if one has lived and maintained residences in different places.106 Absence from the domicile to pursue a profession or business, to study or to do other things of a temporary or semi-permanent nature, and even travels abroad,107 does not constitute loss of residence.108

In contrast, immigration to a foreign country with the intention to live there permanently constitutes an abandonment of domicile in the Philippines.109 In order to qualify to run for public office in the Philippines, an immigrant to a foreign country must waive such status as manifested by some act or acts independent of and done prior to the filing of the certificate of candidacy.110

A person can have but one domicile at a time.111 Once established, the domicile remains until a new one is acquired.112 In order to acquire a domicile by choice, there must concur: (a) physical presence in the new place, (b) an intention to remain there (animus manendi), and (c) an intention to abandon the former domicile (animus non revertendi). 113

Without clear and positive proof of the concurrence of these requirements, the domicile of origin continues.114 In Gallego v. Verra, 115 we emphasized what must be shown by the person alleging a change of domicile:

The purpose to remain in or at the domicile of choice must be for an indefinite period of time. The acts of the person must conform with his purpose. The change of residence must be voluntary; the residence at the place chosen for the domicile must be actual; and to the fact of residence there must be added the animus manendi. 116

The question of whether COMELEC committed grave abuse of discretion in its conclusion that petitioner failed to meet the durational residency requirement of 10 years goes into the COMELEC's appreciation of evidence. In Sabili v. COMELEC, 117 we held that:

As a general rule, the Court does not ordinarily review the COMELEC's appreciation and evaluation of evidence. However, exceptions thereto have been established, including when the COMELEC's appreciation and evaluation of evidence become so grossly unreasonable as to turn into an error of jurisdiction. In these instances, the Court is compelled by its bounden constitutional duty to intervene and correct the COMELEC's error.118

Sabili was an instance of grossly unreasonable appreciation in evaluation of evidence, very much like the lopsided evaluation of evidence of the COMELEC in the present case.

Further, in Mitra v. COMELEC,119 we held that COMELEC's use of wrong or irrelevant considerations in the resolution of an issue constitutes grave abuse of discretion:

As a concept, "grave abuse of discretion" defies exact definition; generally, it refers to "capricious or whimsical exercise of judgment as is equivalent to lack of jurisdiction;" the abuse of discretion must be patent and gross as to amount to an evasion of a positive duty or a virtual refusal to perform a duty enjoined by law, or to act at all in contemplation of law, as where the power is exercised in an arbitrary and despotic manner by reason of passion and hostility. Mere abuse of discretion is not enough; it must be grave. We have held, too, that the use of wrong or irrelevant considerations in deciding an issue is sufficient to taint a decision-maker's action with grave abuse of discretion.

Closely related with the limited focus of the present petition is the condition, under Section 5, Rule 64 of the Rules of Court, that findings of fact of the COMELEC, supported by substantial evidence, shall be final and non-reviewable. Substantial evidence is that degree of evidence that a reasonable mind might accept to support a conclusion.

In light of our limited authority to review findings of fact, we do not ordinarily review in a certiorari case the COMELEC's appreciation and evaluation of evidence. Any misstep by the COMELEC in this regard generally involves an error of judgment, not of jurisdiction. (Emphasis supplied)

However, before going into a discussion of the evidence submitted by petitioner, a threshold issue must first be resolved: whether petitioner's status as a visa-free balikbayan affected her ability to establish her residence in the country. I believe that it did not.

The Philippines' Balikbayan Program

On 31 July 1973, President Marcos issued Letter of Instructions No. (LOI) 105120 designating the period from 1 September 1973 to 28 February 1974 as a "Homecoming Season" for Filipinos - and/or their families and descendants - who are now residents or citizens of other countries (referred to as overseas Filipinos). Due to its overwhelming success,121 the Balikbayan Program was extended. This was further enhanced in 197 4 under LOI 163.122

In 1975, professionals and scientists were targeted in the program by encouraging their return under LOI 210, and then by PD 819. Overseas Filipino scientists and technicians were being encouraged to come home and apply their knowledge to the development programs of the country, and to take advantage of the Balikbayan Program. It was also decreed that any overseas Filipino arriving in the Philippines under the Balikbayan Program shall be authorized to remain in the country for a period of one year from the date of arrival within the extended period.

Pursuant to the stated purpose of LOI 210, P.D. 819123 was issued on 24 October 1975 in recognition of the "need of attracting foreign-based scientists, professionals, or persons with special skill or expertise who are of 'Filipino descent or origin."124 It was decreed that these persons, who are licensed to practice their profession, special skill or expertise in their host, adopted or native countries, may practice their profession, special skill or expertise while staying in the Philippines either on a temporary or permanent basis, together with their families upon approval by the Secretary of Health. They are only required to register with the Professional Regulation Commission, regardless of whether or not their special skill or expertise falls within any of the regulated professions and vocations in the Philippines, and pay the required license fee. They are entitled to all incentives, benefits and privileges granted to or being enjoyed by overseas Filipinos (balikbayans).

As a means of attracting more "returnees,"125 LOI 1044 provided for additional incentives such as attendance in international scientific conferences, seminars, meetings along the field of expertise with the travel of the returnees funded by the program at least once per year. Also, they shall have priority to obtain housing loans from GSIS, SSS and Development Bank of the Philippines to assure their continued stay in the country.

By virtue of LOI 272-A126, the Balikbayan Program was extended to another period beginning 1 March 1976 to 28 February 1977 featuring the same incentives and benefits provided by LOI 210. It was again extended to 28 February 1978,127 to 28 February 1979,128 to 29 February 1980,129 and to 28 February 1981.130

On 28 February 1981, President Marcos issued Executive Order No. (EO) 657 extending the Balikbayan Program for overseas Filipinos for a period of five years beginning 1 March 1981 to 28 February 1986.

Executive Order No. (E.O.) 130131 issued on 25 October 1993 by President Ramos institutionalized the Balik Scientist Program under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) but with different features. It defined a Balik Scientist as a science or technology expert who is a Filipino citizen or a foreigner of Filipino descent, residing abroad and contracted by the national government to return and work in the Philippines along his/her field of expertise for a short term with a duration of at least one month (Short-Term Program) or long term with a duration of at least two years (Long-Term Program).

A Balik Scientist under the Short-Term Program may be entitled to free round-trip economy airfare originating from a foreign country to the Philippines by direct route, and grants-in-aid for research and development projects approved by the Secretary of Science and Technology.

A Balik Scientist under the Long-Term Program and returning new graduates from DOST-recognized science and technology foreign institutions may be entitled to the following incentives:

1. Free one-way economy airfare from a foreign country to the Philippines, including airfare for the spouse and two minor dependents; and free return trip economy airfare after completion of two years in the case of Balik Scientists, and three years in the case of new graduates;

2. Duty-free importation of professional instruments and implements, tools of trade, occupation or employment, wearing apparel, domestic animals, and personal and household effects in quantities and of the class suitable to the profession, rank or position of the persons importing them, for their own use and not for barter or sale, in accordance with Section 105 of the Tariff and Customs Code;

3. No-dollar importation of motor vehicles;

4. Exemption from payment of travel tax for Filipino permanent residents abroad;

5. Reimbursement of freight expenses for the shipment of a car and personal effects;

6. Reimbursement of the freight expenses for 2-1/2 tons volume weight for surface shipment of a car and personal effects, as well as excess baggage not exceeding 20 kilograms per adult and 10 kilograms per minor dependent when travelling by air;

7. Housing, which may be arranged through predetermined institutions;

8. Assistance in securing a certificate of registration without examination or an exemption from the licensure requirement of the Professional Regulation Commission to practice profession, expertise or skill in the Philippines;

9. Grants-in-aid for research and development projects approved by the Secretary of Science and Technology; and

10.Grant of special non-immigrant visas132 under Section 47 (a) (2) of the Philippine Immigration Act of 1940, as amended, after compliance with the requirements therefor.

R.A. 6768,133 enacted on 3 November 1989, instituted a Balikbayan Program under the administration of the Department of Tourism to attract and encourage overseas Filipinos to come and visit their motherland. Under R.A. 6768, the term balikbayan covers Filipino citizens who have been continuously out of the Philippines for a period of at least one year; Filipino overseas workers; and former Filipino citizens and their family who had been naturalized in a foreign country and comes or returns to the Philippines.

The law provided various privileges to the balikbayan:

1. Tax-free maximum purchase in the amount of US$1,000 or its equivalent in other acceptable foreign currencies at Philippine duty-free shops;

2. Access to a special promotional/incentive program provided by the national flag air carrier;

3. Visa-free entry to the Philippines for a period of one year for foreign passport holders, with the exception of restricted nationals;

4. Travel tax exemption;134 and

5. Access to especially designated reception areas at the authorized ports of entry for the expeditious processing of documents.

It is emphasized in the law that the privileges granted thereunder shall be in addition to the benefits enjoyed by the balikbayan under existing laws, rules and regulations.

R.A. 9174135 dated 7 November 2002 amended R.A. 6768 by extending further the privileges of a balikbayan to include:

1. Kabuhayan shopping privilege through an additional tax-exempt purchase in the maximum amount of US$2,000 or its equivalent in Philippine peso and other acceptable foreign currencies, exclusively for the purchase of livelihood tools at all government-owned and - controlled/operated duty-free shops;

2. Access to necessary entrepreneurial training and livelihood skills programs and marketing assistance, including the balikbayan's immediate family members, under the government's reintegration program; and

3. Access to accredited transportation facilities that will ensure their safe and convenient trips +upon arrival.

It was again emphasized that the privileges granted shall be in addition to the benefits enjoyed by the balikbayan under existing laws, rules and regulations.

Balikbayans are not Mere Visitors

As shown by the foregoing discussion, the Balikbayan Program, as conceptualized from the very beginning, envisioned a system not just of welcoming overseas Filipinos (Filipinos and/or their families and descendants who have become permanent residents or naturalized citizens of other countries) as short-term visitors of the country, but more importantly, one that will encourage them to come home and once again become permanent residents of the Philippines.

Notably, the program has no regard at all for the citizenship of these overseas Filipinos. To qualify for the benefits, particularly the exemptions from the payment of customs duties and taxes on personal effects brought home and tax exemptions for local purchases, all they have to do is prove their desire to become permanent residents of the Philippines. This is done through the simple expedient of the presentation of the official approval of change of residence by the authorities concerned in their respective foreign host countries.

As originally intended in the case of the balik scientists, they are also welcome to practice their profession, special skill or expertise while staying in the Philippines either on temporary or permanent bases. Again, there was no regard for their citizenship considering that the program is open to both foreign-based Filipinos and those of Filipino origin or descent, as long as they were licensed to practice their profession, special skill or expertise in their host, adopted or native countries.

Therefore, as far as our immigration laws are concerned with regard to balikbayans, they and their families may reside in the Philippines either on temporary or permanent bases even though they remain nationals of their host, adopted or native countries. The special treatment accorded to balikbayans finds its roots in recognition of their status as former Filipinos and not as mere aliens.

Further militating against the notion of balikbayans as mere visitors of the country are the privileges accorded to them under R.A. 9174, the current balikbayan law. It specifically provides for a Kabuhayan shopping privilege for the purchase of livelihood tools as well as access to the necessary entrepreneurial training and livelihood skills programs and marketing assistance in accordance with the existing rules on the government's reintegration program.

Livelihood tools have been defined as "instruments used by hand or by machine necessary to a person in the practice of his or her trade, vocation or profession, such as hand tools, power tools, precision tools, farm tools, tools for dressmaking, shoe repair, beauty parlor, barber shop and the like,"136 as well as a computer unit and its accessories.

Access to the reintegration program is one of the social services and family welfare assistance benefits (aside from insurance and health care benefits, loan guarantee fund, education and training benefits and workers assistance and on-site services) that are available, to Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) members.137 It incorporates community organizing, capability-building, livelihood loans and other social preparations subject to the policies formulated by the OWWA Board.138

The reintegration program aims to prepare the OFW in his/her return to Philippine society.139 It has two aspects. The first is reintegration preparedness (On-Site) which includes interventions on value formation, financial literacy, entrepreneurial development training (EDT), technological skills and capacity building.140 The second is reintegration proper (In-Country) which consists of job referrals for local and overseas employment, business counselling, community organizing, financial literacy seminar, networking with support institutions and social preparation programs.141

As the Philippine government's reintegration manager,142 the Department of Labor and Employment National Reintegration Center for OFWs (NRCO) provides the following services:

1. Develop and support programs and projects for livelihood, entrepreneurship, savings, investments and financial literacy for returning Filipino migrant workers and their families in coordination with relevant stakeholders, service providers and international organizations;

2. Coordinate with appropriate stakeholders, service providers and relevant international organizations for the promotion, development and the full utilization of overseas Filipino worker returnees and their potentials;

3. Institute, in cooperation with other government agencies concerned, a computer-based information system on returning Filipino migrant workers which shall be accessible to all local recruitment agencies and employers, both public and private;

4. Provide a periodic study and assessment of job opportunities for returning Filipino migrant workers;

5. Develop and implement other appropriate programs to promote the welfare of returning Filipino migrant workers;

6. Maintain an internet-based communication system for on-line registration and interaction with clients, and maintain and upgrade computer-based service capabilities of the NRCO;

7. Develop capacity-building programs for returning overseas Filipino workers and their families, implementers, service providers, and stakeholders; and

8. Conduct research for policy recommendations and program development.143

While the reintegration program covers only OFWs,144 non-OFW balikbayans can also avail of possible livelihood training in coordination with the Department of Tourism, the Technology and Livelihood Resource Center and other training institutions.145

R.A. 9174 is the government's latest thrust in its consistent efforts in attracting balikbayans to come home to the Philippines and build a new life here. Notwithstanding our immigration laws, balikbayans may continue to stay in the Philippines for the long-term even under a visafree entry, which is extendible upon request. 146

It must be emphasized that none of the Court's previous decisions has ever looked at the very extensive privileges granted to Balikbayan entrants.

Coquilla, Japzon, Caballero, Jalosjos
and the Balikbayan Program

In ruling that petitioner can only be said to have validly re-established her residency in the Philippines when she reacquired her Philippine citizenship, the COMELEC invoked the ruling in Coquilla v. COMELEC. 147

In Coquilla, petitioner was a former natural-born citizen and who reacquired Philippine citizenship on November 10, 2000. He was not able to show by any evidence that he had been a one-year resident of Oras, Eastern Samar prior to the May 14, 2001 local elections. His argument was that he had been a resident of the said town for two years, but was not able to show actual residence one year from before the said election. Evidence shows on the contrary that his last trip to the United States, of which he was a former citizen was from July 6 to August 5, 2000. The only evidence he was able to show was a residence certificate and his bare assertion to his townmates that he intended to have himself repatriated. He did not make much of a claim, except to advert to the fulfillment of the required residence by cumulating his visits and actual residence. We Court said:

Second, it is not true, as petitioner contends, that he reestablished residence in this country in 1998 when he came back to prepare for the mayoralty elections of Oras by securing a Community Tax Certificate in that year and by constantly declaring to his townmates of his intention to seek repatriation and run for mayor in the May 14, 2001 elections. The status of being an alien and a non-resident can be waived either separately, when one acquires the status of a resident alien before acquiring Philippine citizenship, or at the same time when one acquires Philippine citizenship. As an alien, an individual may obtain an immigrant visa under 13 of the Philippine Immigration Act of 1948 and an Immigrant Certificate of Residence (ICR) and thus waive his status as a nonresident. On the other hand, he may acquire Philippine citizenship by naturalization under C.A. No. 473, as amended, or, if he is a former Philippine national, he may reacquire Philippine citizenship by repatriation or by an act of Congress, in which case he waives not only his status as an alien but also his status as a non-resident alien.

In the case at bar, the only evidence of petitioners status when he entered the country on October 15, 1998, December 20, 1998, October 16, 1999, and June 23, 2000 is the statement Philippine Immigration Balikbayan in his 1998-2008 U.S. passport. As for his entry on August 5, 2000, the stamp bore the added inscription good for one year stay. Under 2 of R.A. No. 6768 (An Act Instituting a Balikbayan Program), the term balikbayan includes a former Filipino citizen who had been naturalized in a foreign country and comes or returns to the Philippines and, if so, he is entitled, among others, to a visa-free entry to the Philippines for a period of one (1) year (3(c)). It would appear then that when petitioner entered the country on the dates in question, he did so as a visa-free balikbayan visitor whose stay as such was valid for one year only. Hence, petitioner can only be held to have waived his status as an alien and as a non-resident only on November 10, 2000 upon taking his oath as a citizen of the Philippines under R.A. No. 8171. He lacked the requisite residency to qualify him for the mayorship of Oras, Eastern, Samar.

Note that the record is bare of any assertion, unlike in the case before Us, that Coquilla had bought a residence, relocated all his effects, established all the necessities of daily living to operationalize the concept of actual residence to show residence for the minimum period of one year. Even if in fact the period of reckoning for Coquilla were to start from his entry into the country on 5 August 2000, it would still be only nine months; thus there was not even any necessity to discuss the effect of his having been classified as a Balikbayan when he entered the country in 1998, 1999 and 2000.

The COMELEC tries to assert that its interpretation of the ruling in Coquilla was carried over in Japzon v. COMELEC148 and Caballero v. COMELEC149 as to bar petitioner's claims on residency. The COMELEC is dead wrong.

In Japzon, private respondent Ty was a natural-born Filipino who left to work in the US and eventually became an American citizen. On 2 October 2005, Ty reacquired his Filipino citizenship by taking his Oath of Allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines in accordance with the provisions of Republic Act No. (R.A.) 9225.150 Immediately after reacquiring his Philippine citizenship, he performed acts (i.e. applied for a Philippine passport, paid community tax and secured Community Tax Certificates (CTC) and registered as a voter) wherein he declared that his residence was at General Macarthur, Eastern Samar. On 19 March 2007, Ty renounced his American citizenship before a notary public. Prior to this, however, Ty had been bodily present in General Macarthur, Eastern Samar for a more than a year before the May 2007 elections. As such, the Court brushed aside the contention that Ty was ineligible to run for mayor on the ground that he did not meet the one-year residency requirement. If anything, Japzon reinforces petitioner's position.

In Caballero, petitioner was a natural-born Filipino who was naturalized as a Canadian citizen. On 13 September 2012, petitioner took his Oath of Allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines in accordance with the provisions of Republic Act No. 9225. On 1 October 2012, he renounced his Canadian citizenship. He filed his certificate of candidacy for mayor of Uyugan, Batanes on 3 October 2012.

We ruled that it was incumbent upon petitioner to prove that he made Uyugan, Batanes his domicile of choice upon reacquisition of his Philippine citizenship. Aside from his failure to discharge this burden, the period reckoned from 13 September 2012 to the May 2013 elections is only nine months - clearly short of the required one-year residency requirement for mayoralty candidates. Caballero is thus clearly not applicable. Indeed, it is to be noted that it is only Justice Brion in his Separate Concurring Opinion who opines that a permanent resident visa is required for reestablishment of domicile to take place, a view not shared by the majority.

Justice Brion needed to state in his Separate Concurring Opinion that a permanent residency visa is necessary for the start of residency for election purposes is precisely because such view is not found in the Ponencia, hence, contraries to be legally inapplicable.

There are categorical rulings in U.S. state courts that are squarely as all fours with the petition before us. In Elkins v. Moreno, 151 aliens with a non-immigrant visa were considered as having the legal capacity to change their domiciles. In reaching this conclusion, the US Supreme Court took into account the intention of Congress when it enacted the terms and restrictions for specific classes of non-immigrants entering the United States:

Although nonimmigrant aliens can generally be viewed as temporary visitors to the United States, the nonimmigrant classification is by no means homogeneous with respect to the terms on which a nonimmigrant enters the United States. For example, Congress expressly conditioned admission for some purposes on an intent not to abandon a foreign residence or, by implication, on an intent not to seek domicile in the United States. Thus, the 1952 Act defines a visitor to the United States as "an alien . . . having a residence in a foreign country which he has no intention of abandoning" and who is coming to the United States for business or pleasure. Similarly, a nonimmigrant student is defined as "an alien having a residence in a foreign country which he has no intention of abandoning. . . and who seeks to enter the United States temporarily and solely for the purpose of pursuing. . . a course of study. . . . " See also (aliens in "immediate and continuous transit"); (vessel crewman "who intends to land temporarily"); (temporary worker having residence in foreign country "which he has no intention of abandoning").

By including restrictions on intent in the definition of some nonimmigrant classes, Congress must have meant aliens to be barred from these classes if their real purpose in coming to the United States was to immigrate permanently. x x x.

But Congress did not restrict every nonimmigrant class. In particular, no restrictions on a nonimmigrant's intent were placed on aliens admitted under §101(a)(15)(G)(iv). Since the 1952 Act was intended to be a comprehensive and complete code, the conclusion is therefore inescapable that, where as with the G-4 class Congress did not impose restrictions on intent, this was deliberate. Congress' silence is therefore pregnant, and we read it to mean that Congress, while anticipating that permanent immigration would normally occur through immigrant channels, was willing to allow nonrestricted nonimmigrant aliens to adopt the United States as their domicile.

Under present law, therefore, were a G-4 alien to develop a subjective intent to stay indefinitely in the United States he would be able to do so without violating either the 1952 Act, the Service's regulations, or the terms of his visa. Of course, should a G-4 alien terminate his employment with an international treaty organization, both he and his family would lose their G-4 status. Nonetheless, such an alien would not necessarily be subject to deportation nor would he have to leave and re-enter the country in order to become an immigrant.152 (Citations omitted) (Emphasis supplied)

In Toll v. Moreno, 153 the Supreme Court of Maryland applied the ruling in Elkins and held that the ordinary legal standard for the establishment of domicile may be used even for non-immigrants:

If under federal law a particular individual must leave this country at a certain date, or cannot remain here indefinitely, then he could not become domiciled in Maryland. Any purported intent to live here indefinitely would be inconsistent with law. It would at most be an unrealistic subjective intent, which is insufficient under Maryland law to establish domicile.

x x x x

In light of the Supreme Court's interpretation of federal law, it is obvious that nothing inherent in the nature of a G-4 visa would render the holder of such visa absolutely incapable of establishing a Maryland domicile. Assuming the correctness of the defendant's assertion that most G-4 visa holders will leave this country, if in a particular case one of these individuals is in a minority and, as shown by objective factors, intends for Maryland to be his fixed place of abode and intends to remain here indefinitely, he will have satisfied the Maryland standard for establishing domicile in this State.

The fact that an alien holds a non-immigrant visa is thus not controlling. What is crucial in determining whether an alien may lawfully adopt a domicile in the country is the restriction placed by Congress on a specific type of non-immigrant visa. So long as the intended stay of a nonimmigrant does not violate any of the legal restriction, sufficient animus manendi may be appreciated and domicile may be established.

In the case of balikbayans, the true intent of Congress to treat these overseas Filipinos not as mere visitors but as prospective permanent residents is evident from the letter of the law. While they are authorized to remain in the country for a period of only one year from their date of arrival, the laws, rules and regulations under the Balikbayan Program do not foreclose their options should they decide to actually settle down in the country. In fact, the Balikbayan Program envisions a situation where former Filipinos would have been legally staying in the Philippines visa-free for more than 36 months.154 In the case of petitioner Poe, she entered the Philippines visa-free under the Balikbayan program, left for a short while and legally re-entered under the same program. This is not a case where she abused any Balikbayan privilege because shortly after reentering the country on 11 March 2006,155 she applied for dual citizenship under R.A. 9225.

Based on the foregoing, it was most unfair for COMELEC to declare that petitioner could not have acquired domicile in the Philippines in 2005 merely because of her status as a balikbayan. Her visa (or lack thereof) should not be the sole determinant of her intention to reacquire her domicile in the Philippines.

Congress itself welcomes the return of overseas Filipinos without requiring any type of visa. Although visa-free entry is for a limited time, the period is extendible and is not conditioned upon the acquisition of a permanent resident visa. Considering that the law allows a balikbayan to stay in the Philippines for a certain period even without a visa and to settle in .the country during that period, there is no reason to reject petitioner's intent to re-establish a residence from the date she entered the country. In fact, petitioner's permanent resettlement, as one millions of Filipino who had gone abroad, is an end-goal of the Balikbayan Program.

If we were to apply the standard for determining the effect of a visa on the ability of petitioner to re-establish her domicile in the Philippines, the U.S. cases of Elkins v. Moreno and Toll v. Moreno, beg the question: Does her entry as a Balikbayan restrict her from re-establishing her domicile in the Philippines? The answer would be a resounding NO, for precisely the legislative policy of the Balikbayan Program is to assist in the reintegration of former Filipino citizen back into the country. The Court must also note that the visa-free entry is good for one year and renewable, even to the extent of authorizing the Balikbayan to stay much longer. The Balikbayan program is fully compatible and supportive of the re-establishment by a Balikbayan of her residence in her native land, her domicile of origin.

And this is not a case when petitioner abused the privileges of visa-free entry considering that, a year after her relocation, she immediately took steps to reacquire her Philippine citizenship

Petitioner was able to prove that she
reacquired her domicile in the Philippines
beginning May 2005.

As discussed, there are only three requisites for a person to acquire a new domicile by choice: (1) residence or bodily presence in the new domicile; (2) an intention to remain there; and (3) an intention to abandon the old domicile.156 In my view, the pieces of evidence submitted by petitioner sufficiently prove that she re-established her domicile in the Philippines as early as May 2005.

I shall discuss the fulfillment of the requirements in the following order: (1) intention to remain in the new domicile; (2) intention to abandon the old domicile; and (3) bodily residence in the new domicile.

Intent to Establish a New Domicile

To prove her intent to establish a new domicile in the Philippines on 24 May 2005, petitioner presented the following evidence: (1) school records indicating that her children attended Philippine schools starting June 2005;157 (2) Taxpayer's Identification Number (TIN) Card,158 showing that she registered with and secured the TIN from the BIR on 22 July 2005; (3) Condominium Certificates of Title (CCTs) 159 and Tax Declarations covering Unit 7F and a parking slot at One Wilson Place Condominium, 194 Wilson Street, San Juan, Metro Manila, purchased in early 2005 and served as the family's temporary residence; (4) Transfer Certificate of Title (TCT) 160 in the name of petitioner and her husband issued on 1 June 2006, covering a residential lot in Corinthian Hills, Quezon City in 2006; and (5) registration as a voter on 31 August 2006.

Enrollment of Children in Local Schools

Whether children are enrolled in local schools is a factor considered by courts when it comes to establishing a new domicile. In Fernandez v. HRET, 161 we used this indicium:

In the case at bar, there are real and substantial reasons for petitioner to establish Sta. Rosa as his domicile of choice and abandon his domicile of origin and/or any other previous domicile. To begin with, petitioner and his wife have owned and operated businesses in Sta. Rosa since 2003. Their children have attended schools in Sta. Rosa at least since 2005. x x x (Emphasis supplied)

In Blount v. Boston, 162 the Supreme Court of Maryland identified location of the school attended by a person's children as one of the factors in determining a change of domicile. The discourse is reproduced here:

Where actual residence and/or place of voting are not so clear or there are special circumstances explaining particular place of abode or place of voting, court will look to myriad of other factors in deciding person's domicile, such as paying of taxes and statements on tax returns, ownership of property, where person's children attend school, address at which person receives mail, statements as to residency in contracts, statements on licenses or governmental documents, where personal belongings are kept, which jurisdiction's banks are utilized, and any other facts revealing contact with one or the other jurisdiction.163 (Emphasis supplied)

The fact that petitioner's children began their schooling in the Philippines shortly after their arrival in the country in May 2005 is no longer in dispute. In its Comment, the COMELEC noted this as one of the facts "duly proven" by petitioner.164 By "duly proven," the COMELEC explained during the oral arguments that the term meant that documentary proof substantiated the pertinent allegation:

CHIEF JUSTICE SERENO:
All right. Let me turn your attention to page 56 of the COMELEC Comment. It says, "the COMELEC noted the following facts as duly proven by the petitioner. Petitioner's children arrived in the Philippines during the latter half of 2005. Shortly after their arrival, petitioner's children began their schooling in the country. Petitioner purchased a condominium unit in San Juan City during the second half of 2005. Petitioner and husband started the construction of their house in 2006. Petitioner and her husband informed the U.S. Postal Service in 2006 of their abandonment of their U. S. Address." What does the commission mean when it says that these facts are duly proven?

COMMISSIONER LIM:
Your Honor please, the proceeding before the commission was summary. There was a preliminary conference, submission of exhibits, stipulations, comparison between the originals and the photocopies, and offer of evidence. We considered these facts as non-controverted in the sense that they are covered by documentary proof, Your Honor. (Emphasis supplied)

Acquisition of a New Residence

The COMELEC, in its Comment, found the following facts to be duly proven: that petitioner purchased a condominium unit in San Juan City during the second half of 2005, and that petitioner and her husband started the construction of their house in Corinthian Hills in 2006.165 That petitioner purchased the residential lot in Corinthian Hills is not up for debate. Taken together, these facts establish another indicium of petitioner's establishment of a new domicile in the Philippines.

Our very own jurisdiction treats acquisition of residential property as a factor indicating establishment of a new domicile. Take the 2012 case of Jalosjos v. COMELEC, 166 in which we held that Rommel Jalosjos acquired a new domicile in Zamboanga Sibugay:

Jalosjos presented the affidavits of next-door neighbors, attesting to his physical presence at his residence in Ipil. These adjoining neighbors are no doubt more credible since they have a better chance of noting his presence or absence than his other neighbors, whose affidavits Erasmo presented, who just sporadically passed by the subject residence. Further, it is not disputed that Jalosjos bought a residential lot in the same village where he lived and a fish pond in San Isidro, Naga, Zamboanga Sibugay. He showed correspondences with political leaders, including local and national party-mates, from where he lived. Moreover, Jalosjos is a registered voter of Ipil by final judgment of the Regional Trial Court of Zamboanga Sibugay. (Emphasis supplied)

It has been argued that the acquisition of a temporary dwelling in Greenhills, the purchase of a residential lot in Corinthian Hills, and the eventual construction of a house in the latter place do not indicate an intent on the part of petitioner to stay in the country for good. The 2013 case of Jalosjos v. COMELEC167 has been cited to support this conclusion, as we purportedly held in that case that ownership of a house "does not establish domicile."

This reading of Jalosjos is not accurate. By no means did Jalosjos rule out ownership of a house or some other property as a factor for establishing a new domicile. To appreciate the statement in its proper context, the relevant discussion in Jalosjos is quoted below:

Assuming that the claim of property ownership of petitioner is true, Fernandez v. COMELEC has established that the ownership of a house or some other property does not establish domicile. This principle is especially true in this case as petitioner has failed to establish her bodily presence in the locality and her intent to stay there at least a year before the elections, to wit:

To use ownership of property in the district as the determinative indicium of permanence of domicile or residence implies that the landed can establish compliance with the residency requirement. This Court would be, in effect, imposing a property requirement to the right to hold public office, which property requirement would be unconstitutional. (Emphasis supplied)

As can be seen from the quoted discourse, the case did not throw out ownership of a house as a factor for determining establishment of a new domicile. Rather, it discarded ownership of a house as a controlling factor for determining establishment of a new domicile.

Even US courts consider acquisition of property as a badge of fixing a new domicile.168 In Hale v. State of Mississippi Democratic EC, 169 the Supreme Court of Mississippi used acquisition of a new residence as a factor for determining transfer of domicile. In that case, William Stone sought the Democratic Party nomination for Senate District 10, a district covering parts of Marshall County, including Stone's home in Holly Springs. Hale argued that Stone was not eligible to run for that office because he did not meet the two-year residency requirement. Specifically, Hale argued that Stone could not be a resident of Marshall County because Stone .had not abandoned his domicile in Benton County. He had moved to Holly Springs in October 2013.

The Mississippi Supreme Court ruled that Stone had proven that he established his domicile in Marshall County. It relied, among others, on acquisition of a home in the new domicile as a factor:

To prove his position that he had changed his domicile from Benton County to Marshall County, Stone provided an abundance of evidence. In October 2013, Stone rented a house at 305 Peel Lane in Holly Springs, the county seat of Marshall County, and he obtained utility service for the home. In July 2014, he bought a home at 200 Johnson Park in Holly Springs. Furthermore, he notified the Senate comptroller about his change of address, and the comptroller sent an e-mail to every member of the Senate informing them of the change.

x x x x

We have held that '[t]he exercise of political rights, admissions, declarations, the acts of purchasing a home and long-continued residency are circumstances indicative of his intention to abandon his domicile of origin and to establish a new domicile.' Taking into consideration all of these factors, the circuit court did not err in determining that Stone's domicile has existed in Marshall County since October of 2013. (Emphases supplied and citations omitted)

Securing a Taxpayer's Identification
Number (TIN) Card

In his Comment-Opposition to the Petition for Certiorari in G.R. No. 221698-700, private respondent Valdez posited that securing a TIN does not conclusively establish petitioner's animus manendi in the Philippines.170 He reasons that any person, even a non resident, can secure a TIN. On this matter, I must agree with him.

Indeed, the 1997 Tax Code mandates all persons required under our tax laws to render or file a return to secure a TIN.171 This would include a non-resident so long as he or she is mandated by our tax laws to file a return, statement or some other document.172 It is thus correct to say that a TIN Card does not conclusively evince the notion that petitioner is a resident of the Philippines.

Nevertheless, the significance of the TIN Card lies in the fact that it lists down the address of petitioner as No. 23 Lincoln St. West Greenhills, the very same address of her mother, Jesusa Sonora Poe, as reflected in the latter's affidavit.173 Therefore, the TIN Card, which was issued on 22 July 2005, corroborates the assertion that petitioner, upon her arrival in 2005, was then staying at her mother's home.

Registration as Voter

Petitioner registered as a voter on 31 August 2006. This speaks loudly of the intent to establish a domicile in the country. In Hale v. State of Mississippi Democratic EC,174 the Supreme Court of Mississippi considered registering to vote as a factor indicative of the intent to acquire a new domicile. More importantly, Oglesby v. Williams treats voter registration as one of the two most significant indicia of acquisition of a new domicile. The Oglesby discussion is informative:

This Court's longstanding view on determining a person's domicile was stated in Roberts, where the Court wrote:

The words reside or resident mean domicile unless a contrary intent is shown. A person may have several places of abode or dwelling, but he can have only one domicile at a time. Domicile has been defined as the place with which an individual has a settled connection for legal purposes and the place where a person has his true, fixed, permanent home, habitation and principal establishment, without any present intention of removing therefrom, and to which place he has, whenever he is absent, the intention of returning. The controlling factor in determining a person's domicile is his intent. One's domicile, generally, is that place where he intends to be. The determination of his intent, however, is not dependent upon what he says at a particular time, since his intent may be more satisfactorily shown by what is done than by what is said. Once a domicile is determined or established a person retains his domicile at such place unless the evidence affirmatively shows an abandonment of that domicile. In deciding whether a person has abandoned a previously established domicile and acquired a new one, courts will examine and weigh the factors relating to each place. This Court has never deemed any single circumstance conclusive. However, it has viewed certain factors as more important than others, the two most important being where a person actually lives and where he votes. Where a person lives and votes at the same place such place probably will be determined to constitute his domicile. Where these factors are not so clear, however, or where there are special circumstances explaining a particular place of abode or place of voting, the Court will look to and weigh a number of other factors in deciding a person's domicile.

Furthermore, this Court has stated that the place of voting is the "highest evidence of domicile." ("the two most important elements in determining domicile are where a person actually lives and where he votes"); ("Evidence that a person registered or voted is ordinarily persuasive when the question of domicile is at issue," quoting Comptroller v. Lenderking). Furthermore, actual residence, coupled with voter registration, "clearly create[s] a presumption that [the person] was domiciled" there. ("[w]here the evidence relating to voting and the evidence concerning where a person actually lives both clearly point to the same jurisdiction, it is likely that such place will be deemed to constitute the individual's domicile"). In other words, the law presumes that where a person actually lives and votes is that person's domicile, unless special circumstances explain and rebut the presumption. (Citations omitted) (Emphases supplied)

This Court, too, shares this reverence for the place of voting as an evidence of domicile. In Templeton v. Babcock, 175 we held as follows:

The finding of the trial court to the effect that the deceased had acquired a domicile in the State of California is in our opinion based upon facts which sufficiently support said finding. In particular, we are of the opinion that the trial court committed no error in attaching importance to the circumstance that the deceased had voted in California elections.

Though not of course conclusive of acquisition of domicile, voting in a place is an important circumstance and, where the evidence is scanty, may have decisive weight. The exercise of the franchise is one of the highest prerogatives of citizenship, and in no other act of his life does the citizen identify his interests with the state in which he lives more than in the act of voting. (Emphasis supplied)

In sum, the evidence of petitioner substantiates her claim of the intent to establish a new domicile in the country. The enrollment of her children in local schools since 2005, the family's temporary stay in her mother's home followed by the purchase of the Greenhills condominium unit and the subsequent establishment of the Corinthian Hills family home, the registration of petitioner as a voter and the issuance1 of a TIN Card in her favor, collectively demonstrate the conclusion that she has established an incremental transfer of domicile in the country.

Respondent Valdez, however, points out that petitioner currently maintains two residential properties in the US, one purchased in 1992 and the other in 2008.176 According to him, this is inconsistent with animus manendi.

This argument disregards overwhelming evidence showing that petitioner intended to establish a new domicile in the country. Petitioner has uprooted her family from Virginia, US to Manila, enrolled her children soon after her arrival in the Philippines, acquired residential properties in the new domicile - one of which now serves as the current family home - and registered as a voter. These factors all point to one direction: petitioner is in the country and is here to stay. We cannot disregard these factors, all of which establish a nexus to the new domicile, because of a solitary fact: the retention of two residential houses in the US. To be sure, it is difficult to justify a conclusion which considers only one contact in the old domicile and ignores many significant contacts established by the removing person in the new domicile.

Moreover, petitioner only admitted177 that she owns the two houses. She never admitted that she resides in any of them. At best, what can only be established is that petitioner owns properties classified as residential properties. Undoubtedly, we cannot make a conclusion that petitioner failed to meet the animus manendi requirement in the absence of proof that petitioner uses one of the properties as a place of abode. In fact, all the evidence points to the fact that she leaves the Philippines only for brief periods of time; obviously with no intention to reside elsewhere.

It is important to always remember that domicile is in the main a question of intent.178 It requires fact-intensive analysis. Not a single factor is conclusive. It is the totality of the evidence that must be considered.

Even the US Supreme Court admitted that domicile is a difficult question of fact that its resolution commands a pragmatic and careful approach. In The District of Columbia v. Murphy, 179 the US High Court remarked:

[T]he question of domicile is a difficult one of fact to be settled only by a realistic and conscientious review of the many relevant (and frequently conflicting) indicia of where a man's home is and according to the established modes of proof.180

It is interesting to note that the US Supreme Court appended a footnote on the term home in the above quoted statement. Footnote 10 states:

Of course, this term does not have the magic qualities of a divining rod in locating domicile. In fact, the search for th¢ domicile of any person capable of acquiring a domicile of choice is llut a search for his "home." See Beale, Social Justice and Business Costs, 49 Harv.L.Rev. 593, 596; 1 Beale, Conflict of Laws,§ 19.1.181

Now, if we are to adopt the view that petitioner failed to meet the animus manendi requirement on the ground that she maintains two houses in the US, I pose this question: in our search for peti'tioner's home, are we making a realistic and conscientious review of all the facts?

Additionally, it is not required for purposes of establishing a new domicile that a person must sever all contacts with ,the old domicile."182 I therefore find nothing wrong with petitioner maintaining residential properties in the old domicile.

It has been further suggested that petitioner's invocation of acquisition of residential property as a factor showing animus manendi does not benefit her considering that she purchased in 2008 a residential property in the US, which was subsequent to her purchase of the condominium unit and the residential lot in the Philippines, and that she maintained the one she acquired in 1992. But what is considered for animus manendi purposes as a factor is acquisition of a house in the new domicile. Acquisition of a house in the old domicile is not a factor for determining animus manendi.

That petitioner still maintains two houses in the US does not negate her abandonment of her US domicile. First, it has, not been shown that petitioner actually lived in the residential house acquired in 1992. What is clear is that there was only one family home in Virginia, US, and petitioner had already reestablished her residence in the Philippines before it was even sold.

Second, the residential house acquired in 2008 has no bearing in the cases before us with regard to determining the validity of petitioner's abandonment of her US domicile, particularly because it was purchased after she had already reacquired her Filipino citizenship. In this regard, even respondent Valdez claims that "it is only upon her reacquisition of Filipino citizenship on 18 July 2006, that she can be considered to have established her domicile in the Philippines."183 This concession already leaves no question as to petitioner's abandonment of her US domicile and intent to reside permanently in the Philippines at the time that the residential house in the US was purchased in 2008.

1. Intent to Abandon the Old Domicile

To prove her intent to abandon her old domicile in the US, petitioner presented the following evidence: ( 1) email exchange1s between petitioner or her husband and the property movers regarding relocation of their household goods, furniture and vehicles from the US to the Bhilippines; (2) invoice document showing delivery from the US and to the Philippines of the personal properties of petitioner and her family; (3) acknowledgment of change of address by the US Postal Service; ( 4) sale lof the family home on 27 April 2006.

Plans to Relocate

In Oglesby v. Williams, 184 the Court of Appeals of Maryland noted that plans for removal show intent to abandon the old domicile. The Court said:

[T]here are many citizens of Maryland who intend to change their domicile upon retirement and may make quite elaborate plans toward fulfilling that intent by building a retirement home in the place where they intend to retire. Such plans, by themselves, do not prove the abandonment of an existing domicile, although it is evidence of the intention to do so. Were such planning to be sufficient, the intent requirement would swallow the requirement of an actual removal to another habitation with the intent to reside there indefinitely. (Emphasis supplied)

In this case, petitioner submitted email exchanges showing that the family began planning to move back to the Philippines as early as March 2005. Exhibit "6-series" includes an email letter dated 17 March 2005 and sent to petitioner by Karla Murphy on 18 March 2005. Based on the email, Karla worked at Victory Van, a company engaged in moving personal belongings. Apparently, petitioner had asked for an estimate of moving personal properties from the US to the Philippines. The email reply reads:

From: Karla Murphy MURPHY@VictoryVan.com
To: gllamanzares gllamanzares@aol.com
Subject: Relocation to Manila Estimate
Date: Fri, 18 Mar 2005
3.17.05

Hi Grace:

Sorry for the delay in getting this to you. I know you are eager to get some rates for budgetary purposes.

I estimate that you have approximately 28,000 lbs of household goods plus your two vehicles. This will necessitate using THREE 40' containers. You not only have a lot of furniture but many of your pieces plus the toys are very voluminous. We will load the containers from bottom to top not to waste any space but I sincerely believe you will need two containers just for your household goods.

To provide you with door to door service which would include packing, export wrapping, custom crating for chandeliers, marble top and glass tops, loading of containers at your residence, US customs export inspection for the vehicles, transportation to Baltimore, ocean freight and documentation to arrival Manila, customs clearance, delivery, with collection of vehicles from agent in Manila unwrapping and placement of furniture, assisted unpacking, normal assembly (beds, tables, two piece dressers and china closets), container return to port and same day debris removal based on three 40' containers, with 28,000 lbs of HHG and two autos will be USD 19,295.

Grace, I predict you will have some questions. I will be out of the office tomorrow and will be in the office all day on Monday. If your questions can't wait please call me on my cell number at 703 297 27 88.

I'll talk to you soon.

Kind regards and again, thanks for your patience.

Karla (Emphases Supplied)

The email indicates that petitioner was planning to move an estimated 28,000 pounds of household goods plus two vehicles from Virginia, US to Manila. The email further shows that three forty-foot containers were estimated to be used in the movement of these items.

Twenty-eight thousand pounds of personal properties, including two vehicles, is not difficult to visualize. The exchanges during the oral arguments held by this Court for this case shows that three forty-foot containers is about the size of a three-storey house. The exchange is quoted below:

CHIEF JUSTICE SERENO:
Okay. Alright. Now when you come, you see you have thrown out the fact of relocation, continuous schooling, you have thrown that out. May I now ask you what you did in looking at the e-mail that they submitted dated 18 March 2005. Have you [looked] closely at that e-mail?

COMMISSIONER LIM:
Yes, Your Honor.

CHIEF JUSTICE SERENO:
Okay. Can you tell us what that e-mail said?

COMMISSIONER LIM:
These correspondences, e-mail correspondences evinced a strong desire to bring your belongings here to seemingly on the surface, Your Honor, to transfer residence here and to inquire about the cost of moving to the Philippines, Your Honor. . .

CHIEF JUSTICE SERENO:
Did you look at the, how much they were planning to move back to the Philippines?

COMMISSIONER LIM:
Well they said they sold their house there already, Your Honor. . .

CHIEF JUSTICE SERENO:
Twenty eight thousand pounds.

COMMISSIONER LIM:
Yes, Your Honor.

CHIEF JUSTICE SERENO:
And the estimate of the forwarding company is that they need three forty foot containers, correct?

COMMISSIONER LIM:
No question as to, no question as to that, Your Honor.

CHIEF JUSTICE SERENO:
Okay. Alright. Including can you look at what a forty foot container looks like. This. (image flashed on the screen) Please look at this Commissioner Lim.

COMMISSIONER LIM:
I'm quite familiar having been a maritime lawyer in the past. . .

CHIEF JUSTICE SERENO:
Alright. Thank you very much. You see one forty foot container already contains an office, and an entire residence. And then if you put three on top of the other, okay, . . . (image flashed on the screen)

COMMISSIONER LIM:
Yes, Your Honor.

CHIEF JUSTICE SERENO:
That's already the content of an entire house. And they're talking about glass tops, marble tops, chandeliers, in addition to that two cars and pets. Of course, it's not in the e-mail.

In other words, even this there is no intention, Commissioner Lim?185

Definitely, the email shows that as early as 18 March 2005, petitioner already had plans to relocate to Manila. It must be stressed that not only household goods would be moved to Manila, but two vehicles as well. Petitioner was certainly not planning for a short trip. The letter, therefore, shows the intent of petitioner to abandon her old domicile in the US as early as March of 2005.

Change of Postal Address

Petitioner also adduced as evidence the email of the US Postal Service acknowledging the notice of change of address made by petitioner's husband. It has been argued that the online acknowledgment merely establishes that petitioner's husband only requested a change of address and did not notify the US Postal service of the abandonment of the old US address. This reasoning fails to appreciate that a notice of change of address is already considered an indicium sufficient to establish the intent to abandon a domicile.

The already discussed Hale v. State of Mississippi Democratic EC186 utilized change of postal address as a factor for determining the intent to abandon a domicile. In the case of Farnsworth v. Jones, 187 the Court of Appeals of North Carolina noted, among others, the failure of the candidate to change his address. It ruled out the possibility that defendant had actually abandoned his previous residence.

To the contrary, defendant maintained the condominium at Cramer Mountain, ate dinner weekly at the Country Club there, exercised there, and spent approximately 50% of his time there. He additionally did not change his address to Ashley Arms for postal purposes, or for any other purposes. He executed a month-to-month lease for a furnished apartment because he wanted to "see what would happen" in the election. Although defendant acquired a new residence at the Ashley Arms address and expressed his intention to remain there permanently, there is little evidence in the record to indicate that he was actually residing there. x x x. (Emphasis supplied)

I do agree with the observation that the online acknowledgement never showed that the change of address was from the old US address to the new Philippine address. To my mind, however, the deficiency is not crucial considering that there are other factors (discussed elsewhere in this opinion) showing that petitioner's intent was to relocate to the Philippines. What matters as far as the online acknowledgement is concerned is that it indicates an intent to abandon the old domicile of petitioner.

Sale of Old Residence

Another factor present in this case is the sale of petitioner's family home in the US.

In Imbraguglio v. Bernadas188 decided by the Court of Appeals of Louisiana, Fourth Circuit, Bernard Bernadas filed a "Notice of Candidacy" for the office of Sheriff of St. Bernard Parish. Petrina Imbraguglio filed a petition objecting to the candidacy of Bernadas on the ground of failure to establish residence in the parish. It was found that Bernardas sold his home on Etienne Drive on 23 February 2006. Since 31 August 2006, Bernadas has lived with his family at a home he purchased at 7011 General Haig Street in New Orleans. The Louisiana appellate court ruled that Bernardas had abandoned his domicile in the parish by selling his home therein and had not reestablished the same. The Louisiana appellate court held that:

We also find no error in the trial court's finding that the defendant established a new domicile for purposes of La. R.S. 1 $:451.3 (which took effect on June 8, 2006) by voluntarily selling his home, the only property owned in St. Bernard Parish, and moving to New Orleans without residing anywhere in St. Bernard Parish for two years preceding the date he filed his notice of candidacy to run for sheriff. (Emphasis supplied)

Location of personal belongings

Another vital piece of evidence is the invoice issued by Victory Van to petitioner indicating the actual delivery of personal property to Manila in September 2006 and the cost of shipping of the household goods. Pertinent portions of the Invoice dated 13 September 2006 are quoted below:

Hello! As you may have heard from your agent in the Philippines, there was an overflow. Every effort was made to make it fit in the two 40's and all went except for about 1900 lbs, which will be sent in lift vans. An invoice is attached. Thank you.

x x x x

CUSTOMER:
ORIGIN:
DESTINATION:
Grace Llamanzares
Sterling, VA
Manila, Philippines
DATE:
REFERENCE #:
9/13/2006
EXP06020
WEIGHT:
VOLUME:
VOLUME
25,241 lbs
2-40' S-SC
2 - Lift Vans
Overflow LCI,
Shipment (293 Cu
Ft.)

The invoice proves that 25,241 pounds of personal property owned by petitioner and her family were moved from Sterling, Virginia, US to Manila, Philippines. This proves another factor: the consummation of the previously discussed plan to relocate to Manila. The location of the majority of the personal belongings matters in the determination of a change in domicile. This factor was used in the already discussed Oglesby and in Bell v. Bell. 189

It must be noted that Bell held that unimportant belongings are not considered in that determination. In that case, the wife sought before a Pennsylvania court the issuance of an injunction restraining the husband from obtaining a divorce in Nevada. She filed the suit on the ground that the husband failed to establish a domicile in Nevada' as he once lived in Pennsylvania. Also, he was away from Nevada most of the time since he worked in Nigeria.

The Pennsylvania Superior Court, in holding that the husband succeeded in establishing a domicile in Nevada, disregarded the fact that the husband left behind a crate of his clothing at the home in Pennsylvania.

As for the relevancy of the clothing left behind at the Pennsylvania location by Mr. Bell after his departure, we, as did the trial court, find this element to be "of little moment. That [Mr. Bell] has done without them for so long shows that they are not of particular importance to him." (Emphasis supplied)

It is worthy to note that the case did not reject movement/ non-movement of personal belongings as a factor for determining domicile. Rather, what it rejected was unimportant personal properties. Thus, this case, combined with the Oglesby case, provides that movement of properties that are valuable/important indicates intent to abandon the previous domicile. Another take-away from this case is that when only unimportant belongings remain in the old domicile, the intent to abandon the old domicile is not diminished.

What is more, it must be emphasized that petitioner donated to the Salvation Army, as shown by Exhibit "15" and Exhibit "15-A," which are receipts showing donations to the Salvation Army of clothes, books and miscellaneous items. The receipts are dated 23 February 2006. The value of the personal effects donated was placed by petitioner's husband at USD300.00 and USD575.00,190 certainly little personal items that were even then, fully disposed.

What can be gleaned from the above facts is that petitioner intended to bring along with her in the Philippines only those items she deemed important to her, and that those that were left behind were unimportant. It should be stressed that the items donated to charity included books and clothes, which presumably are not valuable to petitioner; hence, the donations to the Salvation Army. Accordingly, petitioner was able to establish another factor indicating the intent of petitioner to abandon her old domicile and establish a new domicile in the Philippines.

In sum, there is more than sufficient evidence indicating petitioner's intent to abandon her domicile in the US. Several factors have been established: plans to transfer to the Philippines, sale of the residence in the old domicile, change of postal address, and relocation of valuable personal belongings to the new domicile.

2. Actual removal from old
domicile and relocation to
new domicile

The third requirement for establishment of a new domicile is bodily presence in or the actual removal to the new domicile.

In Oglesby v. Williams, 191 the Court of Appeals of Maryland faced the issue of whether Beau H. Oglesby met the two-year residency requirement to run for State's Attorney for Worcester County in the November 2002 general election. Oglesby admitted that he had been domiciled in Wicomico County for a period of time beginning in December 1995. He argued, however, that his purchase of real property in Worcester County on 5 September 2000, more than two years before the election, coupled with his intention to be domiciled there, effectively established that he had changed his domicile to Worcester County.

We do not question, to be sure, that the appellant intended to make Worcester County his residence, his fixed, permanent home and habitation and, thus, to abandon his Wicomico County residence. We simply do not believe that the intent was perfected before the appellant moved into the Worcester County home; the appellant's intent was not actualized until then.

[T]here are many citizens of Maryland who intend to change their domicile upon retirement and may make quite elaborate plans toward fulfilling that intent by building a retirement home in the place where they intend to retire. Such plans, by themselves, do not prove the abandonment of an existing domicile, although it is evidence of the intention to do so. Were such planning to be sufficient, the intent requirement would swallow the requirement of an actual removal to another habitation with the intent to reside there indefinitely.

x x x x

The evidence shows that the appellant established a domicile in Wicomico County in December, 1995 and remained domiciled in that county until, at the earliest, December, 2000. He voted in the November 7, 2000 election in Wicomico County and he did not move into a residence in Worcester County until December, 2000. We hold that the appellant did not become a domiciliary of Worcester County until, at the earliest, he actually moved into his new home on December 20, 2000.

Oglesby makes the date of actual transfer as the reckoning point for the change of domicile. Had the actual removal happened prior to the two-year period, Oglesby would have satisfied the residency requirement in that case.

Applying the rule to this case, it appears that the intent was actualized in 24 May 2005, the date when petitioner arrived in the Philippines, as revealed by her US passport bearing a stamp showing her entry in the Philippines. The fact that she arrived here for the purpose of moving back to the Philippines was not denied by COMELEC during the oral arguments, although it did not recognize the legal implications of such fact.

We must not lose sight of the fact that petitioner registered as a voter in this country on 31 August 2006. Thus, the implication of petitioner having registered on 31 August 2006 is that she had already been a resident in the country for at least one year as of the day of her registration. The reason is that the Voter's Registration Act of 1996192 requires among other things that the citizen must have resided in the Philippines for at least one year.

That being said, the registration of petitioner as voter bolsters petitioner's claim that she concretized her intent to establish a domicile in the country on 24 May 2005. Take note that if we use 24 May 2005 as the reckoning date for her establishment of domicile in the Philippines, she would have indeed been a resident for roughly one year and three months as of 31 August 2006, the date she registered as a voter in the Philippines.

Besides, when we consider the other factors previously mentioned in this discussion - the enrolment of petitioner's children shortly after their arrival in the Philippines, the purchase of the condominium unit during the second half of 2005, the construction of their house in Corinthian Hills in 2006, the notification of the US Postal Service of petitioner's change of address - there can only be one conclusion: petitioner was here to stay in the Philippines for good when she arrived in May 2005.

Let me highlight the fact of enrolment of petitioner's children in 2005. This happened shortly after their arrival in the Philippines, which was in May 2005. Taking together the two facts - the arrival of the family in May and the subsequent attendance of the children in local schools the following month - the logical conclusion that we can derive from them is that petitioner arrived early in May so as to prepare her children's schooling in the Philippines. Now, given that in May, she already had in mind the attendance of her children in local schools, this indicates that petitioner, at the time of her arrival already had the intent to be in the country for the long haul.

Lastly, we must not overlook the proximity of her date of arrival in the Philippines in 24 May 2005 to the death of her father in 14 December 2004. The closeness of the dates confirms the claim of petitioner that the untimely death of her father and the need to give her mother moral support and comfort. The return to the country, it must be emphasized, happened within one year of the death of petitioner's father. It reflects the motive of petitioner for her return to the Philippines: the only child had to return to the Philippines as soon as possible so that she could, be with her grieving mother. More important, this very same motive justifies the acts of relocation she executed, several of which occurred within a year of the death of her father.

As a result, petitioner's arrival in the Philippines on 24 May 2005 was definitely coupled with both animus manendi and animus non revertendi.

True, petitioner's transfer in this case was incremental. But this Court has already recognized the validity of incremental transfers. In Mitra v. COMELEC, 193 We stated:

Mitra's feed mill dwelling cannot be considered in isolation and separately from the circumstances of his transfer of residence, specifically, his expressed intent to transfer to a residence outside of Puerto Princesa City to make him eligible to run for a provincial position; his preparatory moves starting in early 2008; his initial transfer through a leased dwelling; the purchase of a lot for his permanent home; and the construction of a house in this lot that, parenthetically, is adjacent to the premises he leased pending the completion of his house. These incremental moves do not offend reason at all, in the way that the COMELEC's highly subjective non-legal standards do. (Emphasis supplied)

Even the Superior Court of Pennsylvania in Bell v. Bell194 recognized the notion of incremental transfers in a change of domicile:

Intent, being purely subjective, must to a large extent be determined by the acts which are manifestations of that intent. However, it does not follow from that that the acts must all occur simultaneously with the formation of the intent. Such a conclusion would be contrary to human nature. One does not move to a new domicile and immediately change church membership, bank account, operator's license, and club memberships. Nor does he immediately select a neighborhood, purchase a home and buy furniture. All of those acts require varying degrees of consideration and as a consequence cannot be done hastily nor simultaneously. (Emphases supplied)

The foregoing considered, the COMELEC used a wrong consideration in reaching the conclusion that petitioner failed to meet the durational residency requirement of 10 years. There is no falsity to speak of in the representation made by petitioner with regard to her residence in the country. For using wrong or irrelevant considerations in deciding the issue, COMELEC tainted its cancellation of petitioner's 2016 certificate of candidacy for president with grave abuse of discretion.

Long Residence in the Philippines

We must remember that petitioner and her children would have stayed in the Philippines for 10 years and 11 months by 9 May 2016. For nearly 11 years, her children have studied and spent a substantial part of their formative years here. On this, the case of Hale is again instructive:

We have held that '[t]he exercise of political rights, admissions, declarations, the acts of purchasing a home and long-continued residency are circumstances indicative of his intention to abandon his domicile of origin and to establish a new domicile.' Taking into consideration all of these factors, the circuit court did not err in determining that Stone's domicile has existed in Marshall County since October of 2013. (Emphasis supplied and citations omitted)

Petitioner's intention to abandon US
domicile was not negated

The COMELEC First Division and the COMELEC En Banc in SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC) and 15-139 (DC) ruled that the fact that petitioner's husband remained and retained his employment in the US in May 2005 negated her intent to reside permanently in the Philippines. Furthermore, petitioner travelled frequently to the US using her US passport even after she reacquired her Philippine citizenship. According to the COMELEC, these show that she has not abandoned her domicile in the US. Respondent Valdez also points to two houses in the US that petitioner maintains up to the present, and alleges that this fact also negates her alleged intent to reside permanently in the Philippines.

The fact that petitioner's husband was left in the US and retained his employment there should be viewed based on the totality of the circumstances and the reason for such separation. There is no question that the impetus for petitioner to move back to the Philippines was the death of her father in December 2004 and the desire to be back in the Philippines and comfort her grieving mother. There is also no question that by May 2005, petitioner and her children were already living in the Philippines and the children already enrolled in Philippine schools.

Petitioner and her family could not have been expected to uproot their lives completely from the US and finish all arrangements in the span of six months. One of the spouses had to remain in the US to wind up all logistical affairs. There is also no showing that petitioner is able to readily find a job in the Philippines upon their return. Again, one of the spouses has to continue earning a living for the family's upkeep and to finance the heavy cost of relocation. The conjugal decision became clear when it was the husband who kept his employment in the us and came to join his family in the Philippines only after the sale of the house in the US.

To my mind, that petitioner's husband remained in the US until April 2006 only showed that the family endured a period of separation in order to rebuild their family life together in the Philippines. The fact that the husband stayed behind should not have been considered in isolation but contemplated in light of the realities of the situation.

The COMELEC also faults petitioner for travelling to the US "frequently" using her US passport. A closer examination of the factual circumstances at the time, however, reveals that petitioner had a justifiable reason for doing so.

When petitioner came back to the Philippines in May 2005, she was admittedly still a US citizen. She reacquired her Philippine citizenship on 7 July 2006 under the auspices of Republic Act No. 9225 and became a dual citizen of the Philippines and the US. It was only on 20 October 2010 that petitioner renounced her US citizenship and became a pure Filipino citizen. Thus, petitioner was a US citizen from May 2005 to 20 October 2010.

Section 215(b) of the US Immigration and Nationality Act provides that "it shall be unlawful for any citizen of the United States to depart from or enter, or attempt to depart from or enter, the United States unless he bears a valid United States passport." This provision is echoed in Section 53.1 of the US Code of Federal Regulations, unless the US citizen falls under any of the exceptions provided therein.195

Petitioner, as a US citizen, was required by law to use her US passport when travelling to and from the US. Notwithstanding her dual citizenship and the abandonment of her US domicile, she could not have entered or departed from the US if she did not use her US passport.

In Maquiling v. COMELEC, 196 which I penned for the Court, while we ruled that the use of a foreign passport negates the earlier renunciation of such foreign citizenship, did not say, however, that the use of a foreign passport after reacquisition of Philippine citizenship and before the renunciation of the foreign citizenship adversely affects the residency of a candidate for purposes of running in the elections. This case cannot, therefore, be used as basis to negate petitioner's residency. This Maquiling decision involved Rommel Arnado who was elected Mayor of Kauswagan, Lanao del Norte in the 2010 elections. He ran also for the 2013 elections for the same post and won again. The Court affirmed the Maquiling doctrine in the case of Arnado v. COMELEC.197 The doctrine was not expanded in any manner as to affect petitioner's citizenship claim. The Maquiling doctrine solely has to do with the effect of the continued use of a US passport after the renunciation of US citizenship. In the case of petitioner, there is absolutely no evidence, which even COMELEC admits, that she used a US passport after she renounced her US citizenship on 20 October 2010. Clearly, Maquiling and Arnado are not relevant to the petitioner's case until new proof can be adduced contradicting the present state of the evidence on record that petitioner never used her US passport after she renounced her US citizenship.

Taking into account all these pieces of evidence, it cannot be said that petitioner made a false material representation in her 2016 certificate of candidacy for president as far as her residency is concerned. The totality of these circumstances shows that indeed, she had re-established her residence in the Philippines for 10 years and 11 months until the day before the elections in May 2016, which is sufficient to qualify her to run for president in the country. At the very least, it negates a finding of deliberate intention on her part to mislead the electorate with regard to her residency. Evidently, a single statement in her 2013 certificate of candidacy for senator cannot be deemed to overthrow the entirety of the evidence on record, which shows that her residence in the Philippines commenced in May 2005.

IV.
B. ON CITIZENSHIP

In the assailed Resolutions, the COMELEC also declared that petitioner made a false material representation when she declared that she was a natural-born citizen of the Philippines. According to the commission, petitioner's inability to prove her blood relationship to a Filipino parent precluded her from ever claiming natural-born status under the 1935 Constitution. COMELEC argues, therefore, that her declaration as to her citizenship must necessarily be considered false.

I find no support whatsoever for these legal conclusions.

Petitioner did not make a false material
representation regarding her citizenship in
her 2016 Certificate of Candidacy for
president.

Considering that there has been no definitive ruling on the citizenship of foundlings, it would be unreasonable and unfair for the COMELEC to declare that petitioner deliberately misrepresented her status as a natural-born citizen of the Philippines. In fact, the evidence she submitted in support of her claim of citizenship gives us every reason to accept her assertion of good faith.

In any event, I believe that there is sufficient legal basis to sustain a presumption of citizenship in favor of petitioner notwithstanding the absence of any physical proof of her filiation. Her natural-born status can be founded from solid interpretation of the provisions of the Constitution.

There was no deliberate attempt to
mislead, misinform, or hide a fact
that would otherwise render her
ineligible.

Contrary to claims that petitioner committed deliberate misrepresentation when she declared that she is a natural-born Filipino citizen, the following documents support a finding of good faith on her part:

1. Adoption Decree

The adoption decree issued in favor of petitioner in 1974 allows her to legally claim to be the daughter of Ronald Allan Poe and Jesusa Sonora Poe. This proposition finds support in statutes and jurisprudence.

In Republic v. Court of Appeals, We held that upon entry of an adoption decree, the law creates a relationship in which adopted children were declared "born of' their adoptive parents. 198

Congress confirmed this interpretation when it enacted R.A. 8552, which provides that the "adoptee shall be considered the legitimate son/daughter of the adopter for all intents and purposes and as such is entitled to all the rights and obligations provided 1 by law to legitimate sons/daughter born to them without discrimination of any kind."199

Apart from obtaining the status of legitimate children, adoptees are likewise entitled to maintain the strict confidentiality of their adoption proceedings. The provisions of P.D. 603,200 R.A. 85152201 and the Rule on Adoption202 stipulate that all records, books, and papers relating to the adoption cases in the files of the court, the Department of Social Welfare and Development, or any other agency or institution participating in the

adoption proceedings shall be kept strictly confidential. The records are permanently sealed and may be opened only upon the court's determination that the disclosure of information to third parties if "necessary" and "for the best interest of the adoptee."203 This grant of confidentiality would mean very little if an adoptee is required to go beyond this decree to prove her parentage.

2. Certificate of Live Birth

Upon the issuance of an adoption decree, an amended certificate of birth is issued by the civil registrar attesting to the fact that the adoptee is the child of the adopters by being registered with their surname.204 Like all persons, petitioner has the right to rely on this birth certificate for information about her identity, status and filiation.

Article 410 of the Civil Code states that the books making up the civil register and all documents relating thereto are considered public documents and shall be prima facie evidence of the facts therein contained.205 As a public document, a registered certificate of live birth enjoys the presumption of validity.206

Petitioner's birth certificate also has the imprimatur of no less than the Municipal Court of San Juan, Rizal Province.207 In the absence of a categorical pronouncement in an appropriate proceeding that the decree of adoption is void, the birth certificate and the facts stated therein are deemed 1egitimate, genuine and rea1.208

Petitioner thus cannot be faulted for relying on the contents of a public document which enjoys strong presumptions of validity under the law. She is actually obliged to do so because the law does not provide her with any other reference for information regarding her parentage. It must be noted that records evidencing her former foundling status 'have been sealed after the issuance of the decree of adoption. In Baldos v. Court of Appeals and Pillazar, 209 We held that it is not for a person to prove the facts stated in his certificate of live birth, but for those who are assailing the certificate to prove its alleged falsity.

The issuance of an amended certificate without any notation that it is new or amended or issued pursuant to an adoption decree, should not be taken against petitioner, because it merely complies with the confidentiality provisions found in adoption laws.210 Under Section 16 of the Rule on Adoption (A.M. No. 02-6-02-SC, 31 July 2002), it shall be the responsibility of the civil registrar where the foundling was registered to annotate the adoption decree on the foundling certificate, and to prepare and a new birth certificate without any notation that it is a new or amended certificate.

3. Voter's ID

The Voter's ID issued to petitioner likewise prove that she acted in good faith when she asserted that she was a natural-born citizen of the Philippines. Precisely because of the entries in these documents, Poe could not be expected to claim any citizenship other than that of the Philippines. Hence, she could not have committed a material misrepresentation in making this declaration.

4. Philippine Passport

In 1996, R.A. 8239 (Philippine Passport Act of 1996) was passed. The law imposes upon the government the duty to issue passport or any travel document to any citizen of the Philippines or individμal who complies with the requirements of the Act.211 "Passport" has been defined as a document issued by the Philippine government to its citizens and requesting other governments to allow its citizens to pass safely and freely, and in case of need to give him/her all lawful aid and protection.212

Section 5 of R.A. 8239 states that no passport shall be issued to an applicant unless the Secretary or his duly authorized representative is satisfied that the applicant is a Filipino citizen who has complied with the requirements. Conversely, a Philippine passport holder like petitioner is presumed to be a Filipino citizen, considering the presumption of regularity accorded to acts of public officials in the course of their duties. When the claim to Philippine citizenship is doubtful, only a "travel document" is issued.213 A travel document, in lieu of a passport, is issued to stateless persons who are likewise permanent residents, or refugees granted such status or asylum in the Philippines.214 If the State considers foundlings to be anything else but its citizens (stateless persons, for example), it would not have given them passports. However, since the 1950s, the Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) has been issuing passports to foundlings.215 A quick look at the official website216 of the DFA would show an enumeration of supporting documents required of foundlings for the issuance of a Philippine passport; to wit, certificate of foundling authenticated by the Philippine Statistics Authority, clearance from the Department of Social Work and Development (DSWD), passport of the person who found the applicant, and letter of authority or endorsement from DSWD for the issuance of passport. The only conclusion that can be made is that foundlings are considered by the State, or at least by the executive, to be Philippine citizens.

Rule 130, Section 44217 of the Rules of Court has been cited by the Court to support the finding that entries in the passport are presumed true.218 On its face, the Philippine passport issued to Poe on 16 March 2014 indicates her citizenship to be "Filipino." Hence, the COMELEC committed grave abuse of discretion in not even considering this as evidence in determining whether Poe intended to deceive the electorate when she indicated that she was a natural-born Filipino.

5. Bureau of Immigration Order

While findings made by Bureau of Immigration (BI) on the citizenship of petitioner is not conclusive on the COMELEC,219 such negate any notion of bad faith or malice on the part of petitioner when she made the representation in her CoC that she was a natural-born citizen. At the time, the presumption created by the Order was in operation. In effect, petitioner had color of authority to state that she was a natural-born citizen of the Philippines.

It has been argued that petitioner had obtained the BI order only because she misrepresented herself to have been "born ... to Ronald Allan Kelley Poe and Jesusa Sonora Poe."220 However, as previously discussed, the potent policy interests221 embedded in the confidentiality of adoption records fully justifies her decision to write the names of her adoptive parents as indicated in her birth certificate.

6. The Decision of the Senate Electoral Tribunal in SET Case No. 001-05

The SET Decision is a prima facie finding of natural-born citizenship that petitioner can rely on. The fact that the SET Decision was issued later than the filing by petitioner of her CoC for president does not take away from its validity as another tangible basis of petitioner to validly claim that she was a natural-born Filipino. It should be borne in mind that the SET Decision is a determination of petitioner's natural-born status as of the time she was elected and assumed her duties as senator of the Philippines. While the Decision was later in issuance, the application of this ruling by the SET significantly predates the filing of her 2016 certificate of candidacy for president.

Taken together, the enumerated documents provide petitioner with sufficient basis for her claim of citizenship. She cannot be faulted for relying upon these pieces of evidence, particularly considering that at the time she made her declaration that she was a natural-born citizen, the presumption created by these documents has not been overturned.

At any rate, it would be absurd for petitioner to answer "foundling" in every document where her filiation and citizenship is required when her birth certificate and other official documents provide otherwise. Not only would this defeat the purpose of the degree of confidentiality prescribed by the law, she would even run the risk of causing offense to her parents whom she would deprive of actual recognition.

Petitioner's honest belief that she was a natural-born citizen is further shown by her constant assertion of her status and is corroborated by official documents and acts of government issued in her favor. I believe that these documents, at the very least, negate any deliberate intent on her part to mislead the electorate as to her citizenship qualification.

Legal Significance of Confirmation of Renunciation

It had been posited that petitioner's repatriation as a citizen of the Philippines under R.A. 9225 had been rendered doubtful by her subsequent acts in 2011, in particular her execution of an Oath/ Affirmation of Renunciation of Nationality of United States before a Vice Consul of the U.S. Embassy in the Philippines;222 her completion of a Questionnaire on Information for Determining Possible Loss of U.S. Citizenship;223 and the issuance of a Confirmation of Loss of Nationality of the United States.224

Suffice it to state that these documents were; executed by petitioner only for the purpose of complying with the requirements of U.S. law. It had no relevance to petitioner's reacquisition of citizenship under Philippine law. The fact remains that she had already properly renounced her U.S. citizenship by executing the Affidavit of Renunciation required in Section 5 of R.A. 9225. Any act done thereafter served only to confirm this earlier renunciation of foreign citizenship.

Respondent validly presumed that
she is a citizen of the Philippines.

The failure of the COMELEC to properly appreciate evidence showing good faith on the part of petitioner is compounded by its narrow-minded approach to the question of citizenship. There is sufficient basis to support the presumption that foundlings are citizens of the Philippines.

Although the citizenship of foundlings is not expressly addressed by the language of Article IV of the Constitution, Philippine statutes, administrative regulations and jurisprudence support this conclusion, even in light of the absence of physical proof to establish foundlings filiation.

Moreover, a presumption of foundlings their natural-born status can be established by the deliberations of the 1935 Constitution and the history of its provisions. These legal authorities and materials serve as sufficient justification for any foundlings good faith belief that she is a natural-born citizen.

The standard proposed by the COMELEC - physical proof of blood relation to a parent who is a citizen of the Philippines - is an impossible, oppressive and discriminatory condition. To allow the imposition of this unjust and unreasonable requirement is to sanction a violation of the Constitution and our obligations under existing international law.

In Philippine law, a foundling refers to a deserted or abandoned infant; or a child whose parents, guardian, or relatives are unknown; or a child committed to an orphanage or charitable or similar institution with unknown facts of birth and parentage, and registered as such in the Civil Register.225

The ruling of the COMELEC is premised solely on the admitted fact that petitioner is a foundling. As explained in the assailed Resolutions, petitioner was found abandoned in the parish church of Jaro, Iloilo, on 3 September 1968 by a certain Edgardo Militar. She was later on legally adopted by Ronald Allan Poe and Jesusa Sonora Poe. To date, however, her biological parents are unknown.

According to the COMELEC, these circumstances render the citizenship of petitioner questionable. It claims that I since she is unable to establish the identities of her parents, she is likewise incapable of proving that she is related by blood to a Filipino parent. Accordingly, she cannot be considered a natural-born Filipino citizen. These arguments are unmeritorious.

Filiation as a matter of legal fiction

Under Philippine law, the parentage of a child is a matter of legal fiction. Its determination relies not on physical proof, but on legal presumptions and circumstantial evidence. For instance, a child is disputably or conclusively presumed legitimate, i.e. born of two married individuals depending on the period that elapsed between the birth of that child and the ce1ebration226 or termination227 of the spouses' marriage. The presumption of the fact of legitimacy is one of the strongest known to the law, and cannot be overthrown except by stronger evidence.228 As the Court explained in Rodolfo A. Aguilar v. Edna G. Siasat: 229

"There is perhaps no presumption of the law more firmly established and founded on sounder morality and more convincing reason than the presumption that children born in wedlock are legitimate. This presumption indeed becomes conclusive in the absence of proof that there is physical impossibility of access between the spouses during the first 120 days of the 300 days which immediately precedes the birth of the child due to (a) the physical incapacity of the husband to have sexual intercourse with his wife; (b) the fact that the husband and wife are living separately in such a way that sexual intercourse is not possible; or (c) serious illness of the husband, which absolutely prevents sexual intercourse. Quite remarkably, upon the expiration of the periods set forth in Article 170, and in proper cases Article 171, of the Family Code (which took effect on 03 August 1988), the action to impugn the legitimacy of a child would no longer be legally feasible and the status conferred by the presumption becomes fixed and unassailable. (Emphases supplied)

The Family Code also allows paternity and filiation to be established through any of the following methods: (1) record of birth; (2) written admission of filiation; (3) open and continuous possdssion of the status of a legitimate or an illegitimate child; (4) or other means allowed by the Rules or special laws.230 Notably, none of these methods requires physical proof of parentage:

(a) The entries in a record of birth depend only on the statements of certain persons identified by law: in general, administrator of the hospital, or in absence thereof, either of the following: the physician/nurse/midwife/hilot who attended the birth. In default of both, either or both parents shall cause the registration of the birth; and if the birth occurs in a vessel/vehicle/airplane while in transit, registration shall be the joint responsibility of the driver/captain/pilot and the parents.231

(b) Filiation may also be proved by an admission of legitimate filiation in a public document or a private handwritten instrument and signed by the parent concerned. In Aguilar, the Court declared that such due recognition in any authentic writing is, in itself, a consummated act of acknowledgment of the child and requires no further court action.232

(c) With respect to open and continuous possession of the status of children and other means allowed by the Rules of Court, the relevant sections of Rule 130 provide:

SEC. 39. Act or declaration about pedigree. - The act or declaration of a person deceased, or unable to testify, in respect to the pedigree of another person related to him by birth or marriage, may be received in evidence where it occurred before the controversy, and the relationship between the two persons is shown by evidence other than such act or declaration. The word "pedigree" includes relationship, family genealogy, birth, marriage, death, the dates when and the places where these facts occurred, and the names of the relatives. It embraces also facts of family history intimately connected with pedigree.

SEC. 40. Family reputation or tradition regarding pedigree. - The reputation or tradition existing in a family previous to the controversy, in respect to the pedigree of any one of its members, may be received in evidence if the witness testifying thereon be also a member of the family, either by consanguinity or affinity. Entries in family bibles or other family books or charts, engraving on rings, family portraits and the like, may be received as evidence of pedigree.

Evidently, there is no legal basis for the standard proposed by the COMELEC and private respondents. Physical or scientific proof of a blood relationship to a putative parent is not required by law to establish filiation or any status arising therefrom such as citizenship. In fact, this Court has repeatedly emphasized that DNA evidence is not absolutely essential so long as paternity or filiation may be established by other proof.233 There is, therefore, no reason to impose this undue burden on petitioner, particularly in light of her situation as a foundling. Instead of requiring foundlings to produce evidence of their filiation - a nearly impossible condition - administrative agencies, the courts and even Congress have instead proceeded on the assumption that these children are citizens of the Philippines.

Contemporaneous and subsequent
construction by the legislature, executive
and judicial branches of government

Although the details of their births cannot be established, foundlings are provided legal protection by the state through statutes, rules, issuances and judicial decisions allowing their adoption. As early as 1901, the Code of Civil Procedure234 recognized that children whose parents are unknown have a right to be adopted. Failure to identify the parents of the child was not made an obstacle to adoption; instead, the rules allowed a legal guardian, or the trustees/directors of an orphan asylum, to grant t, e required consent on behalf of the unknown parents. Similar provisions were included in the subsequent revisions of the Rules of Court in 1940235 and 1964.236

Early statutes also specifically allowed the adoption of foundlings. Act No. 1670 was enacted precisely to provide for the adoption of poor children who were in the custody of asylums and other institutions. These children included orphans or "any other child so maintained therein whose parents are unknown":237

SECTION 548. Adoption of child from institution for poor children. - Upon the application of any person to the competent authorities of any asylum or institution where the poor children are maintained at public expense to adopt any child so maintained therein, it shall be the duty of such authorities, with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, to report the fact to the provincial fiscal, or in the City of Manila to the fiscal of the city, and such official shall thereupon prepare the necessary adoption papers and present the matter to the proper court. The costs of such proceeding, in court shall be de oficio.

The provisions of Act No. 1670 were substantially included in the Administrative Code of 1916238 and in the Revised Administrative Code of 1911.239

In 1995, Congress enacted Republic Act No. 8043 to establish the rules governing the "Inter-country Adoption of Filipino Children." The adoption of a foundling was similarly recognized under Section 8 of the statute, which allowed the submission of a foundling certificate to facilitate the inter-country adoption of a child.240 A few years later or in 1998, the law on "Domestic Adoption of Filipino Children" was amended through R.A. 8552. This time, a specific provision was included to govern the registration of foundlings for purposes of adoption:

SECTION 5. Location of Unknown Parent(s). - It shall be the duty of the Department or the child-placing or child-caring agency which has custody of the child to exert all efforts to locate his/her unknown biological parent(s). If such efforts fail, the child shall be registered as a foundling and subsequently be the subject of legal proceedings where he/she shall be declared abandoned.

In 2009, Congress passed R.A. 9523,241 which allowed the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to declare a child "legally available for adoption" as a prerequisite for adoption proceedings. Under this statute, foundlings were included in the definition of abandoned children242 and expressly allowed to be adopted, provided they were first declared by the DSWD as available for adoption.243 Administrative Order No. 011-09 was adopted by that department in 2009 to implement the statute.244

These enactments and issuances on adoption are significant, because they effectively recognize foundlings as citizens of the Philippines. It must be emphasized that jurisdiction over adoption cases is determined by the citizenship of the adopter and the adoptee. As explained by this Court in Spouses Ellis v. Republic,245 the Philippine Civil Code adheres to the theory that jurisdiction over the status of a natural person is determined by the latter's nationality. This 1uling cites Article 15 of the Civil Code:

ARTICLE 15. Laws relating to family rights and duties, or to the status, condition and legal capacity of persons are binding upon citizens of the Philippines, even though living abroad.

The citizenship of a person is a "status" governed by this provision is clear, pursuant to our ruling in Board of Immigration Commissioners v. Callano. 246 In that case, We applied the nationality rule in Article 15 to determine whether some individuals had lost their Philippine citizenship:

"The question, whether petitioners who are admittedly Filipino citizens at birth subsequently acquired Chinese citizenship under the Chinese Law of Nationality by reason of recognition or a prolonged stay in China, is a fit subject for the Chinese law and the Chinese court to determine, which cannot be resolved by a Philippine court without encroaching on the legal system of China. For, the settled rule of international law, affirmed by the Hague Convention on Conflict of Nationality Laws of April 12, 1930 and by the International Court of Justice, is that." Any question as to whether a person possesses the nationality of a particular state should be determined in accordance with the laws of that state." (quoted in Salonga, Private International Law, 1957 Ed., p. l 12) There was no necessity of deciding that question because so far as concern the petitioners' status, the only question in this proceeding is: Did the petitioners lose their Philippine citizenship upon the performance of certain acts or the happening of certain events in China? In deciding this question no foreign law can be applied. The petitioners are admittedly Filipino citizens at birth, and their status must be governed by Philippine law wherever they may be, in conformity with Article 15 (formerly Article 9) of the Civil Code which provides as follows: "Laws relating to family rights and duties, or to the status, conditions and legal capacity of persons are binding upon citizens of the Philippines, even though living abroad." Under Article IV, Section 2, of the Philippine Constitution, "Philippine citizenship. may be lost or reacquired m the manner provided by law," which implies that the question of whether a Filipino has lost his Philippine citizenship shall be determined by no other than the Philippine law. (Emphasis supplied)

Ellis also discredits the assertion that this Court has no power to determine the citizenship of a foundling based only on presumptions. In that case, an infant named Baby Rose was abandoned at the Heart of Mary Villa, an institution for unwed mothers. When an American couple, the Spouses Ellis, later sought to adopt Baby Rose, the Supreme Court presumed the citizenship of the infant for purposes of adoption:

"In this connection, it should be noted that this is a proceedings in rem, which no court may entertain unless it has jurisdiction, not only over the subject matter of the case an4 over the parties, but also over the res, which is the personal status of Baby Rose as well as that of petitioners herein. Our Civil Code (Art. 15) adheres to the theory that jurisdiction over the status of a natural person is determined by the latters' nationality. Pursuant to this theory, we have jurisdiction over the status of Baby Rose, she being a citizen of the Philippines, but not over the status of the petitioners, who are foreigners. Under our political law, which is patterned after the Anglo-American legal system, we have, likewise, adopted the latter's view to the effect that personal status, in general, is determined by and/ or subject to the jurisdiction of the domiciliary law (Restatement of the Law of Conflict of Laws, p. 86; The Conflict of Laws by Beale, Vol. I, p. 305, Vol. II, pp. 713-714). This, perhaps, is the reason why our Civil Code does not permit adoption by nonresident aliens, and we have consistently refused to recognize the validity of foreign decrees of divorce - regardless of the grounds upon which the same are based - involving citizens of the Philippines who are not bona fide residents of the forum, even when our laws authorized absolute divorce in the Philippines. (citations omitted and emphasis supplied)

In the 1976 case Duncan v. CFI of Rizal, 247 the Court again presumed the Philippine citizenship of a foundling for purposes of adoption. Notwithstanding the refusal of the de facto guardian o reveal the identity of the child's mother, the adoption of the abandoned child was allowed in order to prevent a "cruel sanction on an innocent child":

Having declared that the child was an abandoned one by an unknown parent, there appears to be no m re legal need to require the written consent of such parent o the child to the adoption. xxx.

The trial court in its decision had sought refuse in the ancient Roman legal maxim "Dura lexsedlex" to cleanse its hands of the hard and harsh decision it rendered. While this old adage generally finds apt application in many other legal cases, in adoption of children, however, this should be softened so as to apply the law with less severity and with compassion and humane understanding, for adoption is more or the benefit of unfortunate children, particularly those born out of wedlock, than for those born with a silver spoon in their mouths. All efforts or acts designed to provide homes, love, care and education for unfortunate children, who otherwise may grow from cynical street urchins to hardened criminal offenders and become serious social problems, should be given the widest latitude of sympathy, encouragement and assistance. The law is not, and should not be made, an instrument to impede the achievement of a salutary humane policy As often as is legally and lawfully possible, their texts and intendments should be construed so as to give all the chances for human life to exist - with a modicum promise f a useful and constructive existence.

. . . If we are now to sustain the decision of the court below, this Tribunal will be doing a graver injustice to all concerned particularly to said spouses, and worse, it will be imposing a cruel sanction on this innocent child and on all other children who might be similarly situated. We consider it to be justifiable and more humane to formalize a factual relation, that of parents and son, existing between the herein petitioning spouses and the minor child baptized by them as Colin Berry Christensen Duncan, than to sustain the hard, harsh and cruel interpretation of he law that was done by the private respondent court and Judge. It is Our view that it is in consonance with the rue spirit and purpose of the law, and with the policy of the State, to uphold, encourage and give life and meaning to the existence of family relations.

Although the citizenship of the child in Duncan was not elaborated upon, the Court proceeded to assume jurisdiction over the adoption proceedings. From this act, it may be inferred that the Court presumed that the child was a Philippine citizen whose status m y be determined by a Philippine court pursuant to Article 15 of the Civil Code.

The foregoing enactments and decisions prove the contemporaneous and subsequent interpretation of the Constitution b the three branches of government. It is evident that Congress, certain administrative agencies and even the courts have always proceeded on the assumption that these children are Filipino citizens in the absence of evidence to the contrary.

The assertion that citizenship cannot be made to rest upon a presumption is contradicted by the previous pronouncements of this Court. In Board of Commissioners et. al v. Dela Rosa, 248the Court utilized a presumption of citizenship in favor of respondent William Gatchalian on the basis of an Order of the Bureau of Immigration admitting him as a Filipino citizen.

On March 15, 1973, then Acting Commissioner Nituda issued an Order (Annex "6", counter-petition which affirmed the Board of Special Inquiry No. 1 decision dated July 6, 1961 admitting respondent Gatchalian and others as Filipino citizens; recalled the July 6, 1962 warrant of arrest an revalidated their Identification Certificates.

The above order admitting respondent as a Filipino citizen is the last official act of the government on the basis of which respondent William Gatchalian continually exercised the rights of a Filipino citizen to the present. Consequently, the presumption of citizenship lies in favor of respondent William Gatchalian.

In 2004, a presumption was likewise made y this Court to resolve issues involving the citizenship of presidential candidate Fernando Poe, Jr. in Tecson v. COMELEC.249 In particular, the presumption that Poe's grandfather had been a resident of San Carlos, Pangasinan, from 1898 to 1902, entitled him to benefit from the en masse Filipinization effected by the Philippine Bill of 1902. We explained:

The death certificate of Lorenzo Pou would indicate that he died on 11 September 1954, at the age of 84 years, in San Carlos, Pangasinan. It could thus be assumed that Lorenzo Pou was born sometime in the year 1870 when the Philippines was still a colony of Spain. Petitioner would argue that Lorenzo Pou was not in the Philippine during the crucial period of from 1898 to 1902 considering that there was no existing record about such fact in the Records Management an Archives Office. Petitioner, however, likewise failed to show that Lorenzo Pou was at any other place during the same period. In his death certificate, the residence of Lorenzo Pou was stated to be San Carlos, Pangasinan. In the absence of any evidence to the contrary, it should be sound to conclude, or at least to presume, that the place of residence of a person at the time of his death was also his residence before death. It would be extremely doubtful if the Records Management and Archives Of ice would have had complete records of all residents of the Philippines from 1898 to 1902.

x x x x

(3) In ascertaining, in G.R. No. 161824, whether grave abuse of discretion has been committed by the COMELEC, it is necessary to take on the matter of whether or not private respondent FPJ is a natural-born citizen, which, in turn, depended on whether or not the father of private respondent, Allan F. Poe, would have himself been a Filipino citizen and, in the affirmative, whether or not the alleged illegitimacy of private respondent prevents him from taking after the Filipino citizenship of his putative father. Any conclusion on the Filipino citizenship of Lorenzo Pou could only be drawn from the presumption that having died in 1954 at 84 years old, Lorenzo would have been ho n sometime in the year 1870, when the Philippines was under Spanish rule, and that San Carlos, Pangasinan, his place of residence upon his death in 1954, in the absence of any other evidence, could have well been his place of residence before death, such that Lorenzo Pou would have benefited from the en masse Filipinization that the Philippine Bill had effected in 1902. That citizenship (of Lorenzo Pou), if acquired, would thereby extend to his son, Allan F. Poe, father of private respondent FPJ. The 1935 Constitution, during which regime private respondent FPJ has seen first light, confers citizenship to all persons whose fathers e Filipino citizens regardless of whether such children are legitimate or illegitimate. (Emphasis supplied)

It is reasonable to presume that petitioner is a Filipino citizen, considering that she was found abandoned in Iloilo at a time when the number of children born to foreigners in the country as but a small fraction of the total number of births in the Philippines.250 without evidence to the contrary, this presumption must stand in accordance with the rules on evidence.

The Place of Probability in the Rule of Law

Obedience to the rule of law is the bedrock of the Philippine justice system.251 In order to expound and define the true meaning and operation of these laws, they must first be ascertained by judicial determination, and in order "to produce uniformity in these determinations, they ought to be submitted, in the last resort, to one supreme tribunal xxx authorized to settle and declare in the last resort a uniform rule f civil justice."252

The rules of evidence, authorized by the Constitution, is a means by which uniformity is instituted in the judicial system whether in courts of law or administrative agencies granted quasi-adjudicatory power. These rules govern the means of ascertaining the truth respecting a matter of fact.253

It must be emphasized that ascertaining evidence does not entail absolute certainty. Under Rule 128 of the Rules of Court, evidence must only induce belief in the existence of a fact in issue, thus:

Section 4. Relevancy; collateral matters. - Evidence must have such a relation to the fact in issue as to induce belief in its existence or nonexistence. Evidence on collateral matters shall not be allowed, except when it tends in any reasonable degree to establish the probability or improbability of the fact in issue. (Emphasis supplied)

Hence, judges are not precluded from drawing conclusions from inferences based on established facts. In the case of Joaquin v. Navarro, 254 the Court proceeded to discuss this process:255

In speaking of inference the rule can not mean beyond doubt, for "inference is never certainty, but it may be plain enough to justify a finding of fact."

x x x x

"Juries must often reason," says one author, "according to probabilities, drawing an inference that the main fact in issue existed from collateral facts not directly proving, but strongly tending to prove, its existence. The vital question in such cases is the cogency of the proof afforded by the secondary facts. How likely, according to experience, is the existence of the primary fact if certain secondary facts exist?" The same author tells us of a case where "a jury was justified in drawing the inference that the person who was caught firing a shot at an animal trespassing on his land was the person who fired a shot about an hour before at the same animal also trespassing." That In fact, the circumstances in the illustration leave greater room for another possibility than do the facts of the case at hand.256 (Emphasis supplied and citations omitted)

This is enshrined in established legal doctrines, including that of probable cause for preliminary investigation,257 probable cause for issuance of a warrant of arrest,258 substantial evidence,259 preponderance of evidence,260 and character evidence.261

Jurisprudence is replete with cases decided on the basis of probability. For example, the Court affirmed an award of work-related compensation to an employee who contracted rectal cancer based on a probability, stating thus:

The degree of proof required to establish work connection between the disabling ailment and the working conditions is merely substantial evidence, or "such relevant evidence as a reasonable mind might accept as adequate to support a conclusion" Probability not certainty is the touchstone in testing evidence of work-connection. 262 (Emphasis in the original and citations omitted).

In criminal cases, it has also been ruled that "extrajudicial confessions, independently made without collusion, which are identical with each other in their essential details and are corroborated by other evidence on record, are admissible as circumstantial evidence against the person implicated to show the probability of the latter's actual participation in the commission of the crime."263

Note that the two cases cited pertain to different quantum of evidence (substantial for administrative and beyond reasonable doubt for criminal), but both have relied upon probabilities to rule upon n issue. In that sense, it can be concluded that probabilities are considered s essential elements of the judicial determination of relevant evidence.

While it is true that administrative or quasi-judicial bodies are not bound by the technical rules of procedure in the adjudication of cases, this procedural rule should not be construed as a lice se to disregard certain fundamental evidentiary rules.264 In the instant case COMELEC refused to consider evidence that tends to "establish the probability of a fact in issue," which in this case pertains to petitioner's citizenship, claiming that it "did not and could not show bloodline to a Filipino pare t as required under jus sanguinis."265 This, to my mind, constitutes gross misappreciation of the facts.

First and foremost, it is admitted that petitioner has typical Filipino features, with her brown eyes, low nasal bridge, black hair, oval-shaped face and height. This by itself, does not evince belief that as to her definite citizenship, but coupled with other circumstantial evidence-that she was abandoned as an infant, that the population of Iloilo in 1968 was Filipino266 and there were not international airports in Iloilo a that time-establishes the probability the she was born of Filipino parents.

Such probability is further enhanced by the statistics obtained from the Philippine Statistics Authority, showing that 10,558,278 children (99.03%) were born to Filipino parents while 15,98 (0.07%) were born to foreigners in the Philippines from 1965 to 1975.267 Considering that the e1ection cases require a mere preponderance of evidence,268 then it can be reasonably concluded that petitioner has fulfilled the requirements of citizenship under the law. In the words of Justice Tuazon in Joaquin, this conclusion is not airtight but rational; never certain but plain enough to justify a fact.

The rationale for implementing this policy is simple - to require abandoned children to prove their parentage or status before they are granted protection would compound their already dire predicament. That requirement would render these unfortunate children even more vulnerable, in contravention of the declared policy of the State to "defend the right of children to assistance, including proper care an nutrition, and special protection from all forms of neglect, abuse, cruelty exploitation, and other conditions prejudicial to their development."269

Respondent may he considered a natural-born
citizen under the 1935 Constitution.

Having established that foundlings may be presumed citizens of the Philippines, the question now turns to whether they may be considered natural-born. I believe that this issue may be resolved by utilizing both an originalist and a functionalist approach to the interpretation of the Constitution.

Originalist v. Functionalist Interpretation

In its Memorandum, the COMELEC asserted that foundlings cannot be considered natural-born citizens in light of the principle of inclusion unius est exclusion alterius.270 This line of reasoning stems from an originalist reading of the Constitution, which is anchored on the principle that constitutional issues are to be resolved by looking only at the text of the Constitution and at the clear intent of the framers.271 Intentionalism is a species of originalism. Another species is textualism, which has been described as "that [which] looks to the Constitution's original public meaning,"272 or "read[s] the language of the Constitution as the man on the street would understand it."273

It is a fallacy, however, to assert that there is only one - originalist/textualist - approach to interpret the Constitution. There are many approaches to constitutional interpretation, sub-classified into a) originalism v. non-originalism, and b) formalism v. functionalism, among others. In his commentary on the Philippine Constitution, Bernas enumerated and described at least five modes of constitutional interpretation, i.e. historical approach,274 structural approach,275 doctrinal approach,276 ethical approach,277 and prudential approach.278

In legal scholarship, the functionalist approach appears to be defined most clearly by what it is not - it is not formalism.279 William Eskridge, a member of the Yale Law School faculty wrote a paper entitled "Relationships between Formalism and Functionalism in Separation of Powers Cases" in which he distinguished formalism from functionalism:

There are no fewer than three different ways that constitutional formalism and functionalism can be contrasted. One is their apparently different approach to legal rules and standards. Formalism might be associated with bright-line rules that seek to place determinate, readily enforceable limits on public actors. Functionalism, at least as an antipode, might be associated with standards or balancing tests that seek to provide publi9 actors with greater flexibility.

Another way of contrasting formalism and functionalism focuses on the reasoning process by which we reach rules or standards. Formalism might be understood as deduction from authoritative constitutional text, structure, original intent, or all three working together. Functionalism might be understood as induction from constitutional policy and practice, with practice typically being examined over time. Formalist reasoning promises stability and continuity of analysis over time; functionalist reasoning promises adaptability and evolution.

Finally and relatedly, formalism and functionalism could be contrasted as emphasizing different goals for law. Formalism might be understood as giving priority to rule of law values such as transparency, predictability, and continuity in law. Functionalism, in turn, might be understood as emphasizing pragmatic values like adaptability, efficacy, and justice in law.280

I emphasize that this Court has utilized different approaches to interpreting the Constitution. It is not mandated to fake only an originalist view of the fundamental law. On the contrary: the Court, through Justice Jose P. Laurel, considered the 1935 Constitution to be a "living constitution.281 This concept is said to have originated from Missouri v. Holland282 penned by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes:

When we are dealing with words that also are a constituent act, like the Constitution of the United States, we must realize that they have called into life a being the development of which could not have been foreseen completely by the most gifted of its begetters. It was enough for them to realize or to hope that they had created an organism; it has taken a century and has cost their successors much sweat and blood to prove that they created a nation. (Emphasis supplied)

Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist, in his Notion of Living Constitution, 283 ventured to say that the framers purposely couched the United States Constitution in general terms:

The framers of the Constitution wisely spoke in general language and left to succeeding generations the task of applying that language to the unceasingly changing environment in which they would live. Those who framed, adopted, and ratified the Civil War amendments to the Constitution likewise used what have been aptly described as "majestic generalities" in composing the fourteenth amendment. Merely because a particular activity may not have existed when the Constitution was adopted, or because the framers could not have conceived of a particular method of transacting affairs, cannot mean that general language in the Constitution may not be applied to such a course of conduct. Where the framers of the Constitution have used general language, they have given latitude to those who would later interpret the instrument to make that language applicable to cases that the framers might not have foreseen. (Emphasis Supplied)

Theorists utilizing the functionalist approach have likened Constitutions to animate beings that can evolve to the extent that they become hardly recognizable by their framers. In other words, they believe that the Constitution may be interpreted in a manner that goes beyond the original intent of the persons who crafted the text.

In this case, the use of both the originalist and the functionalist approaches leads to the same result - that petitioner pad sufficient reason to believe that she is a natural-born citizen despite the admitted fact that she was a foundling.

The Originalist Approach:
Interpretation in accordance with the
intent of the framers

Respondents urge the Court to resolve the citizenship issue in this case by using the originalist approach, i.e. to make an interpretation based primarily on an examination of the text and the original intent of the framers of the 1935 Constitution. They posit that there was no intent on the part of the delegates to the 1934 Constitutional Convention to consider foundlings as natural-born citizens, "for had it been so, the text of the provision would have explicitly stated it."284 In thy opinion, this is a simplistic reading of the Constitution that disregards the intent of the framers.

Where the terms of the Constitution itself do not reveal the intent of the framers and the rest of the people, extrinsic aids may be resorted to, even when using an originalist approach. The answer may be provided by the debates or proceedings in the Constitutioqal Convention, the contemporaneous legislative or executive construction, history, and the effects resulting from the construction contemplated285 Here, the records of the 1934 Constitutional Convention prove that the framers intended to accord natural-born citizenship to foundlings.

It has been argued that the non-inclusion of a provision on "natural children of a foreign father and a Filipino mother not recognized by the father" negates the intent to consider foundlings natural-born citizens (or even merely citizens). However, the Court cannot infer the absence of intent to include foundlings based on that fact alone. Indeed, the transcript of the deliberations during the 1934 Constitutional Convention shows why it was decided that foundlings were not to be expressly mentioned in Section 1, Article IV of the 1935 Constitution:

Sr. Rafols: For an amendment, I propose that after1 subsection 2, the following is inserted: 'The natural children of a foreign father and a Filipino mother not recognized by the father.'

El Presidente: We would like to request a clarification from the proponent of the amendment. The gentleman refers to natural children or to any kind of illegitimate children?

Sr. Rafols: To all kinds of illegitimate children. It also includes natural children of unknown parentage, natural or illegitimate children of unknown parents.

Sr. Montinola: For clarification. The gentleman said 'of unknown parents.' Current codes consider them Filipino, that is, I refer to the Spanish Code wherein all children of unknown parentage born in Spanish territory are considered Spaniards, because the presumption is that ~ child of unknown parentage is the son of a Spaniard. This may be applied in the Philippines in that a child of unknown parentage born in the Philippines is deemed to be Filipino, and there is no need...

Sr. Rafols: There is a need, because we are relating the conditions that are [required] to be Filipino.

Sr. Montinola: But that is the interpretation of the law, therefore, there is no need for the amendment.

Sr. Rafols: The amendment should read thus: 'Natural or illegitimate of a foreign father and a Filipino mother recognized by one, or the children of unknown parentage.'

Sr. Briones: The amendment [should] mean children born in the Philippines of unknown parentage.

Sr. Rafols: The son of a Filipina to a foreigner, although this [person] does not recognize the child, is not unknown.

El Presidente: Does the gentleman accept the amendment or not?

Sr. Rafols: I do not accept the amendment because the amendment would exclude the children of a Filipina with a foreigner who does not recognize the child. Their parentage is not unknown and I think those children of overseas Filipino mother and father [whom the latter] does not recognize, should also be considered as Filipinos.

El Presidente: The question in order is the amendment to the amendment from the gentleman from Cebu, Mr. Briones. :

Mr. Bulson: Mr. President, don't you think it would be better to leave this matter in the hands of the Legislature? :

Sr. Roxas: Mr. President, my humble opinion is that these cases are few and far between, that the constitution need [not] refer to them. By international law the principle that children or people born in a country of unknown parents are citizens in this nation is recognized, and it is not necessary to include a provision on the subject exhaustively.

The delegates appeared to have been convince4 that there was no need to include a binding provision on the subject for the1 following reasons: the Spanish Civil Code already recognizes foundlings were born of Spanish citizens, and were thus Spanish (Sr. Montinola); that the citizenship of foundlings could be determined by Congress (Sr. Buslon); that the cases were so few and far between that the Constitution did not need to refer to them (Sr. Roxas); or international law already recognized children or people born in a country of unknown parents as citizens of that country (Sr. Roxas).

For these reasons, they believed that it was no long1er necessary to include foundlings among those to be expressly enumerated in the 1935 Constitution. The record is bereft of any proposal by any delegate to deny foundlings Filipino citizenship. It would even appear that those delegates who spoke could not imagine any other interpretation than that foundlings are to be considered Filipinos.

The textual silence on foundlings in Article IV, Section 1 is consistent with the principle that a good Constitution is brief, comprehensive, and definite.286 The majority287 of the delegates, being lawyers, must have subscribed to the accepted principle that the Constitution is unavoidably required to be couched in general language:

It did not suit the purposes of the people, in framing this great charter of our liberties, to provide for minute specifications of its powers or to declare the means by which those powers should be carried into execution. It was foreseen that this would be a perilous and difficult, if not an impracticable, task. The instrument was not intended to provide merely for the exigencies of a few years, but was to endure through a long lapse of ages, the events of which were locked up in the ins¢rutable purposes of Providence. It could not be foreseen what new changes and modifications of power might be indispensable to effectuate the general objects of the charter, and restrictions and specifications which at the present might seem salutary might in the end prove the overthrow of the system itself. Hence its powers are expressed in general terms, leaving to the legislature from time to time to adopt its own means to effectuate legitimate objects and to mould and model the exercise of its powers as its own wisdom and the public interests, should require.288

The understanding that the Constitution must be brief even as it is broad is evident in Sr. Roxas' statement during the deliberations that cases of children born of unknown parentage were so "few kind far in between, that the constitution need not refer to them." Notably, no one raised a comment or an objection in response to Delegate Roxas' remark. The framers might have also accepted, regardless of its veracity, that international law regards foundlings as citizens of the country where they were found. They may have believed, as a matter of fact, that current codes already considered children of unknown parents as Filipinos.

What is clear from the deliberations is that the framers could not have intended to place foundlings in limbo, as the social justice principle embodied in Section 5, Article II of the 1935 Constitution indiscriminately covered "all of the people." Social justice has been defined as "the humanization of laws and the equalization of social and economic forces by the State so that justice in its rational and objectively secular conception may at least be approximated."289 It means the promotion of the welfare of all the people.290 It is founded on the recognition of the necessity of interdependence among diverse units of a society and of the protection that should be equally and evenly extended to all groups as a combined force in our social and economic life. This recognition is consistent with the state's fundamental and paramount objective of promoting the health, comfort, and quiet of all persons and bringing about the greatest good to the greatest number.291

The Functionalist Approach:
Interpretation consistent with natural
justice

The issue of citizenship may also be resolved using the functional approach to constitutional interpretation. Under this method, the Court should adopt an interpretation that would allow the Constitution to fulfill its purpose.

Taking historical considerations into account, it is beyond cavil that the Constitution would not function as envisioned if we give judicial imprimatur to the COMELEC's argument. It claims that the 1935 Constitution, as well as the 1973 and 1987 constitutions, excluded foundlings from being citizens merely on the ground that they could not establish a blood relationship with a Filipino father. This interpretation would likewise go against the fundamental principle of natural justice.

Mixture of jus soli and jus sanguinis

The history of citizenship laws in the Philippines shows that we have never adopted a purely jus sanguinis regime. Ours is a mixture of elements of jus soli andjus sanguinis, which we inherited from the Americans and the Spaniards, respectively. In fact, as will be elaborated in the succeeding section, the concept of "natural-born citizenship" originated from a jus soli jurisdiction.

The COMELEC however, opines that only those whose fathers are citizens of the Philippines are considered natural-born citizens under the 1935 Constitution.292 Citing Valles v. Comelec, 293 it argues that natural-born Philippine citizenship is acquired at the moment of birth on the basis of blood relationship.294This is a gross misreading of the case. The Court in Valles did say that the principle of jus sanguinis, which confers citizenship by virtue of blood relationship, was subsequently retained under the 1973 and 1987 Constitutions; however, the Court never stated that jus sanguinis had ever been the exclusive regime in this jurisdiction. On the contrary, Rosalind Lopez's father, from whom she derived her Philippine citizenship, was considered by the Court as a Philippine citizen based on his birth in Daet, Camarines Norte, in 1879, a jus soli application: of citizenship rules.

Far from adhering to an exclusively }us sanguinis regime, at least four modes of acquiring citizenship have operated in the: Philippine jurisdiction since the turn of the century: jus soli, jus sanguinis, res judicata and naturalization. Jus soli used to predominate but upon the effectivity of the 1935 Constitution,jus sanguinis became the predominating regime.295

Citizenship prior to the 1935 Constitution

The first Civil Code adopted in the Philippines was the Spanish Civil Code,296 which became effective on 18 December 1889. It enumerated who were Spaniards:

Article 17. The following are Spaniards:

(a) Persons born in Spanish territory,

(b) Children of a Spanish father or mother, even if they were born outside of Spain,

(c) Foreigners who have obtained naturalization papers,

(d) Those who, without such papers, may have become domiciled inhabitants of any town of the Monarchy. (Emphasis supplied)

On 21 January 1899, the Malolos Constitution, which was framed by the national assembly of the first Philippine Republic, was promulgated. All persons born in the Philippine territory were considered as Filipinos:

Article 6. The following are Filipinos:

1. All persons born in the Philippine territory. A vessel of Philippine registry is considered, for this purpose, as part of Philippine territory.

2. Children of a Filipino father or mother, although born outside of the Philippines.

3. Foreigners who have obtained certification of naturalization.

4. Those who, without such certificate, have acquired a domicile in any town within Philippine territory.

It is understood that domicile is acquired by uninterrupted residence for two years in any locality within Philippine territory, with an open abode and known occupation, and contributing to all the taxes imposed by the Nation.

The condition of being a Filipino is lost in accordance with law. (Emphasis supplied)

The Malolos Constitution was short-lived and was in force only in the places were the first Philippine Republic had control On 11 April 1899, the Treaty of Paris between Spain and America took effect. Justice Jose C. Vitug, in Tecson v. Comelec297 implied that between 10 December 1898 when the parties entered into the treaty and 11 April 1899, when it took effect, Spanish civil law remained intact.298

The term "citizens of the Philippine Islands" was introduced a few years later through Section 4 of the Philippine Bill of 1902:

Section 4. That all inhabitants of the Philippine Islands continuing to reside therein who were Spanish subjects on the eleventh clay of April, eighteen hundred and ninety-nine, and then resided in said Philippine Islands, and their children born subsequent thereto, shall be deemed and held to be citizens of the Philippine Islands and as such entitled to the protection of the United States, except such as shall have elected to preserve their allegiance to the Crown of Spain in accordance with the provisions of the treaty of peace between the United States and Spain signed at Paris December tenth, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight.

Under the Philippine Bill, a citizen of the Philippines was one who was an inhabitant of the Philippines and a Spanish subject on 11 April 1899. The term inhabitant was taken to include 1) a native-born inhabitant; 2) an inhabitant who was a native of Peninsular Spain; or 3) an inhabitant who obtained Spanish papers on or before 11 April 1899.299

Controversy arose on the status of children born in the Philippines from 11 April 1899 to 1 July 1902, during which period no citizenship law was extant in the Philippines. Weight was given to the view, articulated in jurisprudential writing at the time that the common law principle of jus soli governed those born in the Philippine Archipelago within that period.300 Jus soli was also known as the principle of territoriality, which was operative in the United States and England.

In 1916, the Philippine Autonomy Act, also known as the Jones Law, restated virtually the provisions of the Philippine Bill: of 1902 as amended by the Act of Congress in 1912:301

Section 2. That all inhabitants of the Philippine Islands who were Spanish subjects on the eleventh day of April, eighteen hundred and ninety-nine, and then resided in said Islands, and their children born ;subsequently thereto, shall be deemed and held to be citizens of the Philippine Islands, except such as shall have elected to preserve their allegiance to the ; Crown of Spain in accordance with the provisions of the treaty of peace between the United States and Spain, signed at Paris December tenth, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight and except such others as have since become citizens of some other country; Provided, That the Philippine Legislature, herein provided for, is hereby authorized to provide for the acquisition of Philippine citizenship by those natives of the Philippine Islands who do not come within the foregoing provisions, the natives of the insular possessions of the United States, and such other persons residing in the Philippine Islands who are citizens of the United States, or who could become citizens of the United States under the laws of the United States, if residing therein."

Under the. Jones Law, native-born inhabitants of the Philippines were deemed to be citizens of the Philippines as of 11 April 1899 if they were (1) subjects of Spain on 11 April 1899; (2) residing in the Philippines on that date; and (3) since that date, not citizens of some other country.302

Citizenship under the 1935, 1973 and 1987
Constitutions

Article IV, Section 1 of the 1935 Constitution provides:

Section 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:

1. Those who are citizens of the Philippine Islands at the time of the adoption of this Constitution.

2. Those born in the Philippine Islands of foreign parents who, before the adoption of this Constitution, had been elected to public office in the Philippine Islands.

3. Those whose fathers are citizens of the Philippines.

4. Those whose mothers are citizens of the Philippines and, upon reaching the age of majority, elect Philippine citizenship.

5. Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.

Items 1 and 4 of the foregoing section show that the 1935 Constitution was not based purely on the jus sanguinis principle. Taking into account the history of our citizenship provisions, the phrase "those who were citizens of the Philippine Islands at the time of the adoption of this Constitution" clearly included those who did not have a single drop of Filipino blood in them. Moreover, "those born in the Philippine Islands of foreign parents who, before the adoption of this Constitution, had been elected to public office" were also automatically considered citizens despite the fact that they were of foreign blood.

Significantly, the provisions of Section 1 (1) of Article IV of the 1935 Constitution were carried over to the 1973 and 1987 Constitutions.303 The only difference was the reference to the country as Philippines" instead of "Philippine Islands."

Considering the mixture of citizenship regimes currently in force, it is not correct to say that there is an exclusive jus sanguinis principle in place, and because of that principle, that petitioner is thereby required, regardless of the fact that she is a foundling, to submit proof of her blood relationship to a Filipino father. To rule otherwise would be to implement a purely jus sanguinis regime contrary to the history of the Constitution.

Functionality in accord with natural justice

As previously explained, the Constitution is meant to advance the fundamental values of the Filipino people, in particular, those articulated in the Preamble: the promotion of general welfare;304 the creation of a just and humane society;305 and the protection of the blessings of independence and democracy under a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace in accordance with the rule of law.306 The Constitution must be interpreted to allow it to function in accordance with these ideals. Thus, the Court should not construe the citizenship provisions of the 1935 Constitution in a manner that would unjustly deprive foundlings of citizenship and render them stateless.

To emphasize, from the time that the Supreme Court was vested with the power to interpret the law, We have exercised this power in accordance with what is right and just. Citizenship cases are no exception. In previous cases, the Court has in fact interpreted the law on citizenship in accordance with natural justice.

In Roa v. Collector,307 We have assumed that the principle of jus soli was applicable. This assumption was affirmed in Torres v. Tan Chim308and Gallofin v. Ordonez,309 in which this Court held that the principle of jus soli was followed with reference to individuals who were born of Chinese fathers and Filipino mothers.310

In Talaroc v. Uy, 311 We held that in making jus sanguinis the predominating principle in the determination of Philippine citizenship, the Constitution did not intend to exclude those who were citizens of the Philippines by judicial declaration at the time of its adoption. We ruled that if, on the strength of Roa, a person was considered al full-fledged Philippine citizen on the date of the adoption of the Constitution when jus soli was the prevailing doctrine, that person cannot be divested of Filipino citizenship.312 The Court also stated that "it would be neither fair nor good policy to hold Uy an alien after he had exercised the privileges of citizenship in the face of legal principles that have the force of law."313

The principles of natural justice were also utilized in other cases to avoid an unfair outcome. In Sale de Porkan v. Yatco,314 We upheld the validity of a contract over a parcel of land in favor of a "non-Christian inhabitant of the Department of Mindanao and Sulu." The contract was considered valid despite the lack of approval by the provincial governor of the province where the contract was executed as mandated by the Administrative Code of Mindanao and Sulu. The Court held:

But if the contract, Exhibit B, is avoided, the result would be just the contrary, for the non-Christian plaintiff-appellant here would be divested of ownership over the houses which were ceded to him by C de S and which he now possesses. This would defeat the legislative aim and purpose, destroy substantial equities, and thwart the postulates of natural justice.

In Van Dorn v. Romillo, 315 We also prevented injustice by freeing a Filipino woman from her marital obligations after she had been divorced by her foreigner husband:

To maintain, as private respondent does, that, under our laws, petitioner has to be considered still married to private respondent and still subject to a wife's obligations under Article 109, et. seq. of the Civil Code cannot be just. Petitioner should not be obliged to live together with, observe respect and fidelity, and render support to private respondent. The latter should not continue to be one of her heirs with possible rights to conjugal property. She should not be discriminated against in her own country if the ends of justice are to be served.

Concept of "natural-born" citizenship

The requirement of natural-born citizenship should serve only to deny certain privileges to those who have gone through the process of naturalization in order to acquire and perfect their citizenship. The concept, originally meant to distinguish those who are "natural-born" from those who are "foreign-born" in jus soli jurisdictions, cannot: be used to justify the denial of citizenship status to foundlings because of their inability to prove a certain blood relationship.

"Natural-born" citizenship and jus soli

An examination of the origin of the term "natural-born" reveals that it was lifted by the Philippines from the United States (U.S.) Constitution, which states:

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of the President; neither shall any person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.316 (Capitalization in the original)

The U.S. Constitution itself does not define the term. However, numerous holdings and references in federal and state cases have clearly indicated that those born in the United States and subject to its jurisdiction (i.e., not born to foreign diplomats or to occupying military forces), even if they were born to alien parents, are citizens "at birth" or "by birth," and are "natural born," as opposed to "naturalized," U.S. citizens.317

As a matter of inclusion, it has been held that it is beyond dispute that anyone born on American soil with an American parent is a "natural born citizen."318 As a matter of exclusion, anyone whose citizenship is acquired after birth as a result of "naturalization" is not a "natural born citizen."319The meaning of the natural-born citizen clause became politically salient in the U.S. when John McCain became the Republican nominee for President in September of 2008. He was born in the Panama Canal Zone to parents who were American citizens.320

The phrase "natural-born citizen" found its way to America from England. While there had been no extensive usage of the phrase during the founding era of the US (1774-1797), it seems clear that it was derived from "natural born subject," which had a technical meaning in English law and constitutional theory.321 The framers of the US Constitution would have been familiar with Blackstone's Commentaries - which James Madison (hailed as the "Father of the Constitution") described as "a book which is in every man's hand" - and would have understood that the fundamental premise of natural-born citizenship was a concept of allegiance to the sovereign at birth .322

Indeed, the English lexicographer Samuel Johnson defined "natural" as "native," which may mean either an "inhabitant" or an "offspring."323 The conception of natural- born subjects under British law is tied to that of natural allegiance to a sovereign. This conception is based primarily on being born within the territory subject to the sovereign's rule, but with the addition of others (such as the children of ambassadors or of the sovereigns themselves) who have a "natural allegiance" to the sovereign.

Blackstone writes:

The first and most obvious division of the people is into aliens and natural-born subjects. Natural-born subjects are such as are born within the dominions of the crown of England, that is, within the ligeance, or as it is generally called, the allegiance of the king; and aliens, such as are born out of it. Allegiance is the tie, or ligamen, which binds the subject to the king, in return for that protection which the king affords the subject. The thing itself, or substantial part of it, is founded in reason and the nature of government; the name and the form are derived to us from our Gothic ancestors.

x x x x

Allegiance, both express and implied, is however distinguished by the law into two sorts or species, the one natural, the other local; the former being also perpetual, the latter temporary. Natural allegiance is such as is due from all men born within the king's dominions immediately upon their birth. For, immediately upon their birth, they are under the king's protection; at a time too, when (during their infancy) they are incapable of protecting themselves.

x x x x

When I say, that an alien is one who is born out of the king's dominions, or allegiance, this also must be understood with some restrictions. The common law indeed stood absolutely so; with only a very few exceptions: so that a particular act of parliament became necessary after the restoration, for the naturalization of children of his majesty's English subjects, born in foreign countries during the late troubles. And this maxim of the law proceeded upon a general principle, that every man owes natural allegiance where he is born, and cannot owe two such allegiances, or serve two masters, at once. Yet the children of the king's ambassadors born abroad were always held to be natural subjects: for as the father, though in a foreign country, owes not even a local allegiance to the prince to whom he is sent; so, with regard to the son also, he was held (by a kind of postliminium) to be born under the king of England's allegiance, represented by his father, the ambassador.324 (Emphasis supplied)

Based on the foregoing, it appears that the original opposite of the term "natural-born" is not "naturalized," but "foreign-born." The term was meant to distinguish between those born within a certain territory and those born outside it. Blood or descent was irrelevant. However, because of the mixture of common law and civil law in our jurisdiction, the original concept of natural-born citizenship seems to have been diluted.

Citizens by Birth v. Citizens by
Naturalization

Irrespective of the origin of the concept, the term "natural-born" was used by the framers of the 1935, 1973 and 1987 Constitutions to delineate the privileges of those who are citizens at birth, from those enjoyed by citizens who are naturalized.

The word "natural-born" appeared thrice in the 1935 Constitution as a qualification for the presidency and vice-presidency, as well as membership in the Senate and House of Representatives.325 The framers of the 1935 Constitution, however, did not define the term.

In their commentary on the 1935 Constitution, Tañada and Fernando opined that the requirement that a person be a natural-born citizen may be interpreted to mean that at the time of birth, the candidate was a Filipino citizen; naturalized citizens are excluded.326 Proceeding from this logic, citizens who did not acquire their Philippine citizenship through naturalization have the citizenship qualification to run for the presidency.

The statements in these commentaries are supported by the deliberations of the framers of the 1935 Constitution. During the 1934 Constitutional Convention, Delegate Alejandrino proposed to limit eligibility for the presidency and vice-presidency only to Filipino citizens born in the Philippines of parents who were not naturalized.327 This proposal was shot down. It must be noted, though, that he referred to parents who were "not naturalized," instead of those who were "natural-born." It may be inferred that the framers of the 1935 Constitution only intended to exclude those citizens who had been naturalized from occupying certain positions. Another section of the deliberations proceeded in this manner:

Delegate Artadi. - I am going to ask a reconsideration with respect to the matter appearing on page 22-A which treats of the interpretation of the words, 'natural-born,' because I would like to inform the Assembly that I have had a conversation with some members of the committee ... and they explained to me that the words, 'natural-born,' do not necessarily mean 'born in the Philippines;' that is to say, translated into Spanish, they mean that one who possesses all the qualifications to be President of the republic, as it is written, is not necessarily born in the Philippines. So that for purposes of the record, I would like one of the members of the committee to explain the true interpretation of the words, 'natural-born,' for the information of the Assembly.

The President. - The delegate from Capiz, Mr. Roxas, may please tell what is the exact equivalent of those words.

Delegate Roxas. - Mr. President, the phrase, 'natural-born citizen' appears in the Constitution of the United States; but the authors say that this phrase has never been authoritatively interpreted by the Supreme Court of the United States in view of the fact that there has never been raised the question of whether or not an elected President fulfilled this condition. The authors are uniform in the fact that the words, 'natural-born' citizen,' means a citizen by birth, a person who is a citizen by reason of his birth, and not by naturalization or by a further declaration required by law for citizenship. In the Philippines, for example, under the provisions of the article on citizenship which we have approved, all those born of a father who is a Filipino citizen, be they persons born in the Philippines or outside, would be citizens by birth or 'natural-born.

And with respect to one born of a Filipino mother but of a foreign father, the article which we approved about citizenship requires that, upon reaching the age of majority, this child needs to indicate the citizenship which he prefers, and if he elects Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority, then he shall be considered a Filipino citizen. According to this interpretation, the child of a Filipino mother with a foreign father would not be a citizen by birth, because the law or the Constitution requires that he make a further declaration after his birth. Consequently, the phrase, 'natural-born citizen,' as it is used in the English text means a Filipino citizen by birth, regardless of where he was born.328 (Emphasis supplied)

The requirement of "natural-born" citizenship was carried over to the 1973 Constitution329 and then to the present Constitution.330 Confirming the original vision of the framers of the 193 5 Constitution, the 1973 Constitution defined the term as "one who is a citizen of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect his Philippine citizenship."331 The 1973 definition was adopted in the present Constitution, with the added proviso that those who elect Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3),332 Section 1 of Article IV, shall be deemed natural-born citizens:

Art. IV, Section 2. Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship. Those who elect Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3), Section 1 hereof shall be deemed natural-born citizens.

Since the term was defined in the negative, it is evident that the term "natural-born citizens" refers to those who do not have to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship. The definition excludes only those who are naturalized. From this interpretation, it may be inferred that a Filipino citizen who did not undergo the naturalization process is natural-born. As We explained in Bengson III v. House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal: 333

A citizen who is not a naturalized Filipino, i.e., did not have to undergo the process of naturalization to obtain Philippine citizenship, necessarily is a natural-born Filipino. Noteworthy is the absence in said enumeration of a separate category for persons who, after losing Philippine citizenship, subsequently reacquire it. The reason therefor is clear: as to such persons, they would either be natural-born or naturalized depending on the reasons for the loss of their citizenship and the mode prescribed by the applicable law for the reacquisition thereof.

In Bengson, We also ruled that private respondent regained his status as a natural-born citizen the moment he reacquired his Filipino citizenship through repatriation. That part of the Decision will be discussed in further detail in the succeeding sections.

Not Purity of Blood

Naturalized citizens are former aliens or foreigners who had to undergo a rigid procedure, in which they had to adduce sufficient evidence to prove that they possessed all the qualifications and none of the disqualifications to become Filipino citizens as provided by law.334 In contrast, as stated in the early case Roa v. Collector of Customs, 335 a natural-born citizen is a one who has become such at the moment of birth.

It may be observed from the exchanges during the deliberations on the qualifications of members of the Supreme Court that the concern about the natural-born requirement was not all about the questionable allegiance of those without Filipino blood, but of those born abroad of Filipino parents. Delegate Lim expressed his understanding that the requirement was for the President to be "native-born," and his reservations about installing as magistrates those who are not familiar with the "idiosyncrasies of the people:"

How can we figure out that naturalized citizens could really interpret the purposes of this Constitution including the idiosyncrasies of the people? We have as a matter of policy adopted the principle that the President of the Commonwealth should be a native born. Our Supreme Court in some instances has the power much bigger than that of the President by declaring our laws passed by the National Assembly as unconstitutional. That power makes the Supreme Court the supreme interpreter of our laws of the land, and who else but native born persons, individuals who have been born in the country, can interpret, as I said, the customs and habits of our people?336

It must be emphasized that natural-born status was never intended to be a measure of the purity of blood. This Court, on reconsideration in Tan Chong,337 explained why birth alone may not be sufficient basis for the acquisition of citizenship. Some of the important elements that would make a person living in a country its citizen: youth spent in the country; intimate and endearing association with the citizens among whom they live; knowledge and pride of the country's past; belief in the greatness and security of its institutions, in the loftiness of its ideas, and in the ability of the country's government to protect them, their children and their earthy possessions against perils from within and from without; and their readiness to defend the country against those perils.338

In the same manner, blood relationship alone is not controlling.339 The following groups of people, who technically have no "Filipino blood," were effectively considered citizens by virtue of Commonwealth Act No. 473 or the "Revised Naturalization Law":

Section 15. Effect of the Naturalization on Wife and Children. - Any woman who is now or may hereafter be married to a citizen of the Philippines, and who might herself be lawfully naturalized shall be deemed a citizen of the Philippines.

Minor children of persons naturalized under this law who have been born in the Philippines shall be considered citizens thereof.

A foreign-born minor child, if dwelling in the Philippines at the time of the naturalization of the parent, shall automatically become a Philippine citizen, and a foreign-born minor child, who is not in the Philippines at the time the parent is naturalized, shall be deemed a Philippine citizen only during his minority, unless he begins to reside permanently in the Philippines when still a minor, in which case, he will continue to be a Philippine citizen even after becoming of age.

A child born outside of the Philippines after the naturalization of his parent, shall be considered a Philippine citizen, unless within one year after reaching the age of majority, he fails to register himself as a Philippine citizen at the American Consulate of the country where he resides, and to take the necessary oath of allegiance. (Emphasis supplied)

A necessary implication of the above provision is that children born within the Philippines after the naturalization of their parent are unqualifiedly citizens of the country. This implication holds true even if the naturalized parent is purely of foreign blood. Moreover, because they do not need to perform any act to acquire Philippine citizenship, they must be considered natural-born citizens by definition.

Like foundlings, these groups are not expressly mentioned in the Constitution. However, by implication of law, they are considered natural-born citizens despite the absence of a single drop of Filipino blood in them. From this fact, one can draw no other conclusion: that the natural-born classification has nothing to do with bloodline or birthright.

Foundling not "naturalized in accordance
with law"

It has been argued that a foundling may obtain only naturalized citizenship, because an act is supposedly required to acquire this status, i.e., the registration of the child as a foundling after an administrative proceeding. In other words, it is contended that the process of registration effectively amounts to naturalization in accordance with law. This contention is unacceptable for three reasons.

First, the phrase "naturalized in accordance with law" must be understood with reference to the naturalization process provided under naturalization statutes. In several decisions, this Court has construed the meaning of the expression "in accordance with law" as an allusion to enabling legislation.340 Hence, naturalization in Article IV, Section 1 of the 1935 Constitution, does not refer to just any act, but to the specific procedure for naturalization prescribed by the legislature. The Court does not have the right to engage in judicial legislation on naturalization when the Constitution exclusively vests said power in -Congress.

Second, registration is not an act that can be attributed to a foundling. Pursuant to Section 5 of Act No. 3752,341 the person who finds an abandoned child shall report the place, date and hour of finding and other attendant circumstances to the local civil registrar for purposes of registration. This prescribed act is in sharp contrast to the naturalization process provided under the Revised Naturalization Law,342 which requires the applicants to themselves personally and voluntarily perform certain acts to avail of naturalized citizenship. In particular, applicants are required to (a) file a declaration under oath their bona fide intention to become a citizen of the Philippines;343 (b) file a petition for citizenship with a competent court;344 (c) participate in a hearing before a competent court;345 and (d) take an oath of allegiance to the Philippines.346 Needless to state, foundlings do not perform acts equivalent to any of these when they are registered. More often than not, they are not aware of their circumstances when they are being registered as foundlings.

Third, it is possible to register a foundling by reporting the circumstances of the discovery to the local civil registrar without any administrative proceeding, if the registration is done prior to the surrender of the custody of the child to the DSWD or an institution.347 It is only when the child is turned over to the DSWD without having been registered with the local civil registrar that an administrative proceeding is required prior to the issuance of a Foundling Certificate.348 If a child is already registered by the finder, the administrative proceeding under the Rules of the DSWD349 is followed not for the purpose of allowing that registration, but only to determine whether the child may be declared legally available for adoption.

Petitioner did not lose her natural-born
status when she reacquired Philippine
citizenship under R.A. 9225.

Respondents also question the reacquisition by petitioner of her citizenship under R.A. 9225 or the Citizenship Retention and Re-acquisition Act of 2003. They claim that only natural-born citizens are allowed to reacquire citizenship under the law. Since petitioner is allegedly not a citizen of the Philippines, she is not entitled to this privilege.

The premise of petitioner's argument has already been extensively addressed above. For reasons previously explained, petitioner may be considered a natural-born citizen; hence, she may validly reacquire her citizenship under R.A. 9225. The other arguments raised by respondents are addressed below.

Adoption Decree and Amended Birth
Certificate

In my view, petitioner was entitled to rely upon the adoption decree issued in her favor and the amended birth certificate issued pursuant thereto. These documents named Fernando Poe, Jr. and Susan Roces, and no other, as her parents for all intents and purposes. Her reliance on these documents justifies her belief that she is a natural-born citizen entitled to avail herself of the provisions of R.A. 9225.

It must be emphasized that adoption severs all legal ties between the biological parents and the adoptee and vests those rights in the adopter.350 Section 17 of R.A. 8552, in particular, provides that the "adoptee shall be considered the legitimate son/daughter of the adopter for all intents and purposes and as such is entitled to all the rights and obligations provided by law to legitimate sons/daughter born to them without discrimination of any kind." Hence, upon the entry of an adoption decree, the law creates a relationship in which adopted children are deemed "born of" their adoptive parents:

... The act of adoption fixes a status, viz., that of parent and child. More technically, it is an act by which relations of paternity and affiliation are recognized as legally existing between persons not so related by nature. It has been defined as the taking into one's family of the child of another as son or daughter and heir and conferring on it a title to the rights and privileges of such. The purpose of an adoption proceeding is to effect this new status of relationship between the child and its adoptive parents, the change of name which frequently accompanies adoption being more an incident than the object of the proceeding. The welfare of the child is the primary consideration in the determination of an application for adoption. On this part, there is unanimous agreement.

It is the usual effect of a decree of adoption to transfer from the natural parents to the adoptive parents the custody of the child's person, the duty of obedience owing by the child, and all other legal consequences and incidents of the natural relation, in the same manner as if the child had been born of such adoptive parents in lawful wedlock, subject, however, to such limitations and restrictions as may be by statute imposed.351 (Emphasis supplied)

As proof of this new relationship, an adoptee's original birth certificate is cancelled and sealed in the records of the Civil Registry. Thereafter, an amended birth certificate is issued in its place "attesting to the fact that the adoptee is the child of the adopter(s)"352 This amended certificate is issued without any notation that it is new or amended.353 Once issued, this document has the same legal effect as any other birth certificate, and is entitled to a presumption of validity as a public document.354

Evidently, to require adoptees to go beyond the parentage established in their birth certificates would defeat the purpose of R.A. 8552 in requiring courts and other institutions to seal adoption records, including the child's original birth certificate, and to maintain the confidentiality of those papers.355

By these provisions, the legislature clearly intended to protect the privacy of the parties to the adoption, thereby allowing them to avoid the stigma resulting from the proceedings. The rationale behind these confidentiality provisions was elucidated by the U.S. Court of Appeals, Second Circuit, in Alma Society Incorporated v. Mellon. 356 In that decision, which was later affirmed by the U.S. Supreme Court,357 the U.S. Court of Appeals explained:

Judged by these standards, the New York sealed record statutes do not want constitutional validity. The statutes, we think, serve important interests. New York Domestic Relations Law s 114 and its related statutes represent a considered legislative judgment that the confidentiality statutes promote the social policy underlying adoption laws. See In re Anonymous, 89 Misc.2d 132, 133, 390 N.Y.S.2d 779, 781 (Surr.Ct.1976). Originally, sealing adoption records was discretionary with the court, 1924 N.Y. Laws, ch. 323, s 113, but in 1938 confidentiality of adoption records became mandatory. 1938 N.Y. Laws, ch. 606 s 114. As late as 1968, the legislature enacted various amendments to increase the assurance of confidentiality. 1968 N.Y. Laws, ch. 1038. Moreover, the purpose of a related statute, Section 4138 of the Public Health Laws, was to erase the stigma of illegitimacy from the adopted child's life by sealing his original birth certificate and issuing a new one under his new surname. And the major purpose of adoption legislation is to encourage natural parents to use the process when they are unwilling or unable to care for their offspring. New York has established a careful legislative scheme governing when adoption may occur and providing for judicial review, to encourage and facilitate the social policy of placing children in permanent loving homes when a natural family breaks up. As the court of appeals stated in Scarpetta v. Spence-Chapin Adoption Service, 28 N.Y.2d 185, 195, 321 N.Y.S.2d 65, 73, Cert. denied, 404 U.S. 805, 321 N.Y.S.2d 65, 269 N.E.2d 787 (1971), "(i)t cannot be doubted that the public policy of our State is contrary to the disclosure of the names and identities of the natural parents and prospective adoptive parents to each other." (Footnote omitted.) Forty-two other states, according to the State of New York, require that birth and adoption records be kept confidential, indicating the importance of the matter of confidentiality. See also Uniform Adoption Act (U.L.A.) s 16(2) (rev. 1969) (adoption records "are subject to inspection only upon consent of the Court and all interested persons; or in exceptional cases, only upon an order of the Court for good cause shown"). These significant legislative goals clearly justify the State's decision to keep the natural parents' names secret from adopted persons but not from non-adopted persons. (Emphasis supplied)

Applicability of Bengson v HRET

As to whether petitioner also reacquired her natural-born status, the Court must apply the ruling in Bengson III v. HRET,358 which allowed the applicant to reacquire not only his citizenship, but also his original natural-born status. In that case, the Court noted that those who reacquire Philippine citizenship must be considered natural-born or naturalized citizens, since the Constitution does not provide a separate category for them. Between the two categories, the Court found it more appropriate to consider them natural-born citizens, since they were not required to go through the tedious naturalization procedure provided under the law:

The present Constitution, however, now considers those born of Filipino mothers before the effectivity of the 1973 Constitution and who elected Philippine citizenship upon reaching the majority age as natural-born. After defining who are natural-born citizens, Section 2 of Article IV adds a sentence: "Those who elect Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3), Section 1 hereof shall be deemed natural-born citizens." Consequently, only naturalized Filipinos are considered not natural-born citizens. It is apparent from the enumeration of who are citizens under the present Constitution that there are only two classes of citizens: (1) those who are natural-born and (2) those who are naturalized in accordance with law. A citizen who is not a naturalized Filipino, i.e., did not have to undergo the process of naturalization to obtain Philippine citizenship, necessarily is a natural-born Filipino. Noteworthy is the absence in said enumeration of a separate category for persons who, after losing Philippine citizenship, subsequently reacquire it. The reason therefor is clear: as to such persons, they would either be natural-born or naturalized depending on the reasons for the loss of their citizenship and the mode prescribed by the applicable law for the reacquisition thereof. As private respondent Cruz was not required by law to go through naturalization proceedings in order to reacquire his citizenship, he is perforce a natural-born Filipino. As such, he possessed all the necessary qualifications to be elected as member of the House of Representatives.

Although Bengson referred to R.A. 2630 or the repatriation of persons who served in the U.S. Armed Forces,359 a similar process is undergone by those who reacquire citizenship under R.A. 9225. In previous cases, this Court has also consistently characterized R.A. 9225 as a "repatriation" statute360 that allows former Filipino citizens to recover their natural-born status.361

Accordingly, the logic used by this Court in Bengson also applies to this case - the procedure provided by R.A. 9225 does not amount to naturalization; consequently, a citizen who reacquires citizenship under this statute cannot be deemed naturalized.

Determination of natural-born status at birth

When R.A. 9225 provides for the loss, reacquisition and retention of citizenship, it refers only to the fact of citizenship, not natural-born status:

Section 2. Declaration of Policy. - It is hereby declared the policy of the State that all Philippine citizens who become citizens of another country shall be deemed not to have lost their Philippine citizenship under the conditions of this Act.

Section 3. Retention of Philippine Citizenship. - Any provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding, natural-born citizens of the Philippines who have lost their Philippine citizenship by reason of their naturalization as citizens of a foreign country are hereby deemed to have re-acquired Philippine citizenship upon taking the following oath of allegiance to the Republic:

"I_______________________ , solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines and obey the laws and legal orders promulgated by the duly constituted authorities of the Philippines, and I hereby declare that I recognize and accept the supreme authority of the Philippines and will maintain true faith and allegiance thereto; and that I impose this obligation upon myself voluntarily without mental reservation or purpose of evasion."

Natural-born citizens of the Philippines who, after the effectivity of this Act, become citizens of a foreign country shall retain their Philippine citizenship upon taking the aforesaid oath. (Emphasis supplied)

These provisions are consistent with Article IV,362 Section 2 of the 1935 Constitution, which indicates that what may be lost or reacquired is Philippine citizenship and not natural-born status. These terms were carried over into the 1973 and 1987 Constitutions.

The precise character of the citizenship reacquired under the law was no longer made an issue in these provisions, because natural-born status is determined at the time of birth.363 This characteristic cannot be changed, unless an individual undergoes naturalization in any of the instances provided by law.364 As will be explained below, the procedure for the reacquisition of citizenship under R.A. 9225 does not amount to

naturalization.

Reacquisition is not naturalization

It has been argued that the taking of an oath under R.A. 9225, as petitioner has done, should be considered as an "act to acquire or perfect citizenship" under Section 2, Article IV of the present Constitution. As previously discussed, however, there are only two classes of citizens under the Constitution - those who are natural-born and those who are naturalized. The "act" adverted to in the Constitution must therefore be understood as pertaining only to the act of naturalization.

The 1935, 1973, and 1987 Constitutions conferred on Congress the power to determine who are naturalized citizens:

1935 CONSTITUTION
ARTICLE IV
Citizenship

Section 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:

xxxx

(5) Those who are naturalized in accordance with law. (Emphasis supplied)

1973 CONSTITUTION

ARTICLE III

Citizenship

Section 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:

xxxx

(4) Those who are naturalized in accordance with law. (Emphasis supplied)

1987 CONSTITUTION

ARTICLE IV

Citizenship

Section 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:

x x x x

(4) Those who are naturalized in accordance with law. (Emphasis supplied)

In compliance with this constitutional mandate, Congress enacted the required enabling statute in 1939 when it passed Commonwealth Act No. 473 or the Revised Naturalization Law. This piece of legislation identifies those who are to be considered naturalized citizens of the country, and it is not the province of the Court to encroach upon this legislative prerogative. Accordingly, we cannot unilaterally declare those who have availed themselves of the benefits of R.A. 9225 and similar laws as naturalized citizens. To do so would violate the principle of separation of powers.

It must be emphasized that R.A. 9225 merely discusses the retention and reacquisition of citizenship, not naturalization. As early as 1936, Congress already treated naturalization as a different species apart from repatriation and other modes that may later be introduced by the national assembly:

Section. 2. How citizenship may be reacquired. - Citizenship may be reacquired:

(1) By naturalization: Provided, That the applicant possess none of the disqualification's prescribed in section two of Act Numbered Twenty-nine hundred and twenty-seven,

2) By repatriation of deserters of the Army, Navy or Air Corp: Provided, That a woman who lost her citizenship by reason of her marriage to an alien may be repatriated in accordance with the provisions of this Act after the termination of the marital status; and

(3) By direct act of the National Assembly.365

The reacquisition and retention of citizenship under R.A. 9225 or R.A. 2630366 and repatriation under R.A. 817l367 are different from naturalization under C.A. 473. Reacquisition, retention, and repatriation are effected by merely taking the necessary oath of allegiance and registering in the proper civil registry (and in the Bureau of Immigration in accordance with R.A. 8171). On the other hand, naturalization is a tedious process that begins with the filing of a declaration of intention one year prior to filing a petition for admission to Philippine citizenship and ends with the issuance of a certificate of naturalization.

Here, petitioner did not have to undergo the process of naturalization in order to reacquire her Philippine citizenship. She only had to follow the procedure specified in R.A. 9225. In this light, to declare her a naturalized citizen would thus be contrary to law.

To refuse to recognize foundlings as
citizens of the Philippines is to
contravene our obligations under
existing international law
.

The Philippines is obligated by existing customary and conventional international law to recognize the citizenship of foundlings.

Customary International Law

Petitioner asserts that international law in the 1930s granted a foundling the right to acquire a nationality "from birth." In my opinion, she has not presented sufficient evidence to prove that in 1935, the Philippines was bound by customary international law to recognize foundlings as Philippine citizens.

It must be remembered that norms of customary international law become binding on the Philippines as part of the law of the land by virtue of the Incorporation Clause in the Constitution.368 For incorporation to occur, however, two elements369 must be established: (a) widespread and consistent practice on the part of states; and (b) a psychological element known as the opinio Juris sive necessitatis or a belief on the part of states that the practice in question is rendered obligatory by the existence of a rule of law requiring it.370 For evident reasons, a statement made by one of the framers of the 1935 Constitution and the Hague Convention cannot, by themselves, prove widespread state practice or opinio Juris. Without more, We cannot declare the existence of a binding norm of customary international law granting citizenship to foundlings in 1935.

I believe, however, that this customary norm exists in international law at present. Although matters of citizenship were traditionally considered to be within the exclusive jurisdiction of states, contemporary developments indicate that their powers in this area are now "circumscribed by their obligations to ensure the full protection of human rights."371 In particular, the right of children to acquire a nationality is enshrined in a number of international372 and regional373 conventions. The presumption of citizenship accorded to foundlings in a state's territory is specifically mentioned in three conventions: the 1930 Hague Convention,374 the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness375 and the European Convention on Nationality.376 These treaties, concurred in by various state parties,377 show that on the part of the members of the international community, there is widespread recognition of the right to nationality of children in general and foundlings in particular.

As important as these international instruments are the actions of states in their own domestic spheres. The International Court of Justice itself has considered national legislation as sufficient evidence of state practice.378 In this case, a survey of the citizenship laws of 189 countries all over the world reveals that 165 of these nations consider foundlings as citizens by operation of law. Twenty-three of these states379 grant citizenship to foundlings in observance of the jus soli principle, or the general grant of citizenship to all individuals born within their territory. Meanwhile, one hundred forty-two countries380 have enacted foundling statutes to grant citizenship to a child found in their territories if the parents are unknown, unless there is proof to the contrary. Depending on the rule followed by the state, the foundling is presumed either to have been born in the territory381 or to have been born to citizens of the state.382

That states have agreed to be bound by these obligations under various conventions and have even enacted domestic legislation to fulfill their responsibilities under the law of nations indicates their recognition of the binding character of this norm. These acts demonstrate the opinio Juris of those states, i.e., their recognition that the grant of nationality to foundlings is obligatory under international law.383

In view of the concurrence of these two elements, it is evident that a rule requiring states to accord citizenship to foundlings has crystallized into a customary norm. The Philippines is therefore bound at present to act in compliance with these obligations.

The ICCPR and the CRC

As a state party to the ICCPR384 and the CRC,385 the Philippines is also obligated to respect the right of every child to acquire a nationality. While these treaties ostensibly pertain only to a "right to acquire" a nationality, this right has been interpreted as the duty of a state to "grant nationality," particularly where there is a link only with the state on whose territory the child was born. As the United Nations (UN) Human Rights Committee explained:

64. Regardless of the general rules which govern acquisition of nationality, States should ensure that safeguards are in place to ensure that nationality is not denied to persons with relevant links to that State who would otherwise be stateless. This is of particular relevance in two situations, at birth and upon State succession. As regards the right to acquire a nationality under article 24, paragraph 3, of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Human Rights Committee stated that "States are required to adopt every appropriate measure ... to ensure that every child has a nationality when he is born". In this context, birth on the territory of a State and birth to a national are the most important criteria used to establish the legal bond of nationality. Where there is only a link with the State on whose territory the child was born, this State must grant nationality as the person can rely on no other State to ensure his or her right to acquire a nationality and would otherwise be stateless. Indeed, if nationality is not granted in such circumstances then article 24, paragraph 3, of the International Covenant as well as article 7 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child would otherwise be meaningless. In concrete terms, the circumstance referred to above may arise, for example, where a child is born on the territory of a State to stateless parents or with respect to foundlings. Given the consequences to the children concerned, denial of nationality in such instances must be deemed arbitrary.386 (Emphasis supplied)

In its Concluding Observations on Fiji's compliance with the CRC, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child likewise directed states to take all measures to avoid statelessness in compliance with their obligations under Article 7 of the CRC:

The Committee takes note of article 7 of the Citizens Decree, which stipulates that any infant found abandoned in Fiji is deemed to have been born in Fiji unless there is evidence to the contrary. However, the Committee is concerned that this stipulation might carry a risk of statelessness for children of whom it can be proven that they have not been born in Fiji, but whose nationality can nevertheless not be established. [. . .]The Committee recommends that the State party take all the necessary measures to avoid a child found abandoned in Fiji being stateless.387

Considering these international norms, it is the obligation of the Philippines not only to grant nationality to foundlings, but also to ensure that none of them are arbitrarily deprived of their nationality. Needless to state, the Court cannot interpret the Constitution in a manner contrary to these obligations. We cannot sanction a violation of international law.

A declaration that foundlings are stateless
persons would have unconscionable
consequences.

The duty of the Court to interpret the Constitution is impressed with the equally vital obligation to ensure that the fundamental law serves the ends of justice and promotes the common good. After all, the Constitution is meant to be the legal embodiment of these values, and to be the people's instrument for the protection of existing natural rights and basic human liberties. As Chief Justice Reynato Puno explained in his Separate Opinion in Republic v. Sandiganbayan:

But while the constitution guarantees and protects the fundamental rights of the people, it should be stressed that it does not create them. As held by many of the American Revolution patriots, "liberties do not result from charters; charters rather are in the nature of declarations of pre-existing rights." John Adams, one of the patriots, claimed that natural rights are founded "in the frame of human nature, rooted in the constitution of the intellect and moral world." Thus, it is said of natural rights vis-a-vis the constitution:

. . . (t)hey exist before constitutions and independently of them. Constitutions enumerate such rights and provide against their deprivation or infringement, but do not create them. It is supposed that all power, all rights, and all authority are vested in the people before they form or adopt a constitution. By such an instrument, they create a government, and define and limit the powers which the constitution is to secure and the government respect. But they do not thereby invest the citizens of the commonwealth with any natural rights that they did not before possess. (Italics supplied)

A constitution is described as follows:

A Constitution is not the beginning of a community, nor the origin of private rights; it is not the fountain of law, nor the incipient state of government; it is not the cause, but consequence, of personal and political freedom; it grants no rights to the people, but is the creature of their power, the instrument of their convenience. Designed for their protection in the enjoyment of the rights and powers which they possessed before the Constitution was made, it is but the framework of the political government, and necessarily based upon the preexisting condition of laws, rights, habits and modes of thought. There is nothing primitive in it; it is all derived from a known source. It presupposes an organized society, law, order, propriety, personal freedom, a love of political liberty, and enough of cultivated intelligence to know how to guard against the encroachments of tyranny.388 (Citations omitted and emphasis supplied)

I believe that disputes involving the Constitution must be resolved with these precepts in mind. As the Constitution is no ordinary legal document, this Court should strive to give meaning to its provisions not only with reference to its text or the original intention of its framers. Behind the text are the ideals and aspirations of the Filipino people - their intent to "promote the general welfare;"389 to "build a just and humane society;"390 and to "secure the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace."391 Any construction that would derogate from these fundamental values cannot be countenanced.

In this case, a declaration that foundlings are natural-born citizens are unconscionable. First, such a declaration would effectively render all children of unknown parentage stateless and would place them in a condition of extreme vulnerability.392 As citizenship is "nothing less than the right to have rights,"393 its deprivation would leave foundlings without any right or measure of protection. During the proceedings of the 1st European Conference on Nationality, the Senior Legal Adviser of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees explained the nature of the right to citizenship:

The Right to a Given Nationality in the Avoidance of Statelessness

Citizenship, or nationality, has been described as man's basic right, as, in fact, the right to have rights. Nationality is not only a right of itself, it is a necessary precursor to the exercise of other rights. Nationality provides the legal connection between an individual and a State, which serves as a basis for certain rights for both the individual and the State, including the State's entitlement to grant diplomatic protection.394

In the Philippines, a stateless individual is deprived of countless rights and opportunities under the Constitution, statutes and administrative regulations. These include the rights to suffrage;395 education and training;396 candidacy and occupation of public office and other positions in government;397 use and enjoyment of natural resources;398 investment;399 ownership and control of certain types of businesses;400 practice of rofessons;401 engagement in certain occupations;[402 and even participation in legal proceedings involving status, condition and legal capacity.403

Second, a declaration that petitioner is a citizen but is not natural-born is no less odious to foundlings considering the privileges that would be deemed unavailable to them. These include certain state scholarships404 and a number of government positions requiring natural-born citizenship as a qualification, i. e. a range of nationa1405 and loca1406 offices, various posts in government commissions,407 corporations,408 banks,409 educational institutions,410 professional regulatory boards411 and the military.412

The repercussions of such a ruling for foundlings currently holding the enumerated positions are too compelling to ignore. A declaration that individuals of unknown parentage are not Filipinos, or at best naturalized citizens, may lead to their removal from government posts; a demand to return all emoluments and benefits granted in connection with their offices; and even the end of pension benefits presently being enjoyed by affected retirees. The proposal for Congress to remedy the unjust situation that would result from an affirmance by this Court of unjust COMELEC rulings is too odious a solution to even consider. It is not the function of Congress to correct any injustice that would result from this Court's proposed unhappy ruling on foundlings. Rather, it is this Court's first and foremost duty to render justice to them, as the Constitutions requires

WHEREFORE, I vote to GRANT the consolidated petitions.

MARIA LOURDES P.A. SERENO
Chief Justice


Footnotes

1 468 Phil. 421 (2004).

2 Id. at 490.

3 Id. at 494.

4 The petition docketed as G.R. No. 221697 assailed the COMELEC En Banc Resolution dated 23 December 2015 in SPA No. 15-001 (DC) denying petitioner's motion for reconsideration of the COMELEC Second Division Resolution dated 1 December 2015. On the other hand, the petition docketed as G.R. No. 221698-700 assails the COMELEC En Banc Resolution dated 23 December 2015 in the consolidated cases docketed as SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC) and 15-139 (DC). The COMELEC En Banc denied petitioner's motion for reconsideration of the COMELEC First Division Resolution dated 11 December 2015.

5 This provision states: "When the Court in recess and the urgency of the case requires immediate action, the Clerk of Court or the Division Clerk of Court shall personally transmit the rollo to the Chief Justice or the Division Chairperson for his or her action."

6 For instance, see the COMELEC's use of a dissent in Tecson v. COMELEC, Omnibus Resolution dated 11 December 2015, pp. 24, 46.

7 Sanchez v. Rosario, 111 Phil. 733 (1961), citing Abcede v. Imperial 103 Phil. 136-145 (1958).

8 Deliberations of the Committee: Ad Hoc, Revision of Laws, 20 May 1985, pp. 65-68.

9 Deliberations of the Committee: Revision of Laws, 30 May 1985.

10 G.R. No. 207264, 22 October 2013.

11 Black's Law Dictionary defines "summary proceeding" as "a nonjury proceeding that settles a controversy or disposes of a case in a relatively prompt and simple manner." (Black's Law Dictionary 1242 [8th ed. 2004]).

12 318 Phil. 329 (1995).

13 Id. at 460-461.

14 Id. at 457-458. Justice Mendoza then quote Section 12, 68 and 78 of the Omnibus Election Code, Sections 6 and 7 of the Electoral Reforms Law, R.A. 6646, and Section 40 of the Local Government Code, R.A. 7160).

15 Id. at 462-463.

16 Fermin v. COMELEC, 595 Phil. 449 (2008).

17 G.R. No. 194076, G.R. No. 194160, [October 18, 2011])

18 G.R. No. 207105, [November 10, 2015])

19 G.R. No. 196804, 197015, [October 9, 2012], 696 PHIL 786-918)

20 G.R. No. 191938, [July 2, 2010], 636 PHIL 753-815)

21 G.R. No. 207900, [April 22, 2014])

22 G.R. No. 195229, [October 9, 2012], 696 PHIL 700-785)

23 G.R. No. 192856, [March 8, 2011])

24 G.R. No. 193237, 193536, [October 9, 2012], 696 PHIL 601-700)

25 G.R. No. 192221, [November 13, 2012])

26 G.R. No. 179430, [July 27, 2009], 611PHIL501-517)

27 G.R. No. 105111, 105384, July 3, 1992.

28 G.R. No. 100710, 100739, September 3, 1991, 278 PHIL 275-302.

29 G.R. No. 134015, July 19, 1999, 369 PHIL 793-829.

30 G.R. No. 209835, September 22, 2015.

31 G.R. No. 193314, February 26, 2013.

32 G.R. No. 120265, September 18, 1995, 318 PHIL 467-539.

33 G.R. No. 207264, 25 June 2013.

34 511 Phil. 720 (2005).

35 G.R. No. 207900, 22 April 2014.

36 595 Phil. 1172 (2008).

37 460 Phil. 459 (2003).

38 575 Phil. 253 (2008).

39 G.R. No. 193314 (Resolution), 25 June 2013.

40 Labo, Jr. v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 105111, 105384, 3 July 1992.

41 Labo, Jr. v. Commission on Elections. 257 Phil. 1-23 (1989).

42 Aratea v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 195229, 9 October 2012.

43 See Dissenting Opinion of Justice Dante O. Tinga in Tecson v. COMELEC, 468 Phil. 421-755 (2004).

44 G.R. No. 119976, 18 September 1995.

45 Id.

46 371 Phil. 377-393 (1999).

47 G.R. No. 180051, 24 December 2008.

48 Id.

49 Id.

50 593 Phil. 383-397(2008).

51 G.R. No. 179430, 27 July 2009.

52 636 Phil. 753-815 (2010).

53 G.R. No. 188671, 24 February 2010.

54 G.R. No. 192856, 8 March 2011

55 468 Phil. 421-755 (2004).

56 575 Phil. 253-266(2008).

57 595 Phil. 449-479 (2008).

58 696 Phil. 700-785 (2012).

59 696 Phil. 786-918 (2012).

60 G.R. No. 202202, 19 March 2013.

61 G.R. No. 136351, 28 July 1999.

62 Tagolino v. HRET, G.R. No. 202202, 19 March 2013.

63 Miranda v. Abaya, G.R. No. 136351, 28 July 1999.

64 Villafuerte v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 206698, 25 February 2014; Hayudini v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 207900, 22April 2014; Agustin v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 207105, 10 November 2015.

65 G.R. No. 209286, 23 September 2014.

66 Fermin v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 179695 & 182369, 18 December 2008.

67 G.R. No. 119976, 18 September 1995.

68 Id.

69 G.R. No. 191938, 2 July 2010.

70 Id.

71 Id.

72 Tagolino v. HRET, supra.

73 Fermin v. COMELEC, supra.

74 Almagro v. Spouses Amaya, Sr., G.R. No. 179685, 19 June 2013.

75 Id.

76 Id.

77 Heirs of Limense v. Vda. de Ramos, G.R. No. 152319, 28 October 2009.

78 Id.

79 See Tecson v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 161434, 161634, 161824, March 3, 2004, 468 PHIL 421-755; and Salcedo II v. COMELEC, 371 Phil (1999).

80 Rules of Court, Rule 133, Section 5.

81 See Jison v. Court of Appeals, GR No. 124853, 24 February 1998..

82 Id.

83 G.R. No. 191938, 2 July 2010.

84 686 Phil. 649 (2012).

85 Rule 130 of the Rules of Court.

86 Rufina Patis Factory v. Alusitain, supra.

87 Lacbayan v. Samay, Jr., supra.

88 Id.

89 Sec. 4. Judicial admissions. -An admission, verbal or written, made by a party in the course of the proceedings in the same case, does not require proof. The admission may be contradicted only by showing that it was made through palpable mistake or that no such admission was made.

90 G.R. No. 123553, 13 July 1998.

91 Id.

92 Rules of Court, Rule 132, Section 19 provides:

Sec. 19. Classes of Documents. - For the purpose of their presentation in evidence, documents are either public or private.

Public documents are:

(a) The written official acts, or records of the official acts of the sovereign authority, official bodies and tribunals, and public officers, whether of the Philippines, or of a foreign country;

(b) Documents acknowledged before a notary public except last wills and testaments; and

(c) Public records, kept in the Philippines, of private documents required by law to be entered therein.

All other writings are private. (Emphasis supplied)

93 Philippine Trust Co. v. CA, G.R. No. 150318, 22 November 2010.

94 Id.

95 Chua v. CA, G.R. No. 88383, 19 February 1992.

96 China Banking Corp., Inc. v. CA, G.R. No. 155299, 24 July 2007.

97 G.R. No. 5272, 19 March 1910.

98 Memorandum of petitioner, pp. 284-287.

99 Co v. HRET, G.R. Nos. 92191-92 & 92202-03, 30 July 1991.

100 Nuval v. Ouray, G.R. No. 30241, 29 December 1928.

101 Corre v. Corre, G.R. No. L-10128, 13 November 1956.

102 Ugdoracion, Jr. v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 179851, 18 April 2008.

103 25 Am Jur 2d, Domicil § 13, cited in the Concurring and Dissenting Opinion of J. Puno, Macalintal v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 157013, 10 July 2003.

104 Limbona v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 181097, 25 June 2008.

105 Romualdez-Marcos v. COMELEC, G. R. No. 119976, 18 September 1995.

106 Romualdez-Marcos v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 119976, 18 September 1995.

107 Japzon v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 180088, 19 January 2009; Gayo v. Verceles, G.R. No. 150477, 28 February 2005.

108 Sabili v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 193261, 24 April 2012; Papandayan, Jr. v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 147909, 16 April 2002; Romualdez-Marcos v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 119976, 18 September 1995; Co v. HRET, G.R. Nos. 92191-92 & 92202-03, 30 July 1991; Faypon v. Quirino, G.R. No. L-7068, 22 December 1954.

109 Caasi v. CA, G.R. Nos. 88831 & 84508, 8 November 1990.

110 Caasi v. CA, G .R. Nos. 88831 & 84508, 8 November 1990.

111 Jalosjos v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 191970, 24 April 2012.

112 Jalosjos v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 191970, 24 April 2012.

113 Gallego v. Verra, G.R. No. 48641, 24 November 1941.

114 Dumpit-Michelena v. Boado, G.R. Nos. 163619-20, 17 November 2005.

115 Gallego v. Verra, G.R. No. 48641, 24 November 1941.

116 Gallego v. Verra, G.R. No. 48641, 24 November 1941, p. 456.

111 Id.

118 Id. at 668.

119 G.R. No. 191938, 2 July 2010.

120 Designating I September 1973 to 28 February I 974 as a Homecoming Season for Overseas Filipinos. Pursuant to the program, the executive departments were mobilized to welcome and extend privileges to overseas Filipinos who are coming home to the Philippines. It called for the preparation of a hospitality program for overseas Filipinos, as well as the offering of promotional round-trip airline fares for foreign and domestic flights. A temporary "tax holiday" was also declared for the Homecoming Season in which all tax clearance requirements involved in the travel of overseas Filipinos to and from the Philippines shall be suspended and waived. A program of rewards was initiated for local governments which are able to invite the most number of overseas Filipinos. The presidential issuance also constituted a National Hospitality Committee for Overseas Filipinos, which shall organize and supervise the operations of local hospitality committees, especially in regard to sharing with overseas Filipinos a traditional Filipino Christmas.

121 The introductory statement of LOI No. 163 dated 7 February 1974 provides:

While projected arrivals by February 28 was 30,000, the 35,000th Balikbayan participant has already actually arrived as of this date.

Numerous requests and petitions for the extension of the Balikbayan program have been received by the Office of the President and the Department of Tourism from individual Overseas Filipinos, from associations thereof, and from officials of the Philippine foreign service. They cite as reasons the non-coincidence of the original Homecoming season (1 September 1973 to 28 February 1974) with the school vacation period overseas, and the lack of time of Overseas Filipinos to arrange for their vacations and leave of absences from their occupations due to the suddenness of the launching of the Balikbayan program.

A common reason, moreover, is that, with the stories about the new Philippines related by Balikbayan participants who have returned to their overseas residences, our countrymen who were unable to participate in Balikbayan are now more eager than ever to observe for themselves the New Society in action and to share the pride of the new Filipino in himself and in his reborn nation.

122 Six-month Extension of the Balikbayan Program.

123 Declaring A Balik-Scientist Program, Allowing any Foreign-Based Scientists, Professional, Technician, or any Person with Special Skill or Expertise who is of Filipino Origin or Descent to Practice His/Her Profession or Expertise in the Philippines and Aligning Incentives for Him/Her and for Other Purposes.

124 5th "Whereas" clause of P.O. 819.

125 "Now, therefore" clause of LOI 1044.

126 Extension of the "BALIKBA YAN" Program dated 9 February 1976.

127 LOI 493 entitled Extension of Effectivity of the Balikbayan Program dated 30 December 1976.

128 LOI 652 entitled Extension of the Balikbayan Program dated 6 January 1978.

129 LOI 811 entitled Extension of Period for Operation of the Balikbayan Program dated 14 February 1979.

130 LOI 985 entitled Extension of the Balikbayan Program dated 21 January 1980.

131 Instituting the Balik Scientist Program under the Department of Science and Technology.

132 Special non-immigrant visas are issued in accordance with Section 47 of The Philippine Immigration Act of 1940, as amended. It states:

Section 47. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Act, the President is authorized(

a) When the public interest so warrants -

(1) To waive the documentary requirements for any class of nonimmigrants, under such conditions as he may impose;

(2) To admit, as nonimmigrants, aliens not otherwise provided for by this Act, who are coming for temporary period only, under such conditions as he may prescribe;

(3) To waive the passport requirements for immigrants, under such conditions as he may prescribe;

(4) To reduce or to abolish the passport visa fees in the case of any class of nonimmigrants who are nationals of countries which grant similar concessions to Philippine citizens of a similar class visiting such countries;

(5) To suspend the entry of aliens into the Philippines from any country in which cholera or other infectious or contagious disease is prevalent;

(b) For humanitarian reasons, and when not opposed to the public interest, to admit aliens who are refugees for religious, political, or racial reasons, in such classes of cases and under such conditions as he may prescribe.

133 An Act Instituting a Balikbayan Program.

134 Presidential Decree No. 1183 (Amending and Consolidating the Proviiiions on Travel Tax of Republic Act No. 1478 as Amended and Republic Act No. 6141, Prescribing the Manner of Collection Thereof, Providing Penalties for Violations Thereof, and for Other Purposes, dated' 21 August 1977) and Executive Order No. 283 (Restructuring the Travel Tax Exemptions and Restoring the Reduced Rates on Certain Individuals, Amending for this Purpose, Presidential Decree No. 1183, as Amended, dated July 25, 1987) exempted only Filipino overseas contract workers from the payment of the travel tax.

135 An Act Amending Republic Act Numbered 6768, Entitled, "An Act Instituting A "Balikbayan Program," by Providing Additional Benefits and Privileges to Balikbayan and for Other Purposes.

136 Republic Act No. 6768, as emended by Republic Act No. 9174, Section 2(c).

137 OWWA Board Resolution No. 038-03 dated 19 September 2003 entitled Guidelines on OWWA Membership, Article VIII, Section 2(4)(b).

138 Id. at Section 6(b).

139 < http://www.owwa.gov.ph/?q=content/programs-services>, (last visited 9 March 2016).

140 Id.

141 Id.

142 < http://nrco.dole.gov.ph/index.php/about-us/who-we-are>, (last visited .9 March 2016)

143 Republic Act No. 8042 (Migrant Workers and Overseas Filipinos Act of 1995), as amended by Republic Act No. 10022 dated 8 March 2010, Section 17.

144 An OFW is a person who is to be engaged, is engaged or has been engaged in a remunerated activity in a state of which he or she is not a citizen or on board a vessel navigating the foreign seas other than a government ship used for military or non-commercial purposes or on an installation located offshore or on the high seas [Republic Act No. 8042, Section 3(a)]

145 Republic Act No. 6768, as amended by Republic Act No. 9174, Section 6, par. 2.

146 <http://www.immigration.gov.ph/faqs/visa-inquiry/balikbayan-previlege> The website of the Bureau of Immigration states:

Those who are admitted as Balikbayans are given an initial stay of one (I) year. They may extend their stay for another one (1), two (2) or six (6) months provided that they present their valid passport and filled out the visa extension form and submit it to the Visa Extension Section in the BI Main Office or any BI Offices nationwide. An additional requirement will be ask (sic) for (sic) Balikbayans who have stayed in the Philippines after thirty six (36) months.

147 G.R. No. 151914, 31 July 2002.

148 G.R. No. 180088, 19 January 2009.

149 G.R. No. 209835, 22 September 2015.

150 Citizenship Retention and Re-acquisition Act of 2003.

151 435 U.S. 647 (1978).

152 Id.

153 284 Md. 425 (I 979).

154 The website of the Bureau of Immigration states:

Those who are admitted as Balikbayans are given an initial stay of one (1) year. They may extend their stay for another one (1), two (2) or six (6) months provided that they present their valid passport and filled out the visa extension form and submit it to the Visa Extension Section in the Bl Main Office or any Bl Offices nationwide. An additional requirement will be ask (sic) for (sic) Balikbayans who have stayed in the Philippines after thirty six (36 months).

This is available at http://www.immigration.gov.ph/faqs/visa-inquiry/balikbayan-privilege, (last visited 8 March 2016).

155 Petition to Deny Due Course, dated 21 Oct. 2015 (Elamparo), Annex E.

156 Jalosjos v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 193314, 26 February 2013; Mitra v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 191938, 2 July 2010; Gayo v. Verceles, G.R. No. 150477, 28 February 2005.

157 Petitioner submitted as evidence Exhibit "7," which is Brian's official transcript of records from the Beacon School in Taguig City. It states that Brian was enrolled in Grade 8 at the Beacon School for the academic year 2005-2006. Exhibit 7-A, a Certification from Sandra Bernadette Firmalino, Registrar of the De La Salle High School Department, indicates that in 2006, Brian transferred to La Salle Greenhills, and that he studied there until he graduated from high school in 2009. Exhibits "7-B" and "7-C'' are Hanna's permanent records at the Assumption College as an elementary and secondary student, respectively. They show that Hanna was enrolled in Grade 2 at Assumption College in Makati City for academic year 2005- 2006.

As for Anika, petitioner alleged that Anika was just under a year old when the former and her family relocated to the Philippines in May 2005 and therefore Anika was not enrolled in any school in 2005. Petitioner presented Exhibit "7-D," which is a Certificate of Attendance dated 8 April 2015 issued by the Directress of the Learning Connection, Ms. Julie Pascual Penaloza. It states that Anika attended pre-school at the Learning Connection in San Juan City from January to March 2007. Petitioner likewise offered as evidence Exhibit "7-E," a Certification dated 14 April 2015 issued by the Directress of the Greenmeadows Learning Center, Ms. Anna Villaluna-Reyes, Anika studied at the Greenmeadows Learning Center in Quezon City for academic year 2007-2008. Exhibit "7-F" is the Elementary Pupil's Permanent Record showing that Anika spent her kindergaiien and grade school years at the Assumption College. The record covers the years 2007 to 2013. The same Exhibit "7-F" indicates that Anika was born on 5 June 2004.

158 Marked as Exhibit "8."

159 Marked as Exhibits "11" and "12."

160 TCT No. 290260, issued by the Register of Deeds of Quezon City.

161 G.R. No. 187478 (2009).

162 718 A. 2d 1111 (1984).

163 Id.

164 COMELEC Comment dated 7 January 2016. p. 56.

165 COMELEC Comment, page 56.

166 G.R. No. 191970, 24 April 2012.

167 Jalosjos v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 193314. 26 February 2013.

168 Oglesby State Election Bd. v. Bayh 521 N.E. 2d 1313 (1988); Farnsworth v. Jones, 114 N.C. App. 182 (1994); Hale v. State of Mississippi Democratic Executive Committee (168 So. 3d 946 (2015).

169 No. 20 l 5-EC-00965--SCT( 2015).

170 Seep. 47, par. 157.

171 Section 236 (J) of the Tax Reform Act of 1997, R.A. No. 8424, 11 December 1997 provides:

(J) Supplying of Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN). - Any person required under the authority of this Code to make, render or file a return, statement or other document shall be supplied with or assigned a Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) which he shall indicate in such return, statement or document filed with the Bureau of Internal Revenue for his proper identification for tax purposes, and which he shall indicate in certain documents, such as, but not limited to the following:

172 Id.

173 Affidavit, p. 1.

174 No. 2015-EC-00965-SCT(2015).

175 G.R. No. 28328, 2 October 1928, 52 PHIL 130-138)

176 Comment-Opposition to the Petition for Certiorari (G.R. No. 221698-700) dated 8 January 2015, p. 51, par. 174.

177 Petitioner's Memorandum p. 279.

178 372 Md. 360 (2002).

179 314 U.S.441 (1941).

180 314 u. s. 456

181 Id.

182 Superior Court of North Carolina. Wake County. Business Court. Steve W Fowler and Elizabeth P. Fowler v. North Carolina Department of Revenue. No. 13 CVS 10989. 6 August 2014, citing Hall v. Wake Cnty. Bd. of Elections, 280 N.C. 600, 187 S .E. 2d 52 (1972). See also Robin Cates v. Olga Mescherskaya and Progressive Casualty Insurance Company. Civil Action No. 14-00729. Signed 1 July 2014. United States District Court, E.D. Louisiana, citing Cox, Cox, Filo, Camel & Wilson, LLC v. Sasol North Am., Inc., No. 11-856, 2012 WL 262613, at *5 (W. D. La. Jan. 30, 2012).

183 Memorandum for respondent Amado D. Valdez, p. 25.

184 372 Md. 360 (2002).

185 Transcript of Stenographic Notes taken during the Oral Arguments on 16 February 2016, pp. 85-86.

186 No. 20 l 5-EC-00965-SCT (2015).

187 114 N.C. App. 182 (1994).

188 968 So. 2d 745 (2007).

189 Pa. Superior Ct. 237 (1984) 473 A.2d 1069.

190 Receipt Nos. 827172 and 8220421, dated 23 February 2006.

191 372 Md. 360 (2002).

192 Republic Act No. 8189, 11 June 1996.

193 G.R. No. 191938, 19 October2010.

194 473 A.2d 1069 (1984).

195 §53.2 Exceptions.

(a) U.S. citizens, as defined in §41.0 of this chapter, are not required to bear U.S. passports when traveling directly between parts of the United States as defined in §51.l of this chapter.

(b) A U.S. citizen is not required to bear a valid U.S. passport to enter or d~part the United States:

(1) When traveling as a member of the Armed Forces of the United States on active duty and when he or she is in the uniform of, or bears documents identifying him or her as a member of, such Armed Forces, when under official orders or permit of such Armed Forces, and when carrying a military identification card; or

(2) When traveling entirely within the Western Hemisphere on a cruise: ship, and when the U.S. citizen boards the cruise ship at a port or place within the United States and returns on the return voyage of the same cruise ship to the same United States port or place from where he or she originally departed. That U.S. citizen may present a government-issued photo identification document in combination with either an original or a copy of his or her birth certificate, a Consular Report of Birth Abroad issued by the

Department, or a Certificate of Naturalization issued by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services before entering the United States; if the U.S. citizen is under the age of l6, he or she may present either an original or a copy of his or her birth certificate, a Consular Report of Birth Abroad issued by the Department, or a Certificate of Naturalization issued by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services; or

(3) When traveling as a U.S. citizen seaman, carrying an unexpired Merchant Marine Document (MMD) in conjunction with maritime business. The MMD is not sufficient to establish citizenship for purposes of issuance of a United States passport under part 51 of this chapter; or

(4) Trusted traveler programs-(i) NEXUS Program. When traveling as a participant in the NEXUS program, he or she may present a valid NEXUS program card when using a NEXUS Air kiosk or when entering the United States from contiguous territory or adjacent islands at a land or sea port-of-entry. A U.S. citizen who enters the United States by pleasure vessel from Canada under the remote inspection system may also present a NEXUS program card;

(ii) FAST program. A U.S. citizen who is traveling as a participant in the FAST program may present a valid FAST card when entering the United States from contiguous territory or adjacent islands at a land or sea port-of-entry;

(iii) SENTRI program. A U.S. citizen who is traveling as a participant in the SENTRI program may present a valid SENTRI card when entering the United States from contiguous territory or adjacent islands at a land or sea port-of-entry; The NEXUS, FAST, and SENTRI cards are not sufficient to establish citizenship for purposes of issuance of a U.S. passport under part 51 of this chapter; or

(5) When arriving at land ports of entry and sea ports of entry from contiguous territory or adjacent islands, Native American holders of American Indian Cards (Form I-872) issued by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) may present those cards; or

(6) When arriving at land or sea ports of entry from contiguous territory or adjacent islands, U.S. citizen holders of a tribal document issued by a United States qualifying tribal entity or group of United States qualifying tribal entities as provided in 8 CFR 235.1 (e) may present that document. Tribal documents are not sufficient to establish citizenship for purposes of issuance of a United States passport under part 51 of this chapter; or

(7) When bearing documents or combinations of documents the Secretary of Homeland Security has determined under Section 7209(b) of Public Law 108-458 (8 U.S.C. 1185 note) are sufficient to denote identity and citizenship. Such documents are not sufficient to establish citizenship for purposes of issuance of a U.S. passport under part 51 of this chapter; or

(8) When the U.S. citizen is employed directly or indirectly on the construction, operation, or maintenance of works undertaken in accordance with the treaty concluded on February 3, 1944, between the United States and Mexico regarding the functions of the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), TS 994, 9 Bevans 1166, 59 Stat. 1219, or other related agreements, provided that the U.S. citizen bears an official identification card issued by the IBWC and is traveling in connection with such employment; or

(9) When the Department of State waives, pursuant to EO 13323 of December 30, 2003, Section 2, the requirement with respect to the U.S. citizen because there is an unforeseen emergency; or

(10) When the Department of State waives, pursuant to EO 13323 of December 30, 2003, Sec 2, the requirement with respect to the U.S. citizen for humanitarian or national interest reasons; or

(11) When the U.S. citizen is a child under the age of 19 arriving from contiguous territory in the following circumstances:

(i) Children under age 16. A United States citizen who is under the age of 16 is permitted to present either an original or a copy of his or her birth certificate, a Consular Report of Birth Abroad, or a Certificate of Naturalization issued by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services when entering the United States from contiguous territory at land or sea ports-of-entry; or

(ii) Groups of children under age 19. A U.S. citizen who is under age 19 and who is traveling with a public or private school group, religious group, social or cultural orgai1ization, or team associated with a youth sport organization may present either an original or a copy: of his or her birth certificate, a Consular Report of Birth Abroad, or a Certificate of Naturalization issued by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services when arriving in the United States from contiguous territory at all land or sea ports of entry, when the group, organization or team is under the supervision of an adult affiliated with the organization and when the child has parental or legal guardian consent to travel. For purposes of this paragraph, an adult is considered to be a person who is age 19 or older. The following requirements will apply:

(A) The group, organization, or team must provide to CBP: upon crossing the border on organizational letterhead:

(1)The name of the group, organization or team, and the name of the supervising adult;

(2) A list of the children on the trip; and

(3) For each child, the primary address, primary phone number, date of birth, place of birth, and the name of at least one parent or legal guardian.

(B) The adult leading the group, organization, or team must demonstrate parental or legal guardian consent by certifying in the writing submitted in paragraph (b)(ll)(ii)(A) of this section that he or she has obtained for each child the consent of at least one parent or 1egal guardian.

(C) The procedure described in this paragraph is limited to members of the group, organization, or team who are under age 19. Other members of the group, organization, or team must comply with other applicable document and/or inspection requirements found in S CFR parts 211, 212, or 235.

196 G.R. No.195649, 16 April 2013.

197

198 Republic v. Court of Appeals G.R. No. 97906, 21 May 1992.

199 Section 17.

200 Child and Youth Welfare Code (1974), Article 38.

201 Domestic Adoption Act of 1998, Sec. 15.

202 A.M. No. 02-6-02-SC, Sec. 18.

203 It must be noted that in the US, adoption statutes prohibit adoption files from being inspected by birth parents, the general public, and even the adult adoptees themselves, with most states providing that sealed adopted records could be opened only by court order.203 In the case of (In Re: Roger B 418 N.E.2d 751 (III.1981), the Court eventually held that the adoptee has no fundamental right to view his adoption records since the status of an adoptee does not result at birth. It is derived from legal proceedings the purpose of which is to protect the best interests of the child.

204 Republic Act No. 8552 entitled "Domestic Adoption Act of 1998," Section 14.

205 CIVIL CODE, Art. 410.

206 Baldos v. Court of Appeals and Pillazar, 638 Phil. 601 (2010).

207 Marked as Exhibit "2."

208 Reyes v. Sotero, 517 Phil. 708 (2006).

209 Id.

210 The original certificate of birth shall be stamped "cancelled," annotated with the issuance of an amended birth certificate in its place, and shall be sealed in the civil registry records. With due regard to the confidential nature of the proceedings and records of adoption, the civil registrar where the foundling was registered is charged with the duty to seal the foundling certificate in the civil registry records, which can be opened only upon order of the court which issued the decree of adoption (Section 16(B)(3)(c), A.M. No. 02-6-02-SC, 31 July 2002).

211 Section 2, Statement of Policy.

212 Section 3(d).

213 Section 3(e).

214 Section 13(e). ,

215 In 1950, an application for a Philippine passport was filed for a boy, who had been found by Sps. Hale in an air raid shelter. The boy was only three years old when he was found. His parents, sister and grandmother were among the dead. The DFA asked for a DOJ opinion with the regard to the status of foundlings. In 1951, the Secretary of Justice released DOJ Opinion No. 189, series of 1951 which stated that, following international conventions, a foundling is presumed to have assumed the citizenship of the place where he or she is found. Since then, the DF A has been issuing passports to foundlings.

216 < http://www.dfa.gov.ph/index.php/consular-services/passport-informdtion> (last accessed 8 March 2016).

217 Section 44. Entries in official records. - Entries in official records made in the performance of his duty by a public officer of the Philippines, or by a person in the performance off duty specially enjoined by law, are prima facie evidence of the facts therein stated. (38)

218 Lejano v. People, 652 Phil. 512 (2010).

219 In Go, Sr. v. Ramos, G.R. Nos. 167569, 167570, 171946, 4 September 2009, 614 PHIL 451-484, the Court explained that res judicata applies only when the following concur: (a) a person's citizenship is raised as a material issue in a controversy where that person is a party; (b) the Solicitor General or an authorized representative took active part in the resolution of the issue; and (c) the finding of citizenship is affirmed by this Court. These conditions do not obtain in this case.

220 Petition for Certiorari (G.R. No. 221697) dated 28 December 2015, Annex I-series, Exhibit 20.

221 In In Re: Roger B, the Supreme Court of Illinois explained the potent policy interests which are promoted by the sealing of adoption records. Included in those interests are the facilitation of the adoption process by maintaining the anonymity and the right to privacy of the natural parents, and the integrity of the new adoptive family:

Confidentiality is needed to protect the right to privacy of the natural parent. The natural parents, having determined it is in the best interest of themselves and the child, have placed the child for adoption. This process is not done merely with the expectation of anonymity, but also with the statutory assurance that his or her identity will be shielded from public disclosure. Quite conceivably, the natural parents have established a new family unit with the expectation of confidentiality concerning the adoption that occurred several years earlier.

x x x x

Confidentiality also must be promoted to protect the right of the adopting parents. The adopting parents have taken into their home a child whom they will regard as their own and whom they will love, support, and raise as an integral part of the family unit. They should be given the opportunity to create a stable family relationship free from unnecessary intrusion. The Section creates a situation in which the emotional attachments are directed toward the relationship with the new parents. The adoptive parents need and deserve the child's loyalty as they grow older, and particularly in their later years.

x x x x

The State's concern of promoting confidentiality to protect the integrity of the adoption process is well expressed by the following excerpt from Klibanoff, Genealogical Information in Adoption: The Adoptees Quest and the Law:

"The primary interest of the public is to preserve the integrity of the adoptive process. That is, the continued existence of adoption as a humane solution to the serious social problem of children who are or may become unwanted, abused or neglected. In order 1to maintain it, the public has an interest in assuring that changes in law, policy or practice will not be made which negatively affect the supply of capable adoptive parents or the willingness of biological parents to make decisions which are best for them and their children. We should not increase the risk of neglect to any child, nor should we force parents to resort to the black market in order to surrender children they can't care for.

x x x x

No one has yet shown that decades of policy protecting the anonymity of the biological parents and the security from intrusion of the parent-child relationship after adoption have been misguided. Quite the contrary. The overwhelming success of adoption as an institution which has provided millions of children with families, and vice-versa, cannot be easily attacked.

The public has a strong interest, too, in preserving the confidential non-public nature of the process. Public attitudes toward illegitimacy and parents who neglect or abuse children have not changed sufficiently to warrant careless disclosure of the circumstances leading to adoption.

But the public also has an interest in the mental health of children who have been adopted-in order that they not become burdens to society. Some provision for the relatively small group of adoptees whose psychological needs are compelling would appear; necessary."

x x x x

The State certainly must protect the interest of the adoptee, as well as the rights of the natural and adopting parents. When the adoptee is a minor, /there is no dispute that the sealed-record provisions serve this end. The child, in his new family environment, is insulated from intrusion from the natural parents. The child is protected from any stigma resulting from illegitimacy, neglect, or abuse. The preclusion: of outside interference allows the adopted child to develop a relationship of love and cohesiveness with the new family unit. Prior to adulthood, the adoptee's interest is consistent with that of the adopting and natural parents.

Upon reaching majority, the adoptee often develops a countervailing interest that is in direct conflict with the other parties, particularly the natural parents. The adoptee wishes to determine his natural identity, while the privacy interest of the. natural parents remain, perhaps stronger than ever. The Section recognizes that the fight of privacy is not absolute. It allows the court to evaluate the needs of the adoptee as well as the nature of the relationships and choices made by all parties concerned. The statute, by providing for release of adoption records only upon issuance of a court order, does no more than allow the court to balance the interests of all the parties and make a determination based on the facts and circumstances of each individual case.221 (Citations omitted)

222 Exhibit 30, Annex I-series in G.R. No. 229697; Exhibit 30 (Tatad), Exhibit 20-22 (Contreras/Valdez), Annex M-series of Petition for Certiorari in G.R. Nos. 229688-700.

223 Exhibit 30-A, Annex I-series in G.R. No. 229697; Exhibit 30-A (Tatad, Exhibit 23 (Contreras/Valdez), Annex M-series of Petition for Certiorari in G.R. Nos. 229688-700.

224 Exhibit 31, Annex I-series in G.R. No. 229697; Exhibit 31 (Tatad), Exhibit 34 (Contreras/Valdez), Annex M-series of Petition for Certiorari in G.R. Nos. 229688-700.

225 Section 3(h), Rules and Regulations to Implement the Domestic Adopt(on Act of 1998, IRR-R.A. 8552 (1998); Also see Rule 26, Implementing Rules and Regulations of Act No. 3753 and Other Laws on Civil Registration, NSO Administrative Order No. 1-93 (1992); Section 3(e), Rule on Adoption, A.M. No. 02-6-02-SC (2002).

226 Articles 255 and 258 of the Civil Code state:

Article 255. Children born after one hundred and eighty days following the celebration of the marriage, and before three hundred days following its dissolution or the separation of the spouses shall be presumed to be legitimate.

Against this presumption no evidence shall be admitted other than that of the physical impossibility of the husband's having access to his life within the first one hundred and twenty days of the three hundred which preceded the birth of the child.

Article 258. A child born within one hundred eighty days following the celebration of the marriage is prima facie presumed to be legitimate. Such a child is conclusively presumed to be legitimate in any of these cases:

(1) If the husband, before the marriage, knew of the pregnancy of the wife;

(2) If he consented, being present, to the putting of his surname on the record of birth of the child;

(3) If he expressly or tacitly recognized the child as his own.

A similar provision is found in the Family Code:

Article 168. If the marriage is terminated and the mother contracted another marriage within three hundred days after such termination of the former marriage, these rules shall govern in the absence of proof to the contrary:

(1) A child born before one hundred eighty days after the solemnization of the subsequent marriage is considered to have been conceived during the former marriage, provided it be born within three hundred days after the termination of the former marriage;

(2) A child born after one hundred eighty days following the celebration of the subsequent marriage is considered to have been conceived during such marriage, even though it be born within the three hundred days after the termination of the former marriage.

227 Rule 131, Section 3 of the Rules of Court, states:

Section 3. Disputable presumptions. - The following presumptions are satisfactory if uncontradicted, but may be contradicted and overcome by other evidence.

x x x x

(dd) That if the marriage is terminated and the mother contracted another marriage within three hundred days after such termination of the former marriage these rides shall govern in the absence of proof to the contrary:

(1) A child born before one hundred eighty days after the solemnization of the subsequent marriage is considered to have been conceived during the former marriage, provided it be born within three hundred days after the termination of the former marriage;

(2) A child born after one hundred eighty days following the celebration of the subsequent marriage is considered to have been conceived during such marriage, even though it be born within the three hundred days after the termination of the former marriage.

228 Alejandro E. Sebastian, The Philippine Law on Legitimacy, 11 PHIL. L.J. 35 (1931), p. 42.

229 G.R. No. 200169, 28 January 2015.

230 CIVIL CODE, Art. 172.

231 Section 5, Act No. 3753 states:

SECTION 5. Registration and Certification of Births. - The declaration of the physician or midwife in attendance at the birth or, in default thereof, the declaration of either parent of the newborn child, shall be sufficient for the registration of a birth in the civil register. Such declaration shall be exempt from the documentary stamp tax land shall be sent to the local civil registrar not later than thirty days after the birth, by the physician, or midwife in attendance at the birth or by either parent of the newly born child.

In such declaration, the persons above mentioned shall certify to the following facts: (a) date and hour of birth; (b) sex and nationality of infant; (c) names, citizenship, and religion of parents or, in case the father is not known, of the mother alone; (d) civil status of parents; (e) place where the infant was born; (f) and such other data may be required in the regulation to be issued.

In case of an illegitimate child, the birth certificate shall be signed and sworn to jointly by the parents of the infant or only the mother if the father refuses. In the latter case, it shall not be permissible to state or reveal in the document the name of the father who refuses to acknowledge the child, or to give therein any information by which such father could be identified.

232 Supra note 229.

233 In Lucas v. Lucas (G.R. No. 190710, 665 Phil. 795-815 [2011]), the Court explained:

Notwithstanding these, it should be stressed that the issuance of a DNA testing order remains discretionary upon the court. The court may, for example, consider whether there is absolute necessity for the DNA testing. If there is already prep6nderance of evidence to establish paternity and the DNA test result would only be corroborative, the court may, in its discretion, disallow a DNA testing.

This pronouncement was reiterated in Tecson v. COMELEC (G.R. Nos. 161434, 161634, 161824, 468 Phil. 421-75 [2004]), in which the Court stated: In case proof of filiation or paternity would be unlikely to satisfactorily establish or would be difficult to obtain, DNA testing which examines genetic codes obtained from body cells of the illegitimate child and any physical residue of the long dead parent could be resorted to."

234 Section 765 of Act 190 states:

SECTION 765. How a Child May be Adopted. - An inhabitant of the Philippine Islands, not married, or a husband and wife jointly, may petition the Court of First Instance of the province in which they reside for leave to adopt a minor child: but a written consent must be given for such adoption by the child, if of the age of fourteen years, and by each of his or her living parents who is not hopelessly insane or intemperate, or has not abandoned such child, or if there are not such parents, or if the parents are unknown, or have abandoned such child, or if they are hopelessly insane or intemperate, then by the legal guardian, or if there is no such guardian, then by a discreet and suitable person appointed by the court to act in the proceedings as the next friend of such child; but when such child is an inmate of an orphan asylum or children's home, organized under the laws of the Philippine Islands, and has been previously abandoned by its parents or guardians, or voluntarily surrendered by its parents or guardians to the trustees or directors of an asylum or children's home, then the written consent of the president of the board of trustees or directors of such asylum must be given: Provided, nevertheless, That nothing herein contained shall authorize a guardian to adopt his ward before the termination of the guardianship and the final settlement and approval of his accounts as guardian by the court. (Emphases supplied)

235 Sections 3 and 7, Rule 100 (Adoption and Custody of Minors) of the 1940 Rules of Court, state:

SECTION 3. Consent to Adoption. - There shall be filed with the petition a written consent to the adoption signed by the child, if over fourteen years of age and not incompetent, and by each of its known living parents who is not insane or hopelessly intemperate or has not abandoned such child, or if there are no such parents by the general guardian or guardian ad litem of the child, or if the child is in the custody of an orphan asylum, children's home, or benevolent society or person, by the proper officer or officers of such asylum, home, or society, or by such person; but if the child is illegitimate and has not been recognized, the consent of its father to the adoption shall not be required.

SECTION 7. Proceedings as to Vagrant or Abused Child. - When the parents of any minor child are dead, or by reason of long absence or legal or physical disability have abandoned it, or cannot support it through vagrancy, negligence, or misconduct, or neglect or refuse to support it, or unlawfully beat or otherwise habitually maltreat it, or cause or allow it to engage in common begging, or to commit offenses against the law, the proper Court of First Instance, upon petition filed by some reputable resident of the province setting forth the facts, may issue an order requiring such parents to show cause, or, if the parents are dead or cannot be found, requiring the fiscal of the province to show cause, at a time and place fixed in the order, why the child should not be taken from its parents, if living; and if upon hearing it appear that the allegations of the petition are true, and that it is for the best interest of the child, the court may make an order taking it from its parents, if living, and committing it to any suitable orphan asylum, children's home, or benevolent society or person, to be ultimately placed, by adoption or otherwise, in a home found for it by such asylum, children's home, society, or person.

236 Sections 3 and 7, Rule 99 of the 1964 Rules of Court, provide:

SECTION 3. Consent to Adoption. - There shall be filed with the petition a written consent to the adoption signed by the child, if fourteen years of age or over and not incompetent, and by the child's spouse, if any, and by each of its known living parents who is not insane or hopelessly intemperate or has not abandoned such child, or if there are no such parents by the general guardian or guardian ad litem of the child, or if the child is in the custody of an orphan asylum, children's home, or benevolent society or person, by the proper officer or officers of such asylum, home, or society, or by such person; but if the child is illegitimate and has not been recognized, the consent of its father to the adoption shall not be required.

If the person to be adopted is of age, only his or her consent and that of the spouse, if any, shall be required.

SECTION 7. Proceedings as to Vagrant or Abused Child. - When the parents of any minor child are dead, or by reason of long absence or legal or physical disability have abandoned it, or cannot support it through vagrancy, negligence, or misconduct, or neglect or refuse to support it, or treat it with excessive harshness or give it corrupting orders, counsels, or examples, or cause or allow it to engage in begging, or to commit offenses against the law, the proper Court of First Instance, upon petition filed by some reputable resident of the province setting forth the facts, may issue an order requiring such parents to show cause, or, if the parents are dead or cannot be found, requiring the fiscal of the province to show cause, at a time and place fixed in the order, why the child should not be taken from its parents, if living; and if upon the hearing it appears that the allegations of the petition are true, and that it is for the best interest of the child, the court may make an order taking it from its parents, if living; and committing it to any suitable orphan asylum, children's home, or benevolent society or person to be ultimately placed, by adoption or otherwise, in a home found for it by such asylum, children's home, society or person.

237 Sections 1 and 5 of Act No. 1670 provide:

SECTION 1. The board of trustees or directors of any asylum or institution in which poor children are cared for and maintained at public expense are hereby authorized, with the consent of the Director of Health, to place any orphan or other child so maintained therein whose parents are unknown, or being known are unable or unwilling to support such child, in charge of any suitable person who may desire to take such child and shall famish satisfactory evidence of his ability suitably to maintain, care for, and educate such child.

SECTION 5. Upon the application of any person to the trustees or directors of any asylum or institution where poor children are maintained at public expense to adopt any child so maintained therein, it shall be the duty of such trustees or directors, with the approval of the Director of Health, to report the fact to the provincial fiscal, or in the city of Manila to the city attorney, and such official shall hereupon I prepare the necessary adoption papers and present the matter to the proper court. The costs of such proceedings in court shall be de oficio.

238 Administrative Code, Act No. 2657, 31 December 1916.

239 Sections 545 and 548 of Act No. 2711 provide:

SECTION 545. Transfer of child from institution for poor children. - The competent authorities of any asylum or institution in which poor child en are cared for and maintained at public expense are authorized, subject to regulations approved by the Secretary of the Interior, to place any orphan or other child so maintained therein whose parents are unknown, or being known are unable or u willing to support such child, in charge of any suitable person who may desire to take such child and shall furnish satisfactory evidence of his ability suitably to maintain, care for, and educate such child.

The intrusting of a child to any person as herein provided shall not constitute a legal adoption and shall not affect the civil status of such child or prejudice the right of any person entitled to its legal custody or guardianship.

SECTION 548. Adoption of child from institution for poor children. - Upon the application of any person to the competent authorities of any asylum or institution where the poor children are maintained at public expense to adopt any child so maintained therein, it shall be the duty of such authorities, with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, to report the fact to the provincial fiscal, or in the City of Manila to the fiscal of the city, and such official shall thereupon prepare the necessary adoption papers and present the matter to the proper court. The costs of such proceeding in court shall be de oficio.

240 The law provides:

SECTION 8. Who May Be Adopted. - Only a legally free child may be the subject of inter-country adoption. In order that such child may be considered for placement, the following documents must be submitted to the Board:

a) Child study;

b) Birth certificate/foundling certificate;

c) Deed of voluntary commitment/decree of abandonment/death certificate of parents;

d) Medical evaluation/history;

e) Psychological evaluation, as necessary; and

f) Recent photo of the child

241 An Act Requiring the Certification of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to Declare a "Child Legally Available for Adoption" as a Prerequisite for Adoption Proceedings (2009).

242 Pursuant to Section 2(3) of R.A. 9523, an "Abandoned Child" refer to a child who has no proper parental care or guardianship, or whose parent(s) have deserted him/her for a period of at least three (3) continuous months, and the term includes a founding.

243 Sections 4 and 5 of R.A. 9523 state:

Section 4. Procedure for the Filing of the Petition. - The petition shall be filed in the regional office of the DSWD where the child was found or abandoned.

The Regional Director shall examine the petition and its supporting documents, if sufficient in form and substance and shall authorize the posting of the notice of the petition conspicuous place for five (5) consecutive days in the locality where the child was found.

The Regional Director shall act on the same and shall render a recommendation not later than five (5) working days after the completion of its posting. He/she shall transmit a copy of his/her recommendation and records to the Office of the Secretary within forty eight (48) hours from the date of the recommendation.

Section 5. Declaration of Availability for Adoption. - Upon finding merit in the petition, the Secretary shall issue a certification declaring the child legally available for adoption within seven (7) working days from receipt of the recommendation.

Said certification, by itself shall be the sole basis for the immediate issuance by the local civil registrar of a foundling certificate. Within seven (7) working days, the local civil registrar shall transmit the founding certificate to the National Statistic Office (NSO).

244 Guidelines on the Issuance of DSWD Certification Declaring a Child Legally Available for Adoption, DSWD Administrative Order No. 012-11 (2011).

245 G.R. No. L-16922, 30 April 1963.

246 134 Phil. 901-912 (1968).

247 G.R. No. L-30576, 10 February 1976.

248 274 Phil. 1157-1249 (1991).

249 G.R. Nos. 161434, 161634, 161824, 468 Phil. 421-75 (2004).

250 The Solicitor-General, during the oral arguments claimed that based on statistics obtained from the Philippine Statistics Authority, 10,558,278 children (99.03%) were born to Filipino parents while 15,986 (0.07%) were born to foreigners in the Philippines from 1965 to 1975.

251 People v. Veneracion, 319 Phil: 364 (1995).

252 Alexander Hamilton, Federalist Paper No. 22; emphasis supplied.

253 RULES OF COURT, Rule 128, Sec. 1.

254 93 Phil. 257 (1953).

255 Id. The passage cited In re Bohenko's Estate, 4 N.Y.S. 2nd. 427, which also cited Tortora vs. State of New York, 269 N.Y. 199 N.E. 44; Hart vs. Hudson River Bridge Co., 80 N.Y. 622.

256 Id. The passage cited 1 Moore on Facts, Sec. 596.

257 RULES OF COURT, Rule 112

Section 1. Preliminary Investigation Defined; When Required - Preliminary investigation is an inquiry or proceeding to determine whether there is sufficient ground to engender a well-founded belief that a crime has been committed and the respondent is probably guilty thereof , and should be held for trial.

258 Section 6. When warrant of arrest may issue.- (a) By the Regional Trial Court. - Within ten (10) days from the filing of the complaint or information, the judge shall personally evaluate the resolution of the prosecutor and its supporting evidence. He may immediately dismiss the case if the evidence on record clearly fails to establish probable cause. If he finds probable c use, he shall issue a warrant of arrest, or a commitment order if the accused has already been arrested pursuant to a warrant issued by the judge who conducted the preliminary investigation or when the complaint or information was filed pursuant to Section 7 of this Rule. In case of doubt on the existence f probable cause, the judge may order the prosecutor to present additional evidence within five (5) days from notice and the issue must be resolved by the court within thirty (30) days from the filing of the complaint of information.

259 RULES OF COURT, Rule 133

Section 5. Substantial evidence. - In cases filed before administrative or quasi-judicial bodies, a fact may be deemed established if it is supported by substantial evidence, or that amount of relevant evidence which a reasonable mind might accept as adequate to justify conclusion.

260 RULES OF COURT, Rule 133

Section 1. Preponderance of evidence, how determined. - In civil cases, the party having the burden of proof must establish his case by a preponderance of evidence. In determining where the preponderance or superior weight of evidence on the issues involve lies, the court may consider all the facts and circumstances of the case, the witnesses' manner of testifying, their intelligence, their means and opportunity of knowing the facts to which they are testifying, the nature of the facts to which they testify, the probability or improbability of their testimony, their interest or want of interest, and also their personal credibility so far as the same may legitimate appear upon the trial. The court may also consider the number of witnesses, though the preponderance is not necessarily with the greater number.

261 RULES OF COURT, Rule 130

Section 51. Character evidence not generally admissible; exceptions-

(a) In Criminal Cases:

(1) The accused may prove his good moral character which is pertinent to the moral trait involved in the offense charged.

(2) Unless in rebuttal, the prosecution may not prove his bad moral character which is pertinent to the moral trait involved in the offense charged.

(3) The good or bad moral character of the offended party may be proved if it tends to establish in any reasonable degree the probability or improbability of the offense charged.

262 Mercado, Jr. v. Employees' Compensation Commission, 223 Phil. 483r493 (1985).

263 People vs. Condemena, L-22426, May 29, 1968, 23 SCRA 910, 919.

264 Lepanto Consolidated Mining Company v. Dumapis, G.R. No. 163210, 13 August 2008, 562 SCRA 103, 113-114.

265 Memorandum for public respondent COMELEC, p. 21

266 Petition for Certiorari (G.R. 221697), p. 107.

267 Oral Arguments, TSN, 16 August 2016.

268 Tecson v. COMELEC, 468 Phil. 421 (2004).

269 1987 Constitution, Article XV, Section 3(2).

270 See p. 55

271 Erwin Chemerinsky, Constitutional law: Principles and Policies l 7-l 9t3'd ed. 2006).

272 William Michael Treanor, Against Textualism, 103 Nw. U. L. Rev. 983-1006 (2009). :

http://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/facpub, Last Accessed: 8 March 2016.

273 Joaquin Bernas, SJ, The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines; A Commentary, p. 997 (2009).

274 In this approach, the justice analyzes the intention of the framers of the Constitution and the circumstances of its ratification.

275 The justice draws inferences from the "three- cornered power relationships" found in the Constitution. He gives as example 'separation of powers." In other words, a justice relies, not on the text of the Constitution, but on structure.

276 This relies on established precedents. For Bernas, the Supreme Court Decisions are, to a certain extent, a "second set of constitutional texts."

277 This form of interpretation "seeks to interpret the Filipino moral commitments that are embedded in the constitutional document. The Constitution, after all, as the Preamble says, is meant to be an embodiment of 'our ideals and aspirations. Among these may be our innate religiosity, respect for human dignity, and the celebration of cultural and ethnic diversity."

278 The justice weighs and compares the costs to benefits that might be found in conflicting rules.

279 Madisonian Tectonics: How Form Follows Function in Constitutional and Architectural Interpretation, Jonathan Turley, The George Washington Law Review, Vol. 83: 308.

280 Eskridge, William N. Jr., "Relationships between Formalism and Functionalism in Separation of Powers Cases" · (1998). Faculty Scholarship Series. Available online at http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/fss_papers/3807. Last Accessed on: 8 March 2016.

281 Angara v. Electoral Commission, 63 Phil. 139 (1936).

282 252 U.S. 416 (1920).

283 Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, Vol. 29, pp. 401-415.

284 Petition, p. 12.

285 Tafiada and Fernando, Constitution of the Philippines, Vol. I, 4th Ed., pp.:23-24 (1952).

286 Tafiada and Fernando, Constitution of the Philippines, Vol. I, 4th Ed. p. l3, (1952).

287 A majority of the delegates elected - 142 out of 202 - were lawyers. Of these lawyers, 10 were law professors. Likewise there were 6 other educators who were elected as delegates, 2 of them political scientists. There were also a respectable number of farmers and businessmen. Fifty-five of them can be classified under this category. Almost a majority of the total number of delegates had previously served as public officials mostly in an elective capacity. Thus there were many former senators, and representatives and assemblymen in the ranks of the delegates (Id. at 6).

288 Martin v. Hunter's Lessee, 14 U.S. 304 (1816).

289 Calalang v. Williams, 70 Phil. 726 (1940).

290 Id.

291 Id.

292 Memorandum for public respondent COMELEC, p. 56.

293 392 Phil. 327 (2000).

294 COMELEC Comment, p. 28.

295 The following excerpts show that the Court characterized jus sanguinis as the predominating regime of citizenship:

a) Roa v. Insular Collector of Customs (1912)

"A reading of article 17 of the Civil Code, above copied, is sufficient to show that the first paragraph affirms and recognizes the principle of nationality by place of birth, jus soli. The second, that of jus sanguinis; and the last two that of free selection, with the first predominating."

b) Torres v. Tan Chim (1940)

"In abrogating the doctrine laid down in the Roa case and making jus sanguinis the predominating principle in the determination of Philippine citizenship, the Constitution did not intend to exclude those who were citizens of the Philippines by judicial declaration at the time of its adoption. If on the strength of the Roa decision a person was considered a full-pledged Philippine citizen (Art. IV, sec. 1, No. 1) on the date of the adoption of the Constitution when jus soli had been the prevailing doctrine, he cannot be divested of his Filipino citizenship."

c) Villahermosa v. Commissioner of Immigration (1948)

"After the Constitution, mere birth in the Philippines of a Chinese father and Filipino mother does not ipso facto confer Philippine citizenship, and jus sanguinis instead of jus soli is the predominating factor on questions of citizenship, thereby rendering obsolete the decision in Roa vs. Collector of Customs, 23 Phil., and U. S. vs. Lim Bin, 36 Phil., and similar cases on which petitioner's counsel relies."

d) Talaroc v. Uy (1952)

"In abrogating the doctrine laid down in the Roa case and making jus sanguinis the predominating principle in the determination of Philippine citizenship, the Constitution did not intend to exclude those who were citizens of the Philippines by judicial declaration at the time of its adoption. If on the strength of the Roa decision a person was considered a full-pledged Philippine citizen (Art. IV, sec. 1, No. 1) on the date of the adoption of the Constitution when jus soli had been the prevailing doctrine, he cannot be divested of his Filipino citizenship."

296 Translated by Licenciados Clifford S. Walton and Nestor Ponce de Leon. Published under authority of Major-General William Ludlow Military Governor of Havana. Edited by Major Clifford S. Walton.

Available on line at https://archive.org/stream/spanishcivilcode00spairich/spanishcivilcode00spairich_ djvu.txt. (last visited at 9 March 2016).

297 Supra note 1.

298 Justice Vitug wrote: "The year 1898 was another turning point in Philippine history. Already in the state of decline as a superpower, Spain was forced to so cede her sole colony ip the East to an upcoming world power, the United States. An accepted principle of international law dictated that a change in sovereignty, while resulting in an abrogation of all political laws then in force, would have no effect on civil laws, which would remain virtually intact."

299 Tecson v. Comelec citing Leon T. Garcia, The Problems of Citizenship in the Philippines, Rex Bookstore, 1949, at pp. 31-32, supra note l.

300 Id at. 23-26, cited in Tecson v. Comelec, supra note 1.

301 Tecson v. Comelec, supra note 1.

302 Tecson v. Comelec, supra note __ .

303 Article III, Section 1 of the 1973 Constitution states:

Section 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:

1. Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution.

xxxx

Article IV, Section 1 of the 1987 Constitution, states:

Section 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:

1. Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution;

xxxx

304 1987 Constitution, Preamble.

305 Id.

306 Id.

307 23 Phil 315 (1912).

308 69 Phil. 518 (1940).

309 70 Phil. 287 (1940).

310 Tafiada and Fernando, Constitution of the Philippines, Vol. II, 4th Ed. (1952), p. 649.

311 Talaroc v. Uy, 92 Phil. 52 (1952).

Facts: This is an action to contest the election of Uy to the office of Municipal Mayor on the ground that he is Chinese, therefore, ineligible. He was born in the Philippines in 1912 of a Filipino mother and a Chinese father. His parents did not get married until 1914. His father died in 1917, while his mother died in 1949. Uy had voted in previous elections and held various positions in the government. He never went to China.

Held: On the strength of the Roa doctrine, Uy can be considered a Filipino citizen on the date of the adoption of the Constitution when jus soli has been the prevailing doctrine. The status of those persons who were considered Filipino citizens under the prevailing doctrine of jus soli would not be affected by the change of doctrine upon the effectivity of the Philippine Constitution.

312 Id.

313 92 Phil. 61 (1952).

314 70 Phil. 161-166 (1940).

315 223 Phil. 357-363 (1985).

316 U.S. Constitution, Art. II, Sec. I.

317 Jack Maskell. "Qualifications for President and the 'Natural Born' Citizenship Eligibility Requirement", Congressional Research Service, 14 November 2011 <https://fas.org,tsgp/crs/misc/R42097.pdf> (last visited 8 March 2016).

318 Lawrence B. Solum, Commentary, "Originalism and the Natural Born Citizen Clause," l07 Mich. L. Rev First Impressions 22, 22 (2010).

319 Id.

320 Id.

321 Id. at 26

322 See id; F.E. Edwards, Natural Bum British Subjects at Common Law, 14 Journal of the Society of Comparative Legislation 314, 315 (1914) <http://www.jstor.org/stable/752349> (last visited 8 March 2016).

323 A Dictionary Of The English Language: In Which The Words are Deduced from Their Originals, And Illustrated in Their Different Significations By Examples from the Best Writers, To Which Are Prefixed, A History of the Language, And An English Grammar (2nd ed. 1756).

324 The Founders' Constitution, Volume 2, Article I, Section 8, Clause 4 (Citizenship), Document 1, The University of Chicago Press http://presspubs.uchicago.edu/founders/documents/a1_8_4_citizenships1.html (last visited 8 March 2016).

325 Sections 4 and 7, Article VI of the 1935 Constitution state:

Section 4. No person shall be a Senator unless he be a natural born citizen of the Philippines and, at the time of his election, is at least thirty-five years of age, a qualified elector, and a resident of the Philippines for not less than two years immediately prior to his election.

Section 7. No person shall be a Member of the House of Representatives unless he be a natural born citizen of the Philippines, and, at the time of his election, is at least twenty-five years of age, a qualified elector, and a resident of the province in which he is chosen for not less than one year immediately prior to his election.

Section 3, Art. VII of the 1935 Constitution, states:

Section 3. No person may be elected to the office of President or Vice-President, unless he be a natural born citizen of the Philippines, a qualified voter, forty years of age or over, and has been a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding the election.

326 Tañada and Fernando, Constitution of the Philippines, Vol. II, 4th Ed. (1952), pp. 974-975.

327 Tañada and Fernando, Constitution of the Philippines, Vol. II, 4th Ed. (1952), p. 975.

328 Id. at 404-405.

329 Sections 4 and 2, Art. VII of the 1973 Constitution, state:

Section 4. No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election. (as amended in the January 27, 1984 Plebiscite)

Section 2. There shall be a Vice-President who shall have the same qualifications and term of office as the President and may be removed from office in the same manner as the President as provided in Article XIII, Section 2 of this Constitution.

330 Sections 2 and 3, Art. VII of the 1987 Constitution, read:

Section 2. No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election.

Section 3. There shall be a Vice-President who shall have the same qualifications and term of office and be elected with and in the same manner as the President. He may be removed from office in the same manner as the President.

331 Section 4, Article III.

332 This section states:

Section 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:

xxxx

(3) Those born before January 17, 1973, of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority; and

xxxx

333 409 Phil. 633 (2001).

334 Chief Justice (then Associate Justice) Panganiban's Concurring Opinion in Bengson III, id.

335 23 Phil 315, 338 (1912).

336 Laurel, Proceedings of the Philippine Constitutional Convention, Vol. V, p. 1032.

337 79 Phil. 249, 256 (1947).

338 Id.

339Tañada and Fernando, supra.

340 See: Ang Bagong Bayani-OFW v. Commission on Elections, 412 Phil. 308-374 (2001).

341 The provision states:

SECTION 5. Registration and Certification of Births. - xxxx

In the case of an exposed child, the person who found the same shall report to the local civil registrar the place, date and hour of finding and other attendant circumstances.

342 Commonwealth Act No. 473 (1939).

343 Section 5 of C.A. 4 73 states:

SECTION 5. Declaration of Intention. - One year prior to the filing of his petition for admission to Philippine citizenship, the applicant for Philippine citizenship shall file with the Bureau of Justice a declaration under oath that it is bona fide his intention to become a citizen of the Philippines. Such declaration shall set forth the name, age, occupation, personal description, place of birth, last foreign residence and allegiance, the date of arrival, the name of the vessel or aircraft, if any, in which he came to the Philippines, and the place of residence in the Philippines at the time of making the declaration. No declaration shall be valid until lawful entry for permanent residence has been established and a certificate showing the date, place, and manner of his arrival has been issued. The declarant must also state that he has enrolled his minor children, if any, in any of the public schools or private schools recognized by the Office of Private Education of the Philippines, where Philippine history, government, and civics are taught or prescribed as part of the school curriculum, during the entire period of the residence in the Philippines required of him prior to the hearing of his petition for naturalization as Philippine citizen. Each declarant must furnish two photographs of himself.

344 Section 7 of C.A. 473 states:

SECTION 7. Petition for Citizenship. - Any person desiring to acquire Philippine citizenship shall file with the competent court, a petition in triplicate, accompanied by two photographs of the petitioner, setting forth his name and surname; his present and former places of residence; his occupation; the place and date of his birth; whether single or married and if the father of children, the name, age, birthplace and residence of the wife and of the children; the approximate date of his or her arrival in the Philippines, the name of the port of debarkation, and, if he remembers it, the name of the ship on which he came; a declaration that he has the qualifications required by this Act, specifying the same, and that he is not disqualified for naturalization under the provisions of this Act; that he has complied with the requirements of section five of this Act; and that he will reside continuously in the Philippines from the date of the filing of the petition up to the time of his admission to Philippine citizenship. The petition must be signed by the applicant in his own handwriting and be supported by the affidavit of at least two credible persons, stating that they are citizens of the Philippines and personally know the petitioner to be a resident of the Philippines for the period of time required by this Act and a person of good repute and morally irreproachable, and that said petitioner has in their opinion all the qualifications necessary to become a citizen of the Philippines and is not in any way disqualified under the provisions of this Act. The petition shall also set forth the names and post-office addresses of such witnesses as the petitioner may desire to introduce at the hearing of the case. The certificate of arrival, and the declaration of intention must be made part of the petition.

345 Section 10 of C.A. 473 provides:

SECTION 10. Hearing of the Petition. - No petition shall be heard within the thirty days preceding any election. The hearing shall be public, and the Solicitor-General, either himself or through his delegate or the provincial fiscal concerned, shall appear on behalf of the Commonwealth of the Philippines at all the proceedings and at the hearing. If, after the hearing, the court believes, in view of the evidence taken, that the petitioner has all the qualifications required by, and none of the disqualifications specified in, this Act and has complied with all requisites herein established, it shall order the proper naturalization certificate to be issued and the registration of the said naturalization certificate in the proper civil registry as required in section ten of Act Numbered Three thousand seven hundred and fifty-three.

346 Pursuant to Section 12 of C.A. 473, the petitioner shall, in open court, take the following oath before the naturalization certificate is issued:

"I_________________________,solemnly swear that I renounce absolutely and forever all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state of sovereignty, and particularly to the________________________ of which at this time I am a subject or citizen; that I will support and defend the Constitution of the Philippines and that I will obey the laws, legal orders and decrees promulgated by the duly constituted authorities of the Commonwealth of the Philippines; and I hereby declare that I recognize and accept the supreme authority of the United States of America in the Philippines and will maintain true faith and allegiance thereto; and that I impose this obligation upon myself voluntarily without mental reservation or purpose of evasion.

"So help me God."

347 Rule 28 of the Implementing Rules and Regulations of Act No. 3753 and Other Laws on Civil Registration (NSO Administrative Order No. 1-93 [1992]) provides:

Immediately after finding a foundling, the finder shall report the case to the barangay captain of the place where the foundling was found, or to the police headquarters, whichever is nearer or convenient to the finder. When the report is duly noted either by the barangay captain or by the police authority, the finder shall commit the child to the care of the Department of Social Welfare and Development or to a duly licensed orphanage or charitable or similar institution. Upon commitment, the finder shall give to the charitable institution his copy of the Certificate of Foundling, if he had registered the foundling. (emphasis supplied)

348 Pursuant to R.A. 9523 (2009), the DSWD may declare a child legally available for adoption in accordance with the following procedure:

SECTION 4. Procedure for the Filing of the Petition. - The petition shall be filed in the regional office of the DSWD where the child was found or abandoned.

The Regional Director shall examine the petition and its supporting documents, if sufficient in form and substance and shall authorize the posting of the notice of the petition in conspicuous places for five (5) consecutive days in the locality where the child was found.

The Regional Director shall act on the same and shall render a recommendation not later than five (5) working days after the completion of its posting. He/she shall transmit a copy of his/her recommendation and records to the Office of the Secretary within forty-eight (48) hours from the date of the recommendation.

SECTION 5. Declaration of Availability for Adoption. - Upon finding merit in the petition, the Secretary shall issue a certification declaring the child legally available for adoption within seven (7) working days from receipt of the recommendation.

Said certification, by itself, shall be the sole basis for the immediate issuance by the local civil registrar of a foundling certificate. Within seven (7) working days, the local civil registrar shall transmit the foundling certificate to the National Statistics Office (NSO).

349 Rules and Regulations to Implement the Domestic Adoption Act of 1998, IRR-R.A. 8552, Section 5 (1998).

350 Section 16, R.A. 8552.

351 Republic v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 97906, 21 May 1992.

352 Section 14, R.A. 8552.

353 Id.

354 See Baldos v. Court of Appeals and Pillazar, 638 Phil. 601 (2010); Heirs of Cabais v. Court of Appeals,

374 Phil. 681-691 (1999).

355 Sections 14 and 15 of R.A. 85 52 state:

Section 14. Civil Registry Record. - An amended certificate of birth shall be issued by the Civil Registry, as required by the Rules of Court, attesting to the fact that the adoptee is the child of the adopter(s) by being registered with his/her surname. The original certificate of birth shall be stamped "cancelled" with the annotation of the issuance of an amended birth certificate in its place and shall be sealed in the civil registry records. The new birth certificate to be issued to the adoptee shall not bear any notation that it is an amended issue.

Section 15. Confidential Nature of Proceedings and Records. -All hearings in adoption cases shall be confidential and shall not be open to the public. All records, books, and papers relating to the adoption cases in the files of the court, the Department, or any other agency or institution participating in the adoption proceedings shall be kept strictly confidential.

If the court finds that the disclosure of the information to a third person is necessary for purposes connected with or arising out of the adoption and will be for the best interest of the adoptee, the court may merit the necessary information to be released, restricting the purposes for which it may be used.

356 601 F.2d 1225, 1235 (2d Cir. 1979).

357 444 U.S. 995, 100 S. Ct. 531, 62 L. Ed. 2d 426 (1979).

358 409 Phil. 633-672(2001).

359 Reacquisition of Philippine Citizenship by Persons Who Served in US Armed Forces (1960).

360 See Sobejana-Condon v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 198742, 692 Phil. 407-431 (2012).

361See Parreno v. COA, G.R. No. 162224, 551 Phil. 368-381 (2007).

362 Article IV, Section 2, states:

Section 2. Philippine citizenship may be lost or re-acquired in the manner provided by law.

363 In Bengson v. HRET(409 PHIL 633-672 [2001]), the Court declared: "A person who at the time of his birth is a citizen of a particular country, is a natural-born citizen thereof." (Emphasis supplied)

364 Sections 2 and 3 of Commonwealth Act 63 provides:

SECTION 2. How citizenship may be reacquired. - Citizenship may be reacquired:

(1) By naturalization: Provided, That the applicant possess none of the disqualifications prescribed in section two of Act Numbered Twenty-nine hundred and twenty-seven;

(2) By repatriation of deserters of the Army, Navy or Air Corps Provided, That a woman who lost her citizenship by reason of her marriage to an alien may be repatriated in accordance with the provisions of this Act after the termination of the marital status; and

(3) By direct act of the National Assembly.

SECTION 3. Procedure incident to reacquisition of Philippine citizenship. - The procedure prescribed for naturalization under Act Numbered Twenty-nine hundred and twenty-seven, as amended, shall apply to the reacquisition of Philippine citizenship by naturalization provided for in the next preceding section: Provided, That the qualifications and special qualifications prescribed in section three and four of said Act shall not be required: And provided, further,

(1) That the applicant be at least twenty-one years of age and shall have resided in the Philippines at least six months before he applies for naturalization;

(2) That he shall have conducted himself in a proper and irreproachable manner during the entire period of his residence in the Philippines, in his relations with the constituted government as well as with the community in which he is living; and

(3) That he subscribes to an oath declaring his intention to renounce absolutely and perpetually all faith and allegiance to the foreign authority, state or sovereignty of which he was a citizen or subject.

365 Commonwealth Act No. 63, Ways in Which Philippine Citizenship May be Lost or Reacquired (1936).

366 An Act Providing for Reacquisition of Philippine Citizenship by Persons Who Lost Such Citizenship by Rendering Service To, or Accepting Commission In, the Armed Forces of the United States (1960).

367 Repatriation of Filipino Women and of Natural-Born Filipinos Who Lost Their Philippine Citizenship (1995).

368 Article II, Section 2 of the 1987 Constitution, provides:

The Philippines xxx adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land and adheres to the policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, and amity with all nations.

369 Article 38(l)(b) of the Statute of the International Court of Justice states:

1. The Court, whose function is to decide in accordance with international law such disputes as are submitted to it, shall apply:

xxx

a. international custom, as eviJence of a general practice accepted as law;

370 Razon, Jr. v. Tagitis, 621 Phil. 536-635 (2009)

371 Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Proposed Amendments to the Naturalization Provision of the Constitution of Costa Rica. Advisory Opinion OC-4/84 of January 19, 1984. Series A No. 4, para. 35.

372 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Article 24; United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 7.

373 See the 1997 European Convention on Nationality, Article 6; 1969 American Convention on Human Rights (Pact of San Jose, Costa Rica), Article 20; 1999 African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Article 6; 2008 Revised Arab Charter on Human Rights, Article 29.

374 Article 14 of the Convention states:

A child whose parents are both unknown shall have the nationality of the country of birth. If the child's parentage is established, its nationality shall be determined by the rules applicable in cases where the parentage is known. A foundling is, until the contrary is proved, presumed to have been born on the territory of the State in which it was found.

375 Article 2 of the Convention provides:

Article 2

A foundling found in the territory of a Contracting State shall, in the absence of proof to the contrary, be considered to have been born within that territory of parents possessing the nationality of that State.

376 Article 6(1)(b) of the Convention states:

Article 6 - Acquisition of nationality

1. Each State Party shall provide in its internal law for its nationality to be acquired ex lege by the following persons:

xxx

(b) foundlings found in its territory who would otherwise be stateless.

377 Based on the databases of the United Nations Treaty Collection (https://treaties.un.org), the number of state parties in the conventions mentioned are as follows: International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights - 168; Convention on the Rights of the Child - 196; Hague Convention on Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of Nationality Laws - 13; Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness - 65; European Convention on Nationality - 20.

378 See Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy), Judgment, I.CJ. Reports 2012, p. 99; Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Democratic Republic of Congo v. Belgium), I.CJ. Reports 2002, p. 3.

379 Argentina (See Database of European Union Democracy Observatory on Citizenship); Bolivia (Article 141, New Constitution of Bolivia); Brazil (Article 12[1], Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil); Chile (Article 10, Constitution); Cuba (Article 29, The Constitution of the Republic of Cuba as amended); Dominica (Article 98, Constitution of the Commonwealth of Dominica, 1978); Dominican Republic (Article 18, Constitution), Ecuador (Article 7, Ecuador Constitution); El Salvador (Article 90, Constitution of the Republic of El Salvador as amended), Equatorial Guinea (Article 10, Fundamental Law of Equatorial Guinea, 1982); Grenada (Item 96, 97, Grenada Constitution, 7 February 1974); Guatemala (Article 144, Guatemalan Constitution), Jamaica (Item 3B, Jamaican Constitution August 1962); Kiribati (Kiribati Independence Order dated July 12, 1979); Niger (Directory of Citizenship Laws compiled by the United States Office of Personnel Management Investigations Service); Pakistan (Sections 4 and 5, Pakistan Citizenship Act 1951, as amended); Palau (The Citizenship Act, 13 PNCA, 1 January 1995); Panama (Article 9, Constitution of Panama); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (Items 90-91, Constitution of 1979); Tanzania (Sections 5 and 6, Tanzania Citizenship Act No. 6 of 1995, 10 October 1995); Thailand (Section 7, Nationality Act B.E.2508); Venezuela (Article 32, Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela) and Zimbabwe (Section 5, Constitution of Zimbabwe).

380 Afghanistan (Article 3, Law of Citizenship in Afghanistan, 6 November 1936); Albania (Article 8[1], Law on Albanian Citizenship, Law No. 8389, 6 September 1998); Algeria (Article 7, Ordonnance No. 70-86 du 15 decembre 1970 portant code de la nationalite algerienne, 18 December 1970); Andorra (Nationality Act, 5 October 1997); Angola (Article 9, Constituicao da Republica de Angola aos, 21 Janeiro de 2010); Antigua and Barbuda (Article 3 [1], Constitution of Antigua and Barbuda) Armenia (Article 12, Law of the Republic of Armenia on the Citizenship of the Republic of Armenia as amended, 27 November 2005); Australia (Section 14, Australian Citizenship Act 2007); Austria (Article 8(1], Federal Law Concerning the Austrian Nationality [Nationality Act of 1985]); Azerbaijan (Article 13, Law of the Azerbaijan Republic on Citizenship of the Azerbaijan Republic, 15 March 1994); Bahrain (Item No. 5[B], Bahraini Citizenship Act for 1963, 16 September 1963); Barbados (Cap. 186, Section 4[1], Barbados Citizenship Act); Belgium (Code of Belgian Nationality, 28 June 1984), Belize (Part III, 7, Belizean Nationality Act, Cap. 161); Benin (Article 10, Code de la nationalitedahomeenn, Loi No. 65-17, 23 June 1965); Bosnia and Herzegovina (Section 7, Bosnia and Herzegovina Nationality Law, 7 October 1992); Bulgaria (Article 11, Law on Bulgarian Citizenship, November 1998); Burkina Faso (Zatu No. An VIA 0013/FP/PRES du 16 Novembre 1989); Burundi (Article 3, Loi No 1/013 du 18 juillet 2000 portantreforme du code de la nationalite, 18 July 2000), Cambodia (Article 4 [2] [b], Law on Nationality, 9 October 1996); Cameroon (Section 9, Law No. 1968-LF-3 of the 11th June 1968 to set up the Cameroon Nationality Code); Canada (Section 4[1], Canadian Citizenship Act); Cape Verde (Nationality Jaw, Law No. 80/III/90, from 29th of June); Central African Republic (Article 10, Republique Centrafricaine: Loi No. l 961.212 du 1961 portant code de la nationalitecentrafricaine, 21 April 1961); Chad (Ordonnance 33/PG.-INT. du 14 aout 1962 code de la nationalitetchadienne as cited in the Directory of Citizenship Laws compiled by the United States Office of Personnel Management Investigations Service); China (Article 6, Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China, 10 September 1980); Comoros (Article 13, Code of Nationality, Law No. 79-12); Costa Rica (Article 13[4], Political Constitution of the Republic of Costa Rica), Croatia (Law of Croatian Citizenship, June 1991 ); Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti (Article 6, Code de la NationaliteDjiboutienne [Djibouti], Loi n°79/AN/04/5eme L, 24 October 2004); Democratic Republic of Congo (Article 2[3], LOI No. 87.010 Du ler AOUT 1987, Portant Code de la Famille); Egypt (Article 2[4], Law No. 26 of 1975 Concerning Egyptian Nationality, Official Journal No. 22, 29 May 1975), Eritrea (Item 2[3], Eritrean Nationality Proclamation No. 21/1992, 6 April 1992); Estonia (Section 5[2], Citizenship Act of Estonia); Ethiopia (Article 3[2], Proclamation No. 378/2003, A Proclamation on Ethiopian Nationality, 23 December 2003); Fiji (Section 7, Citizenship of Fiji Decree 2009); Finland (Section 12, Finnish Nationality Act 359/2003 as amended); France (Article 19, Title 1, French Civil Code), G. Bissau, Gabon (Article 11[2], Code de la Nationalite Loi No. 37-1998); Georgia (Article 15, Organic Law of Georgia on Georgian Citizenship); Germany (Section 4[2], Nationality Act of 22 July 1913 as amended); Ghana (Citizenship Act, Act 591, 5 January 2001); Greece (Article 1 [2][b ], Greek Citizenship Code); Guinea (Directory of Citizenship Laws compiled by the United States Office of Personnel Management Investigations Service); Guinea Bissau (Article 5[2], Lei da Cidadania Lei n.o 2/92 De 6 de Abril); Guyana (Item 8[2], Guyana Citizenship Act, Cap. 14:01 ); Haiti (Article 4, Haiti Citizenship Act); Honduras (Article 23, Constitution of the Republic of Honduras); Hungary (Section 3[3][b], Act LV of 1993 as amended); Iceland (Article l[l], Icelandic Nationality Act No. 100/1952, 1 January 1953); Indonesia (Article 4[9], 4[10], 4[11], Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 12 on Citizenship of the Republic of Indonesia, 1 August 2006); Iran (Article 976[3], Iran Nationality Law); Iraq (Article 4[6], Law No. 46 of 1963); Ireland (Item 10, Irish Nationality and Citizenship Act 1956 as amended), Israel (Article 4[A], Nationality Law 5712-1952, 14 July 1953); Italy (Article 1[2], Law no. 91/1992); Jamaica, Japan (Article 2[3], Nationality Law - Law No.147 of 1950, as amended); Jordan (Article 3[4], Jordanian Nationality Law 1954, Law No. 6 of 1954 on Nationality, 1January1954); Kazakhstan (Article 13, Law on Citizenship of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 1 March 1992); Kenya (Article 9, Kenya Citizenship and Immigration Act No. 12 of 2011, 30 August 2011 ); Korea (Article 2[1 ][3], 2[2] Law No. 16 of 1948, Nationality Act as amended, 20 December 1948); Kosovo (Article 7, Law Nr. 03/L-034 on Citizenship of Kosovo); Kuwait (Article 3, Nationality Law of 1959); Kyrgyz Republic (Article 2[5], The Law of the Kyrgyz Republic on citizenship of the Kyrgyz Republic as amended, 21 March 2007); Lao PDR (Law on Lao Nationality, 29 November 1990); Latvia (Section 2(1 )(3) and 2(1 )(5), Law of Citizenship 1994 [as amended]); Lebanon (Article 1 [3], Decree No.15 on Lebanese Nationality including Amendments, 19 January 1925); Lesotho (Item 38, Lesotho Constitution of 1993, 2 April 1993); Liberia (Constitution of the Republic of Liberia); Libya (Section 3, Item 3, Law Number (24) for 2010/1378 On Libyan Nationality, 24 May 2010); Liechtenstein (Section 4[a], Act of4 January 1934 on the Acquisition and Loss of Citizenship); Lithuania (Article 16, Republic of Lithuania Law on Citizenship No. XI-1196, 2 December 2010); Luxembourg (Article 1 [2], Luxembourg Nationality Law of 23 October 2008); Macedonia (Article 6, Law on Citizenship of the Republic of Macedonia); Madagascar (Directory of Citizenship Laws compiled by the United States Office of Personnel Management Investigations Service); Malawi (Item 2[5], Malawi Citizenship Act 1966); Malaysia (Second Schedule [Article 39], Part I: Citizenship by Operation of Law of Persons Born before Malaysia Day [Article 14 [l][a] - Section 1, Federal Constitution of Malaysia, 31 August 1957); Mali (Article 11, Loi No. 6218 AN-RM du 3 fevrier 1962 portant Code de la nationalitemalienne); Malta (Item 17[3], Maltese Citizenship Act); Marshall Islands (Directory of Citizenship Laws compiled by the United States Office of Personnel Management Investigations Service); Mauritania (Article 11, Loi N° 1961-112, Loiportant code de la nationalitemauritanienne); Mexico (Article 7, Law of Nationality as cited in the database of European Union Democracy Observatory on Citizenship); Moldova (Article 11 [2], Law on Citizenship of the Republic of Moldova); Mongolia (Article 7[4], Law of Mongolia on Citizenship, 5 June 1995); Montenegro (Article 7, Montenegrin Citizenship Act); Morocco (Article 11, Code de la nationalitemarocaine (2011), Dahir n. 1-58-250 du 21 safar 1378, 6 September 1958); Mozambique (Article 10[b], Nationality Act, 25 June 1975); Nepal (Item 3[3], Nepal Citizenship Act 2063, 2006), Netherlands (Article 3 (2), Netherlands Nationality Act as in force on 8 February 2015); New Zealand (Section 6, Citizenship Act 1977 061); Nicaragua (Article 16[4], Constitution of Nicaragua); Norway (Section 4, Act on Norwegian Nationality); Oman (Article 1 [3], Royal Decree No. 3/83 - Law on the Organization of the Omani Nationality); Papua New Guinea (Section 77, Constitution); Paraguay (Article 146[1], Constitution of Paraguay); Peru (Article 2[2], Constitution); Poland (Article 15, Law of 2 April 2009 on Polish Citizenship); Portugal (A1ticle 1[2] Portuguese Nationality Act, Law 37/81 of 3 October as amended); Qatar (Article 1 [3], Law No. 38 of 2005 on the Acquisition of Qatari nationality 38 I 2005); Romania (Article 3(1), Law No. 21 of 1 March 1991), Russia (Article 12[2], Federal Law on the Citizenship of the Russian Federation, 15 May 2002); Rwanda (Article 9, Organic Law N° 30/2008 of 25/07/2008 relating to Rwandan Nationality 25 July 2008); Saint Kitts and Nevis (Items 95[5][c], 1983 Constitution); Saint Lucia (Article 7[2] of the Law of Nationality, Constitution of 1978 as cited in the database of European Union Democracy Observatory on Citizenship); Samoa (Part II, Item 6(3),Citizenship Act of 2004); San Marino (See Council of Europe bulletin: http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/standardsetting/nationality/Bulletin en_ files/San%20Marino%20E. pdf); Sao Tome & Principe (Article 5(1) (e) and 5(2), Law of Nationality dated September 13, 1990); Saudi Arabia (Item No. 7[2], Saudi Arabian Citizenship System (Regulation), Decision no. 4 of 2511/1374 Hijra, 23 September 1954); Serbia (Article 13, Law on Citizenship of the Republic of Serbia); Singapore (Article 140[13], Third Schedule, Constitution of the Republic of Singapore, 9 August 1965); Slovakia (Section 5(2)(b ), Act No. 40/ 1993 Coll. On nationality of the Slovak Republic of 19 January 1993); Slovenia (Article 9, Citizenship of the Republic of Slovenia Act); Somalia (Article 15, Law No. 28 of 22 December 1962 Somali Citizenship as amended); South Africa (Article 44, South African Citizenship Act No. 88 of 1995); South Sudan (Item 8[4], Nationality Act of 2011, 7 July 2011); Spain (Spanish Civil Code, Book One Title I, Article 17[1][d]); Sri Lanka (Item No. 7, Citizenship Act of Sri Lanka); Sudan (Section 5, Sudanese Nationality Act 1994); Suriname (Article 4, State Ordinance of24 November 1975 for the Regulation of the Surinamese Nationality and Residence in Suriname), Swaziland (Section 17, Swaziland Citizenship Act, 1992, Act 14/1992, 1 December 1992); Sweden (Section 2, Swedish Citizenship Act); Switzerland (Article 6, Federal Act on the Acquisition and Loss of Swiss Citizenship as amended); Taiwan (Article 2[3], Nationality Act as amended, 5 February 1929), Tajikistan (Article 19, 13 Constitutional Law of the Republic of Tajikistan on Nationality of the Republic of Tajikistan, 8 August 2015); Timor-Leste (Section 3[2][b], Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Timar Leste); Togo (Article 2, Nationality Act); Tunisia (Articles 9 and 10, Code of Tunisian Nationality Law No. 63-6); Turkey (Article 8, Turkish Citizenship Law of 2009); Turkmenistan (Article II [1][8], Law of2013 on Citizenship, 22 June 2013) Uganda (Item 11, Constitution of the Republic of Uganda); Ukraine (Article 7, Law on Ukrainian Citizenship); United Arab Emirates (Article 2[5], Federal Law No. 17 for 1972 Concerning Nationality, Passports and Amendments Thereof, 18 November 1972); United Kingdom (Part I, Item 1 (2), British Nationality Act of 1984); United States of America (Immigration and Nationality Act 30 l(a), 302, 306, 307); Uruguay (Article 74, Constitution of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay); Uzbekistan (Article 16, Law on Citizenship in the Republic of Uzbekistan, 28 July 1992); Vietnam (Article 18, Law on Vietnamese Nationality, Resolution No: 24/2008/QH12, 13 November 2008); and Yemen (Law No. 6of1990 on Yemeni Nationality, 26 August 1990).

381 See for instance the Law of Nationality of Mexico, Law No. 63-6.

382 See the Portuguese Nationality Act, Law 37/81, of3 October as amended; Spanish Civil Code, Book One: Title II; Cameroon Law No. 1968-LF-3 of the 11th June 1968; Loi n° 1961.212 du 1961 portant code de la nationalitecentrafricaine of the Central African Republic; Code of Nationality, Law No. 79-12 of Comoros; Loi No. 6218 AN-RM du 3 fevrier 1962 portant Code de la nationalitemalienne of Mali; Code de la nationalitemarocaine (2011 ), Dahir n. 1-58-250 du 21 safar 1378, 6 September 1958 of Morocco; Law of Nationality dated September 13, 1990 of Sao Tome and Principe; Law No. 28 of 22 December 1962 Somali Citizenship as amended; Code of Tunisian Nationality Law No. 63.

383 See Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary in the Gulf of Maine Area (Canada/United States of America), Judgment, ICJ Reports 1984, p. 299.

384 Article 24 of the ICCPR states:

1. Every child shall have, without any discrimination as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, national or social origin, property or birth, the right to such measures of protection as are required by his status as a minor, on the part of his family, society and the State.

2. Every child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have a name.

3. Every child has the right to acquire a nationality.

385 Article 7 of the CRC states:

1. The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and. as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents.

2. States Parties shall ensure the implementation of these rights in accordance with their national law and their obligations under the relevant international instruments in this field, in particular where the child would otherwise be stateless.

386 Annual Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and Reports of the Office of the High Commissioner and the Secretary General. Arbitrary deprivation of nationality: report of the Secretary-General, A/HRC/10/34, 26 January 2009

387 Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observations on the combined 2-4th Periodic Reports of Fiji, adopted by the committee at its sixty-seventh session (1-19 September 2014 ), CRC/C/FIJ/C0/2-4

388 454 Phil. 504-642 (2003).

389 The Preamble of the 1935 Constitution states:

The Filipino people, imploring the aid of Divine Providence, in order to establish a government that shall embody their ideals, conserve and develop the patrimony of the nation, promote the general welfare, and secure to themselves and their posterity the blessings of independence under a regime of justice, liberty, and democracy, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.

390 The Preamble of the 1987 Constitution provides:

We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society, and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity, the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.

391 Id.

392 Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Proposed Amendments to the Naturalization Provision of the Constitution of Costa Rica. Advisory Opinion OC-4/84 of January 19, 1984. Series A No. 4, para. 35.

393 See Dissenting Opinion of Chief Justice Warren in Perez v. Brownwell, 356 U.S. 44, 64-65, 78 S. Ct. 568, 579-80, 2 L. Ed. 2d 603 (1958).

394 Batchelor, Carol A. Developments in International Law: the Avoidance of Statelessness through Positive Application of the Right to a Nationality. 1st European Convention on Nationality.(Strasbourg, 18 and 19 October 1999).

395 1987 Constitution, Article V, Section 1.

396 Id., Article XIV, Section 1 (right to quality education at all levels); Article XIV, Section 2(5) (right to be provided training in civics, vocational efficiency and other skills

397 Id., Section 18, Article XI.

398 The following economic rights are restricted to Philippine citizens under the Constitution: right to the exclusive use and enjoyment of the nation's marine wealth in its archipelagic waters, territorial sea, and exclusive economic zone (Article XII, Section 2); right to engage in small-scale utilization of natural resources (Article XII, Section 2); right to lease not more than five hundred hectares, or acquire not more than twelve hectares of public alienable land, by purchase, homestead, or grant (Article XII, Section 3); right to be a transferee of public land (Article XII, Section 7);

399 These include the right to participate in certain areas of investments (Article XII, Section 10); right to be granted a franchise certificate, or any other form of authorization for the operation of a public utility (Article XII, Section 11);

400 The Constitution allows only citizens to exercise the following rights: the right to be the executive and managing officers of a corporation or association engaged in any public utility enterprise (Article XII, Section 11); Right to practice a profession (Article XII, Section 14); right to own, control and administer educational institutions (Article XIV, Section [2]); Right to own and manage mass media (Article XVI, Section 11[1]); Right to become an executive and managing officer of an entity engaged in the advertising industry (Article XVI, Section 11 [2]); Right to engage in the advertising industry (Article XVI, Section 11 [2]).

The ownership of the following businesses are also reserved for Philippine citizens: Retail trade enterprises with paid-up capital of less than US $2,500,000 (Section 5, R.A. 8762); cooperatives (Chapter III, Article 26, R.A. 6938); private security agencies (Section 4, R.A. 5487); small-scale mining (Section 3[C], R.A. 7076); ownership, operation and management of cockpits (Section 5[a], PD 449); Manufacture of firecrackers and other pyrotechnic devices (Section 5, R.A. 7183).

401 Article X11, Section 14; The following professions are also restricted by statute: Aeronautical engineering (Section 14[b], R.A. 1570); Agricultural engineering (Section 13[a], R.A. 8559); Chemical engineering (Section 2, R.A. 9297); Civil engineering (Section 12[b], R.A. 544); Electrical engineering (Section 16[a], R.A. 7920); Electronics and communication engineering (Section 14[a], R.A. 9292); Geodetic engineering (Section 12[a], R.A. 8560); Mechanical engineering (Section 14[a], R.A. 8495); Metallurgical engineering (Section 17[a], R.A. 10688); Mining engineering (Section 19[a], R.A. 4274); Naval architecture and marine engineering (Section 1 l[b], R.A. 4565); Sanitary engineering (Section l7[b], R.A. 1364); Medicine (Section 9[1], R.A. 2382 as amended); Medical technology (Section 8[1], R.A. 5527 as amended); Dentistry (Section 14[a], R.A. 9484); Midwifery (Section 13, R.A. 7392); Nursing (Section 13[a], R.A. 9173); Nutrition and dietetics (Section l 8[a], P.D. 1286); Optometry (Section 19[a], R.A. 8050); Pharmacy (Section l 8[a], R.A. 5921 ); Physical and occupational therapy (Section l 5[a], R.A. 5680); Radiologic and x-ray technology (Section 19[a], R.A. 7431); Veterinary medicine (Section 15[a], R.A. 9268); Accountancy (Section 14[a], R.A. 9298); Architecture (Section 13[a], R.A. 9266); Criminology (Section 12[a], R.A. 6506); Chemistry (Section 13[a], R.A. 754); Customs brokerage (Section 16[a], R.A. 9280); Environmental planning (Section 13[b], P.D. 1308); Forestry (Section 14[b], R.A. 6239); Geology (Section 15, R.A. 4209); Interior design (Section 13[a], R.A. 8534); Law (Art. VIII, Section 5[5], 1987 Constitution; Rule 138[2], Rules of Court); Librarianship (Section 15[a], R.A. 9246); Marine deck officers (Section 14[a], R.A. 8544); Marine engine officers (Section 14[a], R.A. 8544); Master plumbing (Section 12[b], R.A. 1378); Sugar technology (Section 14[a], R.A. 5197); Social work (Section 12[a], R.A. 4373); Teaching (Section l5[a], R.A. 7836); Agriculture (R.A. 8435); Fisheries (Section 2[b], R.A. 8550); Guidance counseling (Section 13[a], R.A. 9258); Real estate service (Section 14[a], R.A. 9646); Respiratory therapy (R.A. 10024); and Psychology (Section 12[a], R.A. 10029).

402 Right to manufacture, repair, stockpile and/or distribute biological, chemical and radiological weapons and anti-personnel mines; and the right to manufacture, repair, stockpile and/or distribute nuclear weapons (10th Foreign Negative Investment List, Executive Order 184, 29 May 2015, citing Article II, Section 8 of the 1987 Constitution and Conventions and Treaties to which the Philippines is a signatory); and right to become members of local police agencies (Section 9[1]R.A. 4864).

403 See Civil Code, Article 15. The next section includes a more detailed discussion of adoption and foundlings.

404 See Section 2, R.A. 4090: Providing for State Scholarships for Poor But Deserving Students (1964); Part V(A)(l)(l.3), Amended Implementing Rules and Regulations for Republic Act No. 7687, DOST-DepED Joint Circular (2005); Section 5 (a) (i), Administrative Order No. 57, Educational Reform Assistance Package for Mindanaoan Muslims (1999).

405 The following positions in the Executive branch must be occupied by natural-born Philippine citizens: President (Article VII, Section 2, 1987 Constitution); Vice-President (Article VII, Section 3, 1987 Constitution); Director or Assistant Director of the Bureau of Mines and Geo-Sciences (Section 2, PD 1281 as amended by PD 1654 [1979]; Undersecretary ofDefense for Munitions (Section 2, R.A. 1884, Establishment of a Government Arsenal [1957]); Assistant Director of the Forest Research Institute (Section 7[a], PD 607, Creating the Forest Research Institute in the Department of Natural Resources [1974]); Officers of the Philippine Coast Guard (Section 12, R.A. 9993, Philippine Coast Guard Law of 2009 [2010]); Commissioner or Deputy Commissioners of Immigration (Section 4[b], C.A. 613, The Philippine Immigration Act of 1940 [1940]); Secretary and Undersecretary of the Department of Agrarian Reform (Section 50, R.A. 3844 as amended by R.A. 6389 [1971]); Directors, Assistant Directors of Bureaus in the Department of Agrarian Reform (Section 50-G, R.A. 3844 as amended by R.A. 6389, Agricultural Land Reform Code [1971]); Chairman and Commissioners of the Tariff Commission (Section 502, PD 1464 as amended, Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System 2002 Tariff and Customs Code of the Philippines [2002]); Director or Assistant Directors of the Bureau of Forest Development (Section 6, PD 705, Revised Forestry Code of the Philippines [1975]); City Fiscal and Assistant City Fiscals of Manila (Section 38, R.A. 409 as amended by R.A. 4631, Revised Charter of City of Manila [ 1965]); and Prosecutors in the National Prosecution Service (Section 603, DOJ Department Circular No. 050-10, [2010]).

In the legislative branch, the occupants of the following posts are required to be natural-born citizens: Senator (Article VI, Section 6, 1987 Constitution); Members of the House of Representatives (Article VI, Section 3, 1987 Constitution); nominees for party-list representatives (Section 9, Party-List System Act, R.A. 7941 [1995]).

The following members of the judicial branch are required to be natural-born citizens: Members of the Supreme Court and lower collegiate courts (Article VIII, Section 7, 1987 Constitution); Regional Trial Court Judges (Section 15, BP 129 as amended by R.A. 8369, the Family Courts Act of 1997 [1997]); Judges of a Metropolitan Trial Court, Municipal Trial Court, or Municipal Circuit Trial Court (Section 26, BP 129 as amended); Presiding Judge and Associate Justices of the Sandiganbayan (Section 1, PD 1486 as amended by PD 1606, Creating the Sandiganbayan [1978]); Judges of the Shari'a Circuit Court (Art. I52, PD 1083, Code of Muslim Personal Laws of the Philippines [1977]).

Other constitutional offices are reserved to natural-born citizens: Ombudsman and his Deputies (Article XI, Section 8, 1987 Constitution); BSP Board of Governors (Article XII, Section 20, 1987 Constitution); Chairman and Commissioners of the Civil Service Commission (Article IX [B], Section 1, 1987 Constitution; Book V, Title I, Subtitle A, Chapter 3, Section 1 O; Executive Order No. 292, Administrative Code of 1987; Article V, Section 8 (b); PD 807, Civil Service Decree of the Philippines or Civil Service Law of 1975 [1975]); Chairman and Commissioners of the Commission on Elections (Article IX[C], Section 1, 1987 Constitution; Book V, Title II, Subtitle C, Chapter 2, Section 4, EO 292, Administrative Code of 1987 [1987]); Chairman and Commissioners of the Commission on Audit (Article IX [D], Section 1, 1987 Constitution); Chairman and Members of the Commission on Human Rights (Article XIII, Section 17[2], 1987 Constitution; Book V, Title II, Subtitle A, Section 1, EO 292, Administrative Code of 1987 [1987]).

406 The following positions in the local government are included: Regional Governor and Vice Governor of the ARMM (Article VII, Section 3, R.A. 9054, Strengthening and Expanding the ARMM Organic Act [2001]); Members of the Regional Assembly of the ARMM (Article VI, Section 6 [1], R.A. 9054, Strengthening and Expanding the ARMM Organic Act [2001]); Regional Secretary, Regional Undersecretaries, Assistant Regional Secretary, Assistant Secretary for Madaris, Bureau Directors, and Assistant Bureau Directors of the ARMM Department of Education (Article II, Section 22, Muslim Mindanao Autonomy Act No. 279-10, ARMM Basic Education Act of 2010 [2010]; Regional Governor and Vice Governor of the Cordillera Autonomous Region (Article V, Sections 2 and 3, R.A. 8438, Organic Act of Cordillera Autonomous Region [1997]).

407 Members of these government commissions, boards, administrations are required to be natural-born citizens: Chairman and Members of the Energy Regulatory Commission (Section 38, R.A. 9136, Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001 [2001]); Commissioners of the Commission on the Filipino Language (Section 6, R.A. 7104, Commission on the Filipino Language Act [1991]); Board of the National Historical Commission of the Philippines (Section 9 [a], R.A. 10086, Strengthening Peoples' Nationalism Through Philippine History Act [2010]); Executive Director and Deputy Executive Directors of the NHCP (Section 17, R.A. 10086, Strengthening Peoples' Nationalism Through Philippine History Act [2010]); Commissioners of National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (Section 3 [a] Rules and Regulations Implementing The Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act of 1997, NCIP Administrative Order No. 01-98, [ 1998]); Members of Provincial, Regional and National Consultative Bodies of the NCIP (Sections 22 [a] NCIP Administrative Order No. 1-03, Guidelines for the Constitution and Operationalization of the Consultative Body [2003]); Chairman and Members of the Board of Agriculture (Article III, Section 6 (a] PRC Board of Agriculture Resolution No. 02-02, Rules and Regulations implementing PRC Resolution No. 2000-663 [2002]); Members of the Board of the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board (Section 2, PD 1986, Creating the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board [1985]); Chairman and Members of the Board of Fisheries (Article III, Section 7 [a] PRC Board of Fisheries Resolution no. 01-02, Rules and Regulations Implementing PRC Resolution No. 2000-664); Representative of Consumers at the Price Control Council (Section 2, R.A. 6124, Fixing of the Maximum Selling Price of Essential Articles or Commodities [1970]); Members of the Anti-Dummy Board (Section 1, R.A. 1130 as amended by R.A. 6082 [1969]); Chairman, Members of the Board and General Manager of the Public Estates Authority/Philippine Reclamation Authority, (Section 6, PD 1084, Charter of the Public Estates Authority [1977]); Chairman and Members of the Land Tenure Administration (Section 4, R.A. 1400, Land Reform Act of 1955 [ 1955]); Board of Directors of the Panay Development Authority (Section 17, R.A. 3 856, Creation of Panay Development Authority [ 1964]; Administrator of the Agricultural Credit Administration (Section 101, R.A. 3844 as amended by R.A. 6389, Agricultural Land Reform Code [1971]); Director-General, Deputy Director-General, and Executive Directors of the National Manpower Youth Council [absorbed by TESDA pursuant to PD 850] (Article 53, PD 442 as amended by PD 850 Amendments to P.O. No. 442, Labor Code of the Philippines [1975]); Governor and Deputy Governors of the Land Authority (Section 50, R.A. 3844, Agricultural Land Reform Code, [1963]).

408 Project Director of the Mindoro Office of the Mindoro Integrated Rural Development Office (Section 6 [a], PD 805, Implementing the Mindoro Integrated Rural Development Program and Providing Funds therefore [1975]); Project Director of the Cagayan Integrated Agricultural Development Project (Section 6 [a], PD 1189, Implementing the Cagayan Integrated Agricultural Development Project [1977]); Project Director of the Samar Office of the Samar Integrated Rural Development Project (Section 4 [a], PD I 048, Implementation of the Samar Integrated Rural Development Project [1976]); Members of the Central Luzon-Cagayan Valley Authority (Section 2 [e], R.A. 3054, Creation of Central Luzon-Cagayan Valley Authority [1961]); Project Director of the Rural Infrastructure Project Office in the DOTC (Section 3, PD 1298, Implementing the Rural Infrastructure Project [1978]); Members of the Cooperative Development Authority (Section 5 [a], R.A. 6939, Cooperative Development Authority Law [1990]); Board of Directors of the Bases Conversion and Development Authority (Section 9 [b ], Bases Conversion and Development Act of 1992, R.A. 7227 [1992]); Program Director at the Cotabato-Agusan River Basin Program Office (Section 3, PD 1556, Creation of the Cotabato-Agusan River Basin Program Office [ 1978]); Executive Director of the River Basin Council (Section 5, EO 412, Creation of Bicol River Basin Council [1973]); Board of Directors of the Philippine National Oil Company (Section 6, Presidential Decree 334 as amended by PD 405, Creating the Philippine National Oil Company); Board of Governors of the Ospital ng Bagong Lipunan (Section 3, PD 1411, Dissolving the GSIS Hospital, Inc. [1978]); Board of Directors of the Philippine Export Credit Insurance and Guarantee Corporation (Section 8, R.A. 6424, Philippine Export Credit Insurance and Guarantee Corporation Act [ 972]); President of the Philippine Export and Foreign Loan Guarantee Corporation [later Trade and Investment Development Corporation, now Phil. Export-Import Credit Agency (Section 14, PD 1080 as amended by R.A. 8494).

409 Members of the Board of Directors of the following banks are required to be natural-born citizens: Philippine National Bank (Section 10, EO 80, The 1986 Revised Charter of the Philippine National Bank [1986]); Land Bank of the Philippines (Section 86, Republic Act No. 3844 as amended by R.A. 7907, Code of Agrarian Reform in the Phil. [1995]); Development Bank of the Philippines (Section 8, R.A. 8523, Strengthening the Development Bank of the Philippines [1998]).

410 Presidents of State Universities and Colleges (Section 5.1, CHED Memorandum Order 16 [2009]) and the College President of the Compostela Valley State College (Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10598 [2014]).

411 These include: Members of the Board of Examiners of Criminologists (Section 3 [1], R.A. 6506, Creation of Board of Examiners for Criminologists [1972]); Chairman and Members of the Professional Regulatory Board of Geology (Section 8 [a], R.A. 10166, Geology Profession Act of 2012 [2012]); Chairperson and Members of the Professional Regulatory Board of Psychology (Section 5 [a], R.A. 10029, Philippine Psychology Act of 2009 [2010]); Chairperson and Members of the Board of Respiratory Therapy (Section 5 [a], R.A. 10024, Philippine Respiratory Therapy Act of 2009 [2010]); Chairman and Members of the Professional Regulatory Board of Dentistry (Section 7 [a], R.A. 9484, The Philippine Dental Act of 2007 [2007]); Chairperson and Members of the Professional Regulatory Board for Librarians (Section 7 [a], R.A. 9246, The Philippine Librarianship Act of 2003 [2004]); Members of the Professional Regulatory Board of Accounting (Section 6 [a], R.A. 9298, Philippine Accountancy Act of 2004 [2004]); Chairman and Members of the Board of Chemical Engineering (Section 7[a], R.A. 9297, Chemical Engineering Law of 2004 [2004]); Members of the Philippine Landscape Architecture Board (Section 4 [a], R.A. 9053, Philippine Landscape Architecture Act of 2000 [2001]); Chairperson and Members of the Board of the Professional Regulatory Board of Nursing Section 4, R.A. 9173, Philippine Nursing Act of 2002 [2002]); Member of the Professional Regulatory Board of Accountancy (Section 6 [a], R.A. 9298, Philippine Accountancy Act of 2004 [2004]); Members of the Board of Agricultural Engineering (Section 5 [a], R.A. 8559, Philippine Agricultural Engineering Act of 1998 [1998]); Members of the Board of Geodetic Engineering (Section 4 [a], R.A. 8560, Philippine Geodetic Engineering Act of 1998 [1998]); Chairperson and members of the Professional Regulatory Board for Foresters (Section 7 [a], R.A. 10690, The Forestry Profession Act [2015]); Members of the Board of Examiners for Forester (Section 6 [a], R.A. 6239, The Forestry Profession Law [1971]; Members of the Board of Pharmacy Section 7 [a], R.A. 5921, Pharmacy Law [1969]); Members of the Board of Medical Examiners (Section 14, R.A. 2382 as amended by R.A. 4224, The Medical Act of 1959 as amended [1965]); Members of the Board of Mechanical Engineering (Section 5 [a] R.A. 8495, Philippine Mechanical Engineering Act of 1998 [1998]); Members of the Board of Optometry, (Section 8 [a], R.A. 8050, Revised Optometry Law of 1995 [1995]); Members of the Board of Electrical Engineering (Section 5 [a], R.A. 7920, New Electrical Engineering Law [1995]).

412 In particular, all officers of the Regular Force of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (Section 4 [b], R.A. 291, Armed Forces Officer Personnel Act of 1948 [1948]); Officers of the Women's Auxiliary Corps (Section 2, R.A. 3835, An Act to Establish the Women's Auxiliary Corps in the Armed Forces of the Philippines, to provide the Procurement of its Officers and Enlisted personnel, and for Other Purposes [1963]).


The Lawphil Project - Arellano Law Foundation

CONCURRING OPINION

VELASCO, JR., J.:

I concur with the ponencia and will add the following only for emphasis.

On Residency

It is established that to acquire a new domicile one must demonstrate three things: (1) residence or bodily presence in the new locality; (2) an intention to remain there (animus manendi); and (3) an intention to abandon the old domicile (animus non revertendi).

There is no issue as to Sen. Poe's actual bodily presence in the Philippines since May 24, 2005, whence she, per her 2015 Certificate of Candidacy, reckons her residency in the country. What has been questioned is the animus to stay in the Philippines and to abandon the domicile in the United States of America (US) since then. As the ponencia explained, the facts recited, and the evidence presented by Sen. Poe sufficiently portrays her intent to stay in the Philippines and to abandon the US since May 2005, to wit:

35. As a result of the untimely demise of her father, and her· desire to be with and to comfort· her grieving mother, Petitioner and her husband, sometime in the first quarter of 2005, decided to return to the Philippines for good. They consulted their children, who likewise expressed their wish to relocate permanently to the Philippines. The children also wanted to support their grandmother and Petitioner.

36. In 2004, petitioner had already resigned from her work in the U.S.A. and she never again sought employment there. In early 2005, Brian (Poe's son) and Hanna's (Poe's eldest daughter) schools in Virginia, U.S.A., were likewise notified that they would be transferring to Philippine schools for the next semester.

37. As early as March 2005, Petitioner and her husband began obtaining quotations and estimates from property movers regarding the total cost of relocating to Manila all of their household goods, furniture, and cars then in Virginia, U.S.A. One of these property movers was Victory Van International, a private freight forwarding company, with whom Petitioner and her husband had a series of email correspondence from 2005 to 2006. The spouses also intended to bring along their pet dog and they inquired with Philippine authorities on the procedure to accomplish this in August 2005.

38. On 24 May 2005, or shortly before the start of the academic year in the Philippines, Petitioner returned to the country. Her three (3) children also arrived in the country in the first half of 2005. Petitioner's husband, on the other hand, stayed in the U.S.A. to finish pending projects, and to arrange for the sale of the family home there.

39. After their arrival in the Philippines from the U.S.A., Petitioner and her children initially lived with Petitioner's mother in x xx San Juan City. The existing living arrangements at the house of Petitioner's mother even had to be modified to accommodate Petitioner and her children, Petitioner's mother also assigned to Petitioner her father's long-time driver, because Petitioner and her family would henceforth be based in the Philippines. _Meanwhile, Petitioner and her children prepared for the start of the school year, with Brian and Hanna attending Philippine schools starting June 2005. xxx

40. Shortly after arriving in the Philippines, Petitioner immediately submitted herself to the local tax jurisdiction by registering and securing a TIN from the BIR.

x x x x

42. In the meantime, in the second half of 2005, Petitioner and her husband had acquired Unit 7F of One Wilson Place Condominium (and its corresponding parking slot), located at x x x San Juan, Metro Manila, to be used as the family's temporary residence.

42.1 On 20 February 2006, the Register of Deeds for San Juan City issued to Petitioner and her husband CCT No. x x x covering Unit 7F of One Wilson Place, and CCT No. x x x covering the parking slot for Unit 7F.

42.2 On 25 April 2006, Unit 7F of One Wilson Place and its corresponding parking slot were declared, for real estate tax purposes, in Petitioner's and her husband's names.

42.3 Petitioner and her family lived at One Wilson Place until the completion of their family home at Corinthian Hills, Quezon City. Xxx

43. On 14 February 2006, Petitioner briefly travelled to the U.S.A. for the purpose of supervising the disposal of some of the family's remaining household belongings. Around thi's time, Petitioner's and her family's furniture and other household goods were still in the process of being packed for collection, storage arid eventual transport to the Philippines. Petitioner donated to the Salvation Army some of the family's personal properties which could no longer be shipped to the Philippines. Petitioner returned to the Philippines shortly after, or on 11 March 2006.

44. In late March 2006, petitioner's husband officially informed the United States Postal Service of the family's change, and abandonment, of their former address in the U.S.A. The family home in the U.S.A. was eventually sold on 27 April 2006.

45. In April 2006, Petitioner's husband resigned from his work in the U.S.A., and on 4 May 2006, he returned to the Philippines. Beginning July 2006, he worked in the Philippines for a major Philippine company.

46. Meanwhile, in early 2006, Petitioner and her husband acquired a vacant 509-square meter lot at x x x Corinthian Hills, Bagong U gong Norte, Quezon City (the "Corinthian Hills Lot") where her family could finally establish their new family home.

46.1 On 1 June 2006, the Register of Deeds for Quezon City issued to Petitioner and her husband Transfer Certificate of Title ("TCT") No. 290260 covering the Corinthian Hills Lot.

46.2 Petitioner and her husband eventually built a house on the Corinthian Hills Lot. To this day, this house is their family home.

47. After Petitioner and her family settled themselves, she turned her attention to regaining her natural-born Filipino citizenship. She was advised that she could legally reacquire her natural-born Philippine citizenship by taking an oath of allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines, pursuant to the provision of R.A. No. 9225, otherwise known as the "Citizenship Retention and Re-Acquisition Act of 2003."

48. On July 7, 2006, Petitioner took her Oath of Allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines, as required under Section 3 of R.A. No. 9225, to wit: xx x

49. On 10 July 2006, petitioner filed with the B.I. a sworn petition to reacquire her natural-born Philippine citizenship pursuant to R.A. No. 9225 and its implementing rules and regulations. Upon advice, and simultaneous with her own petition, petitioner filed petitions for derivative citizenship on behalf of her three children who were all below eighteen ( 18) years of age at that time. x x x

50. On 18 July 2006, the B.I. issued an Order granting Petitioner's applications xxx.

51. On 31 July 2006, the B.I. issued Identification Certificates ("I.C.") in Petitioner's name and in the name of her three children xxx.

52. On 31 August 2006, the COMELEC registered Petitioner as a voter at Barangay Santa Lucia, San Juan City.

53. On 13 October 2009, or over two (2) years before her U.S.A. Passport was set to expire (on 18 December 2011), Petitioner secured from the DF A her new Philippine Passport with No. x x x (which was valid until 12 October 2014).

54. On 6 October 2010, President Benigno S. Aquino III appointed Petitioner as Chairperson of the MTRCB, a post which requires natural-born Philippine citizenship. Petitioner did not accept the appointment immediately, because she was advised that before assuming any appointive public office, Section 5(3 ), R.A. No. 9225 required her to: (a) take an Oath of Allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines; and (b) renounce her U.S.A. citizenship. She complied with the requirements before assuming her posts as MTR CB Chairperson on 26 October 2010.

55. On 20 October 2010, Petitioner executed before a notary public in Pasig City an "Affidavit of Renunciation of Allegiance to the United States of America and Renunciation of American Citizenship" of even date. x x x

56. On 21 October 2010, in accordance with Presidential Decree No. 1986 and Section 5 (3) of R.A. No. 9225, Petitioner took her oath of office as Chairperson of the MTRCB, before President Benigno S. Aquino III. xxx

57. To ensure that even under the laws of the U.S.A., she would no longer be considered its citizen, Petitioner likewise renounced her U.S.A. citizenship in accordance with the laws of that country. However, Petitioner was not legally required under Philippine law to make another renunciation, as her earlier renunciation of U.S.A. citizenship on October 20, 2010 was sufficient to qualify her for public office.

57.1 On 12 July 2011, Petitioner executed before the Vice Consul at the U.S.A. Embassy in Manila, an Oath/Affirmation of Renunciation of Nationality of the United States.

57.2. On the same day, Petitioner accomplished a sworn "Questionnaire" before the U.S. Vice Consul, wherein she stated that she had taken her oath as MTR CB Chairperson on 21 October 2010, with the intent, among others, of relinquishing her U.S.A. citizenship.

57.3 In the same Questionnaire, Petitioner stated that she had resided "Outside of the United States," i.e., in the "Philippines," from 3 September 1968 to 29 July 1991 and from "05 2005" to "Present". On page 4 of the Questionnaire, Petitioner stated:

I became a resident of the Philippine once again since 2005. My mother still resides in the Philippines. My husband and I are both employed and own properties in the Philippines. As a dual citizen (Filipino-American) since 2006, I've voted in two Philippine national elections. My three children study and reside in the Philippines at the time I performed the act as described in Part I item 6.

58. On 9 December 2011, the U.S.A. Vice Consul issued to petitioner a "Certificate of Loss of Nationality of the United States." Said Certificate attests that under U.S.A. laws, Petitioner lost her U.S.A. citizenship effective 21 October 2010, which is when she took her oath of office as MTRCB Chairperson. This fact is likewise reflected on the last page of Petitioners former U.S.A. Passport.

59. On 27 September 2012, Petitioner accomplished her COC for Senator, which she filed with the COMELEC on 2 October 2012. Section 12 of the COC was, again, an affirmation of the Oath of Allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines which Petitioner had taken on 7 July 2006 (and which she had reaffirmed on 2.1 October 2010 when she took her oath of office as MTRCB Chairperson). x x x

60. During the 13 May 2013 National Elections, petitioner ran for and was overwhelmingly elected as Senator. She garnered over 20 million votes, the highest among her fellow Senatorial candidates, and a record in Philippine election history. On 16 May 2013, Petitioner was proclaimed Senator of the Republic of the Philippines.

61. On 19 December 2013, the DFA issued to Sen. Poe Diplomatic Passport No. x x x (valid until December 2018), and on 18 March 2014, the DFA issued in her favor Philippine Passport No. xx x. Like her earlier Philippine passports, these two (2) most recent passports uniformly state that Sen. Poe is a "citizen of the Philippines."

62. On 15 October 2015, Sen. Poe filed with COMELEC her COC as President ("COC for President") in the 9 May 2016 national and local elections. In her COC, she stated that she is a "NATURAL-BORN FILIPINO CITIZEN" and that her "RESIDENCE IN THE PHILIPPINES UP TO THE DAY BEFORE MAY 09, 2016" would be "10" years and "11" months (counted from 24 May 2005).

As "intent" is basically a "state of mind" that exists only in idea;1 its existence can only be determined by the overt acts that translate it to fact. The realization of such intent need not be made in one fell swoop by the execution of a single formal act. Rather, the fulfillment of the intent to change domicile can be made via a series of steps through what the Court adverts in Mitra v. COMELEC 2 and Sabili v. COMELEC3 as an "incremental process" or the execution of "incremental transfer moves."

The facts of the case suggest that Sen. Poe's change of domicile and repatriation from the US to the Philippines was, to borrow from Mitra, "accomplished, not in a single key move but, through an incremental process"4 that started in early 2005. Specifically, Sen Poe took definite albeit incremental moves to reacquire her domicile of origin as shown by the repatriation of her children and their pet, if I may add, from the US to the Philippines; the enrollment of her children in Philippine schools; the sale of their family home in the US; the repatriation of her husband and his employment in the Philippines; the transfer of their household goods, furniture, cars and personal belongings from the US to the Philippines; the purchase of a residential condominium in the Philippines; the purchase of a residential lot; the construction of her family home in the country; her oath of allegiance under RA 9225; her children's acquisition of derivative Philippine citizenship; the renunciation of her US citizenship; her service as chairperson of the MTRCB; and her candidacy and service as a senator of the Philippines. All these acts are indicative of the intent to stay and serve in the country permanently, and not simply to make a "temporary" sojourn.

Indeed, the foreknowledge of Sen. Poe's repatriation and her desire for it, i.e., her intent to go back to and reestablish her domicile the Philippines, is readily discernible from her acts executed even before her return to the country in May 2005.

The foregoing indicia of Sen. Poe's intent to reestablish her domicile in the country cannot be frivolously dismissed as insufficient on the pretext that "this case involves relocation of national domicile from the US to the Philippines by an alien, which requires much stronger proof, both as to fact and intent. "5

The suggestion that Sen. Poe's animus manendi only existed at the time she took her oath of allegiance under RA 9225 in July 2006 and that her animus non revertendi existed only in October 2010 when she renounced her US citizen is simply illogical. The fact that what is involved is a change of national domicile from one country to another, separated as it were by oceans, and not merely from one neighboring municipality to another like in Mitra and Sabili, it is with more reason that the teachings in Mitra and Sabili are applicable.

It should be of judicial cognizance that even a temporary travel from one country to another is no easy feat. It takes weeks or even months to plan and execute. By no means is the permanent transfer of residence in one country to another an easier undertaking. Like in petitioner's case, it would be a long process that will take months, if not years, to accomplish from the initial inquiry with the movers and the concerned government agencies in both countries, to the actual packing and transportation of one's belongings, the travel of the children and the pet,. their enrollment in schools, the acquisition of a new family home, and the reintegration to Philippine society. The intent to reestablish national domicile cannot be plausibly determined by one isolated formal act or event but by a series of acts that reveal the preceding desire and intent to return to one's country of origin.

Sen. Poe is not an ordinary "alien" trying to establish her domicile in a "foreign country." She was born and raised in the Philippines, who went through the tedious motions of, and succeeded in, reestablishing her home in the country. She is, by no means, foreign to the Philippines nor its people. She maintained close ties to the country and has frequently visited it even during the time she was still recognized as a US citizen. Her parents lived in the country, her friends she grew up with stayed here. In a manner of speaking, her past, her roots were in the Philippines so that it should not be rendered more burdensome for her to establish her future in the country.

After all, the residence requirement was in context intended to prevent a stranger from holding office on the assumption that she would be insufficiently acquainted with the conditions and needs of her prospective constituents.6 Having helped her father during his presidential campaign and having served as a senator and before that an MTRCB chairperson, it cannot be contested that she has more than enough knowledge of the country, its people, and the many issues and problems that beset them. The mischief that the residency requirement was designed to prevent is clearly not present in this case.

The Court's pronouncements in Coquilla v. Commission on Elections,7 Caballero v. Commission on Elections8 and Japzon v. Commission and Elections and Jaime S. Ty9 did not establish an absolute rule that a Filipino who became naturalized under the laws of a foreign country can only re-establish his or her domicile in the Philippines from the moment he or she swears allegiance to the country under RA 9225. Instead, the Court considered the acquisition of dual-citizenship under RA 9225 or the application for a residency permit as one of many possible, not the only, evidence of animus manendi. The Court did not state that any evidence of residence before the acquisition of a residence visa or the reacquisition of citizenship must be ignored.

Unfortunately, in these three cases, the concerned candidates had presented negligible or no evidence of reestablishment of domicile in the Philippines before their repatriation. As Sen. Poe pointed out, the only pieces of evidence in Coquilla showing that he might had had the intent to reside in the Philippines were: (a) his Community Tax Certificate; and (b) his verbal declarations that he intended to run for office. In Japzon, there was absolutely no evidence of the candidate's residence before he reacquired his citizenship and all the evidence pertained to events after his repatriation. Finally, in Caballero, the candidate failed to show that his residence had been for more than a year prior to the May 2013 elections. On the contrary, he admitted that he had only 9 months "actual stay" in Uyugan, Batanes.

Thus, the Court had no choice but to reckon the residency of the concerned candidates .in Coquilla,. Jopzon, and Caballero either from the time they reacquired their citizenship or the time they procured a resident visa because there was simply insufficient proof offered by the candidates before such event. The same cannot be said of Sen. Poe in the instant case.

As previously discussed, Sen. Poe presented overwhelming evidence of her permanent relocation to the Philippines, her actual residence, and intent to stay in the Philippines since May 2005, i.e., even before she took her oath of allegiance under RA 9225 in July 2006. Hence, Jalosjos v. Commission on Elections10 is the better precedent. In Jalosjos, the Court reckoned the candidate's domicile in the Philippines even before he reacquired his citizenship under RA 9225, without mentioning the need for a residence visa, because he was able to satisfacforily prove that he had lived with his brother prior to taking his oath of allegiance. The Court held, thus:

But it is clear from the facts that Quezon City was Jalosjos' domicile of origin, the place of his birth. It may be taken for granted that he effectively changed his domicile from Quezon City to Australia when he migrated there at the age of eight, acquired Australian citizenship, and lived in that country for 26 years. Australia became his domicile by operation of law and by choice.

On the other hand, when he came to the Philippines in November 2008 to live with his brother in Zamboanga Sibugay, it is evident that Jalosjos did so with intent to change his domicile for good. He left Australia, gave up his Australian citizenship, and renounced his allegiance to that country. In addition, he reacquired his old citizenship by taking an oath of allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines, resulting in his being issued a Certificate of Reacquisition of Philippine Citizenship by the Bureau of Immigration. By his acts, Jalosjos forfeited his legal right to live in Australia, clearly proving that he gave up his domicile there. And he has since lived nowhere else except in Ipil, Zamboanga Sibugay.

To hold that Jalosjos has not establish a new domicile in Zamboanga Sibugay despite the loss of his domicile of origin (Quezon City) and his domicile of choice and by operation of law (Australia) would violate the settled maxim that a man must have a domicile or residence somewhere.11

Yet, it has also been advanced that Sen. Poe has not positively shown an intent to abandon the US, or animus non revertendi, prior to her formal renunciation of her American citizenship in October 2010. To this is added that she even acquired a house in the US in 2008 as proof of her alleged intent not to abandon that country. Proponents of this argument cite Reyes v. Commission on Elections.12 However, Reyes was on a starkly different factual milieu. Unlike Sen. P0e, the petitioner therein had not reacquired her Philippine citizenship under RA 9225 or renounced her American citizenship.13 In fact, the only proof she offered of her residency was her service as a provincial officer for seven (7) months.

The alleged fact that Sen. Poe acquired a house in the US in 2008, cannot be taken as an argument against her animus non revertendi vis-a-vis the evidence of her manifest intent to stay, and actual stay, in the Philippines. Certainly, the element of intent to abandon an old domicile does not require a complete and absolute severance of all physical links to that country, or any other country for that matter. It is simply too archaic to state, at a time where air travel is the norm, that ownership of a secondary abode for a temporary visit or holiday negates an intent to abandon a foreign country as a legal domicile.

On Citizenship

There is no question that Sen. Poe has no known biological parents and was found on September 3, 1968 in Jaro, Iloilo when she was but a newborn. She was then adopted by spouses Ronald Allan Kelly and Jesusa Sonora Poe in May 1974. The nagging question is: Is Sen. Poe a natural born Filipino citizen?

Article IV, Section 1 of the 1935 Constitution merely provides:

Section1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:

1. Those who are citizens of the Philippine Islands at the time of the adoption of this Constitution.

2. Those born in the Philippine Islands of foreign parents who, before the adoption of this Constitution, had been elected to public office in the Philippine Islands.

3. Those whose fathers are citizens of the Philippines.

4. Those whose mothers are citizens of the Philippines and, upon reaching the age of majority, elect Philippine citizenship.

5. Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.

The term "natural-born" Filipino does not even appear in the above-quoted provision. This Court, however, has construed the term to refer to those falling under items one to four of the section, as opposed to those who underwent naturalization under item number 5. But Sen. Poe was not born before the adoption of the 1935 Constitution so that the first item is inapplicable. That being said, her status as a foundling does not foreclose the likelihood that either or both of her biological parents were Filipinos rendering her a natural-born Filipino under items 3 and/or 4 of Section 1, Article IV of the 1935 Constitution.

Indeed, while it is not denied that Sen. Poe was abandoned by her biological parents, her abandonment on the date and specific place above indicated does not obliterate the fact that she had biological parents and the private respondents had not shown any proof that they were not Filipino citizens.

Section 1, Rule 131 of the Rules of Court provides that the burden of proof is the duty of a party to prove the truth of his claim or defense, or any fact in issue by the amount of evidence required by law. The private respondents had not presented even an iota of proof to show that Sen. Poe was not born to Filipino parents. Thus, it was grave abuse of discretion for the COMELEC to conclude that Sen. Poe was not a natural-born Filipino and had deliberately misrepresented such fact.

To shift the burden of proof to foundlings like, Sen. Poe, to prove the citizenship of their parents who had abandoned them is as preposterous as rubbing salt on an open bleeding wound; it adds insult to injury. The State cannot allow such unconscionable interpretation of our laws. Instead, the judiciary, as the instrumentality of the State in its role of parens patriae, must ensure that the abandoned children, the foundlings, those who were forced into an unfavorable position are duly protected.

As pointed out by petitioner, the same view was shared by the framers of the 1935 Constitution. A delegate to the 1934 Constitutional Convention, Sr. Nicolas Rafols, proposed to explicitly include "children of unknown parentage" in the enumeration of jus sanguinis Philippine Citizens in Section 1, Article IV of the 1935 Constitution. The suggestion, however, was not accepted but not on the ground that these children are not Philippine citizens. Rather, that the cases of foundlings are "few and far in between," as pointed out by delegate Manuel Roxas, and that citing a similar Spanish Law, they are already presumed to have been born to Filipinos.14

An alternative construction of the 1935, not to say the present Constitution, presents dire consequences. In such a scenario, abandoned children with no known parents will be considered stateless. This violates the rights of a child to immediate registration and nationality after birth, as recognized in the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of a Child. Thus, I cannot subscribe to the proposal that foundlings, like Sen. Poe, are not natural-born Filipino citizens.

PRESBITERO J. VELASCO, JR.
Associate Justice


Footnotes

1 Black's Law Dictionary, 9th Ed., for the iPhone/iPad/iPod touch. Version 2.1.2(B13195), p. 883 citing John Salmond, Jurisprudence 378 (Glanville L. Williams ed., I01 h ed. 1947).

2 G.R. No. 1(;)1938, July 2, 2010 and October 19, 2010.

3 G.R. No. 193261, April 24, 2012.

4 Mitra, supra.

5 Justice Del Castillo's Opinion.

6 Gallego v. Vera, 73 Phil. 453, 459 ( 1941 ); cited in Fernandez v. HRET, G.R. No. 187478, December 21, 2009.

7 G.R. No. 151914, July 31, 2002, 385 SCRA 607.

8 G.R. No. 209835, September 22, 2015.

9 G.R. No. 180088, January 19, 2009, 596 SCRA 354 ..

10 G.R. No. 191970, April 24, 2012.

11 Emphasis supplied.

12 G.R. No. 207264, June 25, 2013, 699 SCRA 522.

13 Regina 0. Reyes- admitted in her submissions under oath before the COMELEC in SPA 13-053 that RA 9225 does not apply to her as she claims to be a dual citizen of the United States of America and the Philippines by virtue of her marriage to a US citizen. Belatedly, Reyes attempted to show that she availed of RA 9225, in a volte face, before the Court in G.R. No. 207264, entitled Reyes v. COMELEC, by presenting a questionable Identification Certificate allegedly issued by the Bureau of Immigration.

14 Per the interpellation of Delegate Ruperto Montinola.


The Lawphil Project - Arellano Law Foundation

CONCURRING OPINION

LEONEN, J.:

I am honored to concur with the ponencia of my esteemed colleague, Associate Justice Jose Portugal Perez. I submit this Opinion to further clarify my position.

Prefatory

The rule of law we swore to uphold is nothing but the rule of just law. The rule of law does not require insistence in elaborate, strained, irrational, and irrelevant technical interpretation when there can be a clear and rational interpretation that is more just and humane while equally bound by the limits of legal text.

The Constitution, as fundamental law, defines the minimum qualifications for a person to present his or her candidacy to run for President. It is this same fundamental law which prescribes that it is the People, in their sovereign capacity as electorate, to determine who among the candidates is best qualified for that position.

In the guise of judicial review, this court is not empowered to constrict the electorate's choice by sustaining the Commission on Elections' actions that show that it failed to disregard doctrinal interpretation of its powers under Section 78 of the Omnibus Election Code, created novel jurisprudence in relation to the citizenship of foundlings, misinterpreted and misapplied existing jurisprudence relating to the requirement of residency for election purposes, and declined to appreciate the evidence presented by petitioner as a whole and instead insisted only on three factual grounds which do not necessarily lead to its inference. The Commission on Elections' actions are a clear breach of its constitutional competence. It acted with grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack of as well as excess of jurisdiction.

It is our law that a child, abandoned by her parents and left at the doorsteps of a rural cathedral, can also dream to become President of the Republic of the Philippines. The minimum requirements of the Constitution is that she be a natural-born Filipina at the time of the filing of her Certificate of Candidacy and have domicile in the Philippines for at least ten (10) years prior to the elections.1

Given the facts of this case, petitioner has complied with these requirements.

When she filed her certificate of candidacy, this court has yet to squarely rule on the issue of whether a foundling-a child abandoned by her parents-is a natural-born Filipino citizen.

There are earlier rulings-Senate Electoral Tribunal Decision2 and the Bureau of Immigration Order3 - that clearly state that petitioner is a natural-born Filipina. She was elected as Senator of the Republic, garnering more than 20 million votes.4 The position of Senator requires that the person be a natural-born Filipino.5

The assertion that petitioner made in her Certificate of Candidacy for President that she is a natural-born citizen is a grounded opinion. It does not constitute a material misrepresentation of fact. In much the same way, a Justice of this court does not commit material misrepresentation when he or she construes the Constitution in an opinion submitted for this case that a foundling is a natural-born citizen absent any clear and convincing evidence to the contrary. In the first place, this is an interpretation of law-not a statement of material fact.

Doing justice and discharging our duty to uphold the rule of law require that we conclude that foundlings are natural-born Filipino citizens absent any evidence that proves the contrary. This is the inescapable conclusion when we read the provisions on citizenship in the context of the entire Constitution, which likewise mandates equality, human dignity, social justice, and care for abandoned children.

The Constitution requires that either the father or the mother is a Filipino citizen.6 It does not require an abandoned child or a foundling to identify his or her biological parents.7 It is enough to show that there is a convincing likelihood that one of the parents is a Filipino. Contrary to the respondents' submissions, it is not blood line that is required. One of the parents can be a naturalized Filipino citizen.8 The reference is only one ascendant generation. The constitutional provision does not absolutely require being born to an indigenous ethnicity.

There is no rational basis to conclude that the loyalty to this country of a foundling, discovered in a rural area and adopted by well-to-do parents, will be more suspect than a child born to naturalized Filipino parents.

That a foundling is a natural-born Filipino, unless clear and convincing evidence is shown otherwise, is also the definitive inference from contemporaneous acts of Congress9 and the Executive.10 This is also the availing conclusion considering our binding commitments in international law.11 There is clear and convincing evidence from the history of the actual text of the entire Constitution.

In the case at bar, petitioner discharged her burden to prove that she is natural-born when the parties stipulated as to her status as a foundling found in front of a church in Jaro, Iloilo.12 When the yardsticks of common sense and statistics are used,13 it borders on the absurd to start with the presumption that she was born to both a foreign father and a foreign mother.

In all likelihood, she was born to at least a Filipino father or to a Filipino mother, or both.

Foundlings present the only ambiguous situation in our Constitution. There is no slippery slope. Malevolent actors that wish to avail themselves of this doctrine will have to prove that they are foundlings. They will have to do so with the requisite quantum of proof for immigration purposes. They will have to do so if it is also necessary for them for purposes of being candidates in a relevant election.

The Commission on Elections committed grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack of jurisdiction when it went beyond its competence under Section 7814 of the Omnibus Election Code and the Constitution by not ruling exclusively on whether there was material misrepresentation. The questioned Resolutions of the Commission on Elections En Banc in these cases create a new and erroneous doctrine on this point of law. It is contrary to the text and spirit of the Constitution.

Likewise, this court has yet to decide on a case that squarely raises the issue as to whether the period of residency required by the Constitution of a candidate running for public office can only commence after he or she reacquires his or her Filipino citizenship. Neither has this court expressed the ratio decidendi that only when he or she has a resident visa can we commence to count his or her period of residency for election purposes. No ratio decidendi exists for these rules because there has not yet been a case that squarely raised these as issues. No ratio decidendi exists because this is not relevant nor organic to the purpose of residency as a requirement for elective public offices.

Our standing doctrines are that: (a) residency is a question of fact;15 (b) residency, for election purposes, is equivalent to domicile;16 and (c) domicile requires physical presence and animus manendi.17 Animus manendi is negated by the absence of animus non-revertendi.

To require a new element for establishing residency in order to deny petitioner's Certificate of Candidacy is not only unfair; it communicates a suspicious animus against her. It may give rise to a fair implication that there is partiality for one or another candidate running for the Office of

President. It is a dangerous move on the part of this court. It will affect the credibility of the next administration and will undermine our standing as a sentinel for the protection of what is just and what is prescribed by the rule of law.

However, the grave abuse of discretion by the Commission on Elections does not end there. The Commission on Elections obviously did not appreciate all of the evidence presented by the parties in inferring when the residency of petitioner for the purpose of this election commenced. They relied on only three points: (a) a prior statement in an earlier Certificate of Candidacy for Senator submitted by petitioner;18 (b) inferences from some of the actions of petitioner's husband;19 and (c) the use of her United States passports.20

Petitioner has asserted that her statement in her present Certificate of Candidacy for President is accurate. She explains that her prior statement in her 2012 Certificate of Candidacy for Senator was a mistake committed in good faith. The Commission on Elections rejects these statements without valid evidence. It insists that it is the 2012 Certificate of Candidacy that is true and, thus, the present Certificate of Candidacy that is falsely represented. In doing so, the Commission on Elections acts arbitrarily and disregards the doctrine in Romualdez-Marcos v. Commission on Elections. 21 In effect, it proposes to overturn the precedent pronounced by this court.

It is true that petitioner is a political studies graduate.22 However, it is likewise true that this court should not expect petitioner to have been thoroughly familiar with the precise interpretation of the legal concept of residence and to correctly apply it when she filed her Certificate of Candidacy for Senator. We do not expect that much even from our lawyers. We accept that there can be honest mistakes in interpretation and application. Otherwise, we should discipline any lawyer who loses a case with finality in any court filed in this country.

To imply petitioner's lack of intent to establish domicile from the actions of her husband is a willful misappreciation of the evidence presented by petitioner with the Commission on Elections. The Commission on Elections infers that the wife cannot establish domicile separated from the husband. This is clearly not the state of Philippine law, which requires fundamental equality between men and women. The Commission on Elections isolates the fact of her husband's continued-albeit short-presence in the United States when petitioner and her children returned to the Philippines. From there, the Commission on Elections infers that when petitioner and her children returned to the Philippines, they did not intend to establish their new permanent home.

The Commission on Elections did not appreciate the following established facts that established the context of petitioner's return to the Philippines on May 24, 2005:

First, the husband was both a Filipino and American citizen.23

Second, the husband and the wife uprooted their children, removed them from their schools in the United States, and enrolled them in schools in t h e Philippines.24

Third, one of their children, a baby, was likewise uprooted and brought to the Philippines to stay here permanently.25

Fourth, arrangements were made to transfer their household belongings in several container vans from the United States to the Philippines.26

Fifth, petitioner did not seek further employment abroad.27

Sixth, petitioner's husband resigned from his work and moved to the Philippines.28

Seventh, petitioner's husband was employed in the Philippines.29

Eighth, they sold the place where they stayed in the United States.30

Ninth, they bought property in the Philippines and built a new family home.31

Tenth, petitioner registered as a voter again in the Philippines and actually voted.32

Eleventh, petitioner registered as a taxpayer in the Philippines and paid taxes.33

Lastly, petitioner and her husband formally made announcements with respect to their change of postal address.34

None of these facts suggested by the Dissenting Opinions can negate the inevitable conclusion of the intent attendant to the establishment of petitioner's presence in the Philippines on May 24, 2005.

That she had properties in the United States is not inconsistent with establishing permanent residence in the Philippines. One who is domiciled in the Philippines is not prohibited from owning properties in another country. Besides, petitioner's assertion that the properties they have in the United States are not their residence was not successfully refuted by private respondents.

Petitioner's reacquisition of Filipino citizenship in July 2006 does not negate physical presence and her intention to establish permanent residence in the country. It is not improbable that a foreigner may establish domicile in the Philippines. She is a returning balikbayan with roots in the Philippines who went through a process to establish her residency in the Philippines and then applied for the recognition of her dual citizenship.

Many of the 47 years that petitioner has lived was spent in the Philippines. Except for the 16 years that she was in the United States, the other 31 years of her life were spent here in the Philippines. The person who became her mother is of advanced age and is in the Philippines. She went to school in this country and made friendships as well as memories. She, together with her husband, now has significant property here in the Philippines. That she intended to come back to take care of her recognized mother is a tendency so culturally Filipino, but which may have been forgotten by the Commission on Elections.

Some of the Dissenting Opinions suggest a new doctrine: the failure of a balikbayan who is allowed to enter the Philippines visa-free to accomplish an application to get a resident visa is a requirement to establish residency for election purposes. This is a new element not contemplated in our current doctrines on domicile.

Residency for election purposes is different from residency for immigration purposes. Applying for an alien resident visa was not required of petitioner. She was legally allowed visa-free entry as a balikbayan pursuant to Republic Act No. 6768, as amended. Within the one-year period of her visa-free stay, there is no prohibition for a balikbayan to apply to reacquire Philippine citizenship under Republic Act No. 9225. This she did. At no time was her stay in the Philippines illegal.

More importantly, the purpose of the residency requirement is already doctrinally established. Torayno, Sr. v. Commission on Elections35 explained that it is meant "to give candidates the opportunity to be familiar with the needs, difficulties, aspirations, potentials for growth and all matters vital to the welfare of their constituencies; likewise, it enables the electorate to evaluate the office seekers' qualifications and fitness for the job they aspire for."36

The requirement to procure a resident visa has no rational relation to this stated purpose. It is a stretch to create a new doctrine. To require it now in this case will have considerable repercussions to the future of our country.

There is no evidence that can challenge the conclusion that on May 24, 2005, petitioner physically came back with the intention to establish her permanent home in the Philippines. In truth, the entire process of establishing petitioner's permanent residence here was completed in April 2006, well before May 9, 2006, 10 years prior to the upcoming elections.

Neither would it be logical to assert that until July 2006, petitioner had not legally established domicile in the Philippines. Before May 2006, petitioner and her husband were already in the Philippines. Neither of them were employed in the United States. They had their family home here. Their children were enrolled in schools in the Philippines.

The Commission on Elections' proposed conclusion is simply too absurd.

Given the evidence on which petitioner reckoned her residency, she did not commit material misrepresentation. Thus, it was not only an error but grave abuse of discretion on the part of the Commission on Elections to trivialize the pieces of evidence presented by petitioner in order to justify its conclusion.

In a proceeding under Section 78 of the Omnibus Election Code, the Commission on Elections is neither constitutionally nor statutorily empowered to enunciate new legal doctrine or to reverse doctrines laid down by this court. It cannot, on the basis of new doctrines not known to the candidate, declare that his or her certificate of candidacy is infected with material misrepresentation.

The Commission on Elections is mandated by the Constitution to enforce and administer election laws. It cannot discharge this duty when there is any suspicion that it favors or disfavors a candidate. When it goes beyond its competency under Section 78 to deny a certificate of candidacy "exclusively on the ground that any material representation contained therein ... is false," it does not only display a tendency to abuse its power; it seriously undermines its neutrality. This is quintessentially grave abuse of discretion.

No effort should be spared so as to ensure that our political preferences for or against any present candidate for the Presidency do not infect our reading of the law and its present doctrines. We should surmount every real or imagined pressure, communicated directly or indirectly by

reading the entire Constitution and jurisprudence as they actually exist. The propositions of respondents require acceptance of doctrines not yet enunciated and inferences that do not arise from the evidence presented. This will have nothing to do with reality. It will be unfair to petitioner, and will amount to misusing our power of judicial review with an attitude less deferential to the sovereign People's choices expressed both in the Constitution and in elections. Upholding the Commission on Elections' Resolutions, which stand on shaky legal grounds, amounts to multiplying each of our individual political preferences more than a millionfold.

The Facts

Before this court are consolidated Petitions for Certiorari under Rule 64 in relation to Rule 65 of the Rules of Court filed by petitioner Mary Grace Natividad S. Poe-Llamanzares. She prays for the nullification of the Resolutions of the Commission on Elections, which cancelled her Certificate of Candidacy for President of the Republic of the Philippines in connection with the May 9, 2016 National and Local Elections.

The Petition docketed as G.R. No. 221697 assails the December 1, 2015 Resolution of the Commission on Elections Second Division, which granted the Petition to Deny Due Course to or Cancel Certificate of Candidacy filed by private respondent Estrella C. Elamparo (Elamparo) and the Commission on Elections En Bane's December 23, 2015 Resolution,37 which denied petitioner's Motion for Reconsideration.38

On the other hand, the Petition docketed as G.R. No. 221698-700 assails the December 11, 2015 Resolution39 of the Commission on Elections First Division, which granted the Petitions filed by private respondents Francisco S. Tatad (Tatad), Antonio P. Contreras (Contreras), and Amado T. Valdez (Valdez) and the Commission on Elections En Bane's December 23, 2015 Resolution,40 which denied petitioner's Motion for Reconsideration.41

The facts of the case are generally stipulated and well-known.

Petitioner is a foundling. Her biological parents are unknown. All that is known about her origin is that at about 9:30 a.m. on September 3, 1968, she was found in the parish church of Jaro, Iloilo by one Edgardo Militar. Edgardo Militar opted to place petitioner in the care and custody of his relative Emiliano Militar and the latter's wife.42

Emiliano Militar reported the discovery to the Office of the Local Civil Registrar in Jaro, Iloilo on September 6, 1968.43 A Foundling Certificate was issued. This Certificate indicated petitioner's date of birth to be September 3, 1968. Petitioner's full name was recorded as "Mary Grace Natividad Contreras Militar. "44

When petitioner was five (5) years old, she was legally adopted by spouses Ronald Allan Poe (Fernando Poe, Jr.) and Jesusa Sonora Poe (Susan Roces). The Decision dated May 13, 1974 by the Municipal Trial Court of San Juan, Rizal granted the Petition for Adoption filed by Fernando Poe, Jr. and Susan Roces.45 The court ordered that petitioner's name be changed "from Mary Grace Natividad Contreras Militar to Mary Grace Natividad Sonora Poe."46

On April 11, 1980, the Office of the Civil Registrar of Iloilo City received a copy of the May 13, 1974 Decision of the Municipal Trial Court of San Juan. It inscribed on petitioner's Foundling Certificate that she was adopted by Fernando Poe, Jr. and Susan Roces on May 13, 1974.47 A handwritten notation was made on the right-hand side of petitioner's Foundling Certificate, as follows:

NOTE: Adopted child by the Spouses Ronald Allan Poe and Jesusa Sonora Poe as per Court Order, Mun. Court, San Juan, Rizal, by Hon. Judge Alfredo M. Gorgonio dated May 13, 1974, under Sp. Proc. No. 138.48

In accordance with the May 13, 1974 Decision, the Office of the Civil Registrar of Iloilo City amended petitioner's Foundling Certificate so that her middle name ("Contreras") and last name ("Militar") were to be replaced with "Sonora" and "Poe," respectively. Further, the names "Ronald Allan Poe" and "Jesusa Sonora Poe" were entered into petitioner's Foundling Certificate in the spaces reserved for the names of the individuals who are legally considered as petitioner's parents.49

On December 13, 1986, when petitioner was 18 years old, the Commission on Elections issued her a Voter's Identification Card for Precinct No. 196, Greenhills, San Juan, Metro Manila.50

On April 4, 1988, petitioner was issued a Philippine passport by the then Ministry of Foreign Affairs. This passport stated that "(t)he Government of the Republic of the Philippines requests all concerned to permit the bearer, a citizen of the Philippines to pass safely and freely and, in case of need, to give (her) lawful aid and protection."51

This passport was valid for a period of five (5) years.52 It was renewed on April 5, 1993, and subsequently on May 19, 1998, October 13, 2009, December 19, 2013, and March 18, 2014.53

Petitioner initially enrolled in the Development Studies Program of the University of the Philippines. However, in 1988, petitioner transferred to the Boston College in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, USA, where she obtained her Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Studies in 1991.54

On July 27, 1991, petitioner married Teodoro Misael V. Llamanzares (Teodoro Llamanzares), a citizen from birth55 of both the Philippines and the United States.56 Teodoro Llamanzares was then based in the United States. On July 29, 1991, petitioner went to the United States to live with her husband.57

Petitioner and her husband bore three (3) children. Brian Daniel (Brian) was born in the United States on April 16, 1992, Hanna MacKenzie (Hanna) in the Philippines on July 10, 1998, and Jesusa Anika (Anika) in the Philippines on June 5, 2004.58

Ten years after having been based in the United States,59 petitioner became a naturalized American citizen on October 18, 2001.60 On December 19, 2001, she was issued United States Passport No. 017037793.61

On April 8, 2004, petitioner, who was then pregnant with her third child, returned to the Philippines.62 She was accompanied by her daughter Hanna.63 Petitioner asserted that her return had two purposes: first, to support her parents as Fernando Poe, Jr. was then running for President of the Philippines; and second, to give birth to her third child, Anika, in the Philippines.64

It was only on July 8, 2004, after Anika was born on June 5, 2004, that petitioner returned to the United States.65

On December 11, 2004, petitioner's father Fernando Poe, Jr. slipped into a coma and was confined at St. Luke's Medical Center in Quezon City. Rushing to return to the Philippines, petitioner arrived on December 13, 2004. Unfortunately, Fernando Poe, Jr. died before petitioner could reach the hospital.66 Petitioner stayed until February 3, 2005 to allegedly "comfort her grieving mother and to assist [her] in taking care of the funeral arrangements and ... the settlement of her father's estate."67

In 2004, petitioner resigned from her work in the United States.68 Following her resignation, she did not seek employment there again.69

Petitioner claims that in the first quarter of 2005, after her father's untimely death and to give moral support to her mother, she and her husband decided to return to the Philippines for good.70

Early in 2005, Brian and Hanna's schools in the United States were informed of their family's intention to transfer them to Philippine schools for the following semester.71

Beginning March 2005, petitioner and her husband began receiving cost estimates from property movers as regards the relocation of their properties from the United States to the Philippines. Among these were those from Victory Van International (Victory Van).72 Petitioner noted that e-mails between her and her husband, on one hand, and Victory Van, on the other, "show the process that [she] and her family went through to permanently relocate and reestablish themselves in Philippines[.]"73 As recalled by petitioner:

2.22.1. On 18 March 2005, with subject heading "Relocation to Manila Estimate", a representative of Victory Van replied to an inquiry made by Petitioner, and informed her that they would need at least three (3) forty foot containers to transport all of the family's household goods, furniture, and two (2) vehicles from Virginia, U.S.A. to Manila, Philippines. The service would include "packing, export wrapping, custom crating for chandeliers, marble top and glass tops, loading of containers ... , US customs export inspection for the vehicles, transportation to Baltimore, ocean freight and documentation to arrival Manila, customs clearance, delivery, ... unwrapping and placement of furniture, assisted unpacking, normal assembly ... , container return to port and same day debris removal based on three 40' containers."

2.22.2. Petitioner and her husband eventually engaged the services of Victory Van, and scheduled two (2) moving phases for the packing, collection and storage of their household goods for eventual transport to the Philippines. The "first phase" was scheduled sometime in February 2006, with Petitioner flying in to the U.S.A. to supervise the packing, storage, and disposal of their household goods in Virginia. The "second phase" was supervised by Petitioner's husband and completed sometime in April 2006.74 (Citations omitted)

Apart from making arrangements for the transfer of their properties, petitioner and her husband also asked Philippine authorities about the procedure for bringing their dogs into the country.75 They processed an application for import permit from the Bureau of Animal Industry - National Veterinary and Quarantine Service.76

Petitioner and her three (3) children returned to the Philippines on May 24, 2005.77 Petitioner's husband was unable to join them and had to stay in the United States as, according to petitioner, he still had "to finish pending projects and to arrange for the sale of the family home there."78

In returning to the Philippines, petitioner and her children did not obtain visas. Petitioner emphasized that a visa was not legally required since she and her children availed themselves of the benefit allowed under the Balikbayan Program of one-year visa-free entry.79

Upon arrival in the Philippines, petitioner and her children initially lived with petitioner's mother Susan Roces at 23 Lincoln St., Greenhills West, San Juan City.80 Petitioner emphasized that the living arrangements at her mother's house were modified to accommodate her and her children.81 Further, her father's long-time driver was permanently assigned to her.82

For the academic year 2005-2006, petitioner enrolled Brian and Hanna in Philippine schools. Brian was enrolled at Beacon School in Taguig City,83 while Hanna at Assumption College in Makati City.84 In 2007, when she was old enough to go to school, Anika was enrolled in

Leaming Connection in San Juan City.85 Brian subsequently transferred to La Salle Greenhills in 2006, where he finished his high school education in 2009.86 Hanna finished her grade school and high school education at Assumption College,87 where Anika also completed Kindergarten.88 She is now a sixth grader in the same school.89

Shortly after her arrival in the Philippines, petitioner also registered as a taxpayer with the Bureau of Internal Revenue.90 She was issued a Tax Identification Number by the Bureau of Internal Revenue on July 22, 2005.91

Petitioner asserted that sometime in the latter part of 2005, Susan Roces discovered that the lawyer in charge of petitioner's adoption in 1974 failed to secure from the Office of the Civil Registrar of Iloilo City a new Certificate of Live Birth indicating petitioner's adopted name and the names of her adoptive parents.92 Thus, on November 8, 2005, she executed an affidavit attesting to the lawyer's omission and submitted it to the Office of the Civil Registrar of Iloilo City. On May 4, 2006, the Office of the Civil Registrar of Iloilo City issued a new Certificate of Live Birth indicating petitioner's name to be "Mary Grace Natividad Sonora Poe."93

In addition, around that time, petitioner and her husband "acquired Unit 7F of One Wilson Place Condominium in San Juan"94 (along with a corresponding parking slot).95 According to petitioner, this was to serve as their temporary residence until the completion of their family home in Corinthian Hills, Quezon City.96

On February 14, 2006, petitioner left for the United States allegedly to supervise the disposal her family's remaining belongings. She returned to the Philippines on March 11, 2006.97

On March 28, 2006, as the disposal of their remaining properties had been completed, petitioner's husband informed the United States Postal Service of their family's abandonment of their address in the United States.98

In April 2006, petitioner's husband resigned from his work in the United States.99 The packing of petitioner's family's properties, which were to be transported to the Philippines, was also completed on or about April 25 to 26, 2006. Their home in the United States was sold on April 27, 2006.100 Petitioner's husband then returned to the Philippines on May 4, 2006. By July 2006, he found employment in the Philippines.101

In the meantime, in early 2006, petitioner and her husband acquired a 509-square-meter lot in Corinthian Hills, Barangay Ugong Norte, Quezon City. They built a house on this lot, which, as petitioner points out, remains to be their family home to this day.102

On July 7, 2006, petitioner took the Oath of Allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines103 pursuant to Section 3 of Republic Act No. 9225, otherwise known as the Citizenship Retention and Re-acquisition Act of 2003. Three days later, on July 10, 2006, she likewise filed before the

Bureau of Immigration a Petition for Reacquisition of Filipino Citizenship.104 She also filed Petitions for Derivate Citizenship on behalf of her three children who were at that time all below 18 years old.105

On July 18, 2006, the Bureau of Immigration issued the Order granting all these Petitions.106 The Order stated:

A careful review of the documents submitted in support of the instant petition indicate that the petitioner was a former citizen of the Republic of the Philippines being born to Filipino parents and is presumed to be a natural born Philippine citizen; thereafter, became an American citizen and is now a holder of an American passport; was issued an ACT and ICR and has taken her oath of allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines on July 7, 2006 and so is thereby deemed to have re-acquired her Philippine Citizenship.107

The Bureau of Immigration issued Identification Certificates for petitioner and her three children.108 Petitioner's Identification Certificate states that she is a "citizen of the Philippines pursuant to the Citizenship Retention and Re-acquisition Act of 2003 (RA 9225) in relation to Administrative Order No. 91, Series of 2004 and Memorandum Circular No. AFF-2-005 per Office Order No. AFF-06-9133 signed by Associate Commissioner Roy M. Almoro dated July 18, 2006."109

On August 31, 2006, petitioner registered as a voter of Barangay Santa Lucia, San Juan City.110

On October 13, 2009, the Department of Foreign Affair issued to petitioner a Philippine passport with Passport Number XX473 l 999.111

On October 6, 2010, President Benigno S. Aquino III appointed petitioner as Chairperson of the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board.112 Petitioner asserts that she did not immediately accept this appointment as she was advised that Section 5(3) of the Citizenship Retention and Re-acquisition Act of 2003 required two things of her before assuming any appointive public office: first, to take the Oath of Allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines; and second, to renounce her American citizenship.113

Thus, on October 20, 2010, petitioner executed an Affidavit of Renunciation of Allegiance to the [United States of America] and Renunciation of American Citizenship,114 stating:

I, MARY GRACE POE-LLAMANZARES, Filipino, of legal age, and presently residing at No. 107 Rodeo Drive, Corinthian Hills, Quezon City, Philippines, after having been duly sworn to in accordance with the law, do hereby depose and state that with this affidavit, I hereby expressly and voluntarily renounce my United States nationality/ American citizenship, together with all rights and privileges and all duties and allegiance and fidelity thereunto pertaining. I make this renunciation intentionally, voluntarily, and of my own free will, free of any duress or undue influence.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto affixed my signature this 20th day of October 2010 at Pasig City, Philippines.115

An original copy of the Affidavit was submitted to the Bureau of Immigration on the same day.116

Petitioner took her Oath of Office as Chairperson of the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board on October 21, 2010.117 She formally assumed office as Chairperson on October 26, 2010.118

In addition to her Affidavit renouncing her American citizenship, petitioner executed on July 12, 2011 an Oath/ Affirmation of Renunciation of Nationality of the United States before Somer E. Bessire-Briers, Vice-Consul of the Embassy of the United States of America in Manila.119

On the same day, she accomplished a Questionnaire Information for Determining Possible Loss of U.S. Citizenship,120 where she stated that on October 21, 2010 she had taken her oath as Chairperson of the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board with the intent of relinquishing her American citizenship.121 She further stated that she had been living in the Philippines from September 3, 1968 to July 29, 1991 and from May 2005 to this present day.122 On page 4 of this Questionnaire, petitioner asserted that:

I became a resident of the Philippines once again since 2005. My mother still resides in the Philippines. My husband and I are both employed and own properties in the Philippines. As a dual citizen (Filipino-American) since 2006, I've voted in two Philippine national elections. My three children study and reside in the Philippines at the time I performed the act as described in Part I item 6.123

On December 9, 2011, petitioner was issued a Certificate of Loss of Nationality by Jason Galian, Vice-Consul of the Embassy of the United States of America.124 The Certificate was approved by the Overseas Citizen Service of the United States' Department of State on February 3, 2012.125

Petitioner ran for Senator of the Philippines in the May 2013 elections.126 She executed her Certificate of Candidacy on September 27, 2012 and filed it before the Commission on Elections on October 2, 2012.127 Petitioner "declared that she had been a resident of the Philippines for six (6) years and six (6) months immediately before the 13 May 2013 elections."128

On May 16, 2013, petitioner's election as Senator was formally proclaimed by the Commission on Elections.129 Petitioner is currently serving her term as Senator.130

On December 19, 2013, the Department of Foreign Affairs issued petitioner a Diplomatic passport with Passport Number DE0004530 valid until December 18, 2018. Petitioner was also issued a Philippine passport with Passport No. EC0588861 valid until March 17, 2019.131

On October 15, 2015, petitioner filed her Certificate of Candidacy for President of the Republic of the Philippines in connection with the May 9, 2016 Elections.132 She stated that she is a natural-born Filipino citizen and that her "residence in the Philippines up to the day before May 9, 2016" was to be "10" years and "11" months.133

Petitioner attached to her Certificate of Candidacy the Affidavit Affirming Renunciation of U.S.A. Citizenship,134 in which she emphasized that she never recanted the Affidavit of Renunciation of Allegiance to the United States of America and Renunciation of American Citizenship that she executed on October 20, 2010. Further, she stated that effective October 21, 2010, she was no longer an American citizen, even within the contemplation of the laws of the United States.135 She further stated:

Although I have long ceased to be a U.S.A. citizen, and without implying that my previous renunciation of U.S.A. citizenship was in any manner ineffective or recanted, but solely for the purpose of complying with the requirements for filing my Certificate of Candidacy ('COC') for President in the 9 May 2016 election (specifically. Item 10 of the COC) and in light of the pronouncement of the Supreme Court in Amado vs. COMELEC (G.R. No. 210164, 18 August 2015) that '(t)here is no law prohibiting (me) from executing an Affidavit of Renunciation every election period if only avert possible questions about (my) qualifications." I hereby affirm and reiterate that I personally renounce my previous U.S.A. citizenship, together with all rights, privileges, duties, allegiance and fidelity pertaining thereto. I likewise declare that, aside from that renounced U.S.A. citizenship, I have never possessed any other foreign citizenship.136 (Citation omitted)

On October 16, 2015, Elamparo filed a Petition to Deny Due Course to or Cancel the Certificate of Candidacy of petitioner.137 The case was raffled to the Second Division of the Commission on Elections.138 On October 19, 2015, Tatad filed a Verified Petition for Disqualification against petitioner.139 On October 20, 2015, Contreras filed a Petition to Deny Due Course to or Cancel the Certificate of Candidacy of petitioner.140 On November 9, 2015, Valdez also filed a Petition to Deny Due Course to or Cancel the Certificate of Candidacy of petitioner.141 The Petitions of Tatad, Contreras, and Valdez were raffled to the Commission on Elections First Division.142

On November 25, 2015, a clarificatory hearing was conducted on the three Petitions before the Commission on Elections First Division.143 The parties were directed to file their respective memoranda until December 3, 2015, 10 days from the date of the preliminary conference.144 The case was deemed submitted for resolution on December 3, 2015, when the parties had submitted their respective Memoranda.145

The Petition filed by Elamparo was likewise submitted for resolution after the parties had submitted their respective memoranda.146

In the Order dated December 1, 2015, the Second Division of the Commission on Elections granted the Petition of Elamparo.147

On December 2, 2015, Elamparo filed an Urgent Motion to Exclude petitioner from the list of candidates for the Office of President in the official ballots to be printed for the May 2016 National Elections.148 Petitioner filed her Partial Motion for Reconsideration before the Commission on Elections En Banc on December 7, 2015.149

Meanwhile, in the Order dated December 11, 2015, the Commission on Elections First Division granted the Petitions of Tatad, Contreras, and Valdez and ordered the cancellation of the Certificate of Candidacy of petitioner for the position of President of the Republic of the Philippines.150 On December 16, 2015, petitioner moved for reconsideration before the Commission on Elections En banc.151

In the resolutions dated December 23, 2015, the Commission on Elections En Banc denied petitioner's motions for reconsideration.152

On December 28, 2015, petitioner filed before this court the present Petitions with an accompanying Extremely Urgent Application for an Ex Parte Temporary Restraining Order/Status Quo Ante Order and/or Writ of Preliminary Injunction.153

On December 28, 2015, this court issued a temporary restraining order.154 Respondents were similarly ordered to comment on the present Petitions.155 The Petitions were later consolidated.156

Oral arguments were conducted from January 19, 2016 to February 16, 2016. Thereafter, the parties submitted their memoranda and the case was deemed submitted for resolution.

The Issues

For resolution are the following issues:

A. Whether a review of the Commission on Elections' assailed Resolutions via the consolidated Petitions for certiorari under Rule 64, in relation to Rule 65 of the 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure is warranted;

B. Whether Rule 23, Section 8 of the Commission on Elections' Rules of Procedure is valid;

(1) Whether Rule 23, Section 8 of the Commission on Election's Rules of Procedure violates Article IX-A, Section 7 of the 1987 Constitution;

(2) Whether the Commission on Elections may promulgate a rule-stipulating a period within which its decisions shall become final and executory-that is inconsistent with the rules promulgated by this court with respect to the review of judgments and final orders or resolutions of the Commission on Elections;

C. Whether the Commission on Elections should have dismissed and not entertained the Petition filed by private respondent Francisco S. Tatad against petitioner Mary Grace Natividad S. Poe-Llamanzares:

(1) On the ground of failure to state the cause of action;

(2) For invoking grounds for a petition to cancel or deny due course to a certificate of candidacy under Section 78 of the Omnibus Election Code, in relation to Rule 23 of the Commission on Election's Rules of Procedure.

D. Whether the Commission on Elections has jurisdiction over the Petitions filed by private respondents Estrella C. Elamparo, Francisco S. Tatad, Antonio P. Contreras, and Amado D. Valdez;

(1) Whether the Commission on Elections acted with grave abuse of jurisdiction and/or in excess of jurisdiction in ruling on petitioner's intrinsic eligibility, specifically with respect to her citizenship and residency;

E. Whether grounds exist for the cancellation of petitioner's Certificate of Candidacy for President;

(1) Whether petitioner made any material misrepresentation in her Certificate of Candidacy for President;

(a) Whether petitioner's statement that she is a natural-born Filipino citizen constitutes material! misrepresentation warranting the cancellation of her Certificate of Candidacy for President;

i. Whether the Commission on Elections' conclusion that petitioner, being a foundling, is not a Filipino citizen under Article IV, Section 1 of the 1935 Constitution, is warranted and sustains the cancellation of her Certificate of Candidacy for President;

-Whether the Commission on Elections gravely abused its discretion

in ruling that petitioner has the burden of proving her natural-born citizenship in proceedings under Section 78 of the Omnibus Election Code in relation to Rule 23 of the Commission on Elections' Rules;

ii. Whether the Commission on Elections' conclusion that petitioner did not validly reacquire natural-born Philippine citizenship is warranted and sustains the cancellation of her Certificate of Candidacy for President;

(b) Whether petitioner's statement in her Certificate of Candidacy that her period of residence in the Philippines is ten (10) years and eleven (11) months until May 9, 2016 constitutes material misrepresentation warranting the cancellation of her Certificate of Candidacy for President;

-Whether the Commission on Elections' conclusion that petitioner did not meet the required period of residence is warranted and sustains the cancellation of her Certificate of Candidacy for President;

(2) Whether petitioner intended to mislead the electorate in the statements she made in her Certificate of Candidacy for President;

(1) Whether petitioner intended to mislead the electorate by stating in her Certificate of Candidacy that she is a natural-born Filipino Citizen; and

(2) Whether petitioner's statement in her Certificate of Candidacy that her period of residence by May 9, 2016 would be ten (10) years and eleven (11) months constitutes concealment of "ineligibility" for the Presidency and an attempt to mislead or deceive the Philippine electorate.

The Petitions should be granted.

I

We clarify the mode of review and its parameters.

This court's power of judicial review is invoked through petitions for certiorari seeking to annul the Commission on Elections' resolutions which contain conclusions regarding petitioner Poe's citizenship, residency, and purported misrepresentation.

Under Rule 64, Section 2 of the Rules of Court, a judgment or final order or resolution of the Commission on Elections may be brought to this court on certiorari under Rule 65.157 For a writ of certiorari to be issued under Rule 65, the respondent tribunal must have acted without or in excess of its jurisdiction, or with grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess o f jurisdiction.158

The concept of judicial power under the 1987 Constitution recognizes this court's jurisdiction to settle actual cases or controversies. It also underscores this court's jurisdiction to determine whether a government agency or instrumentality committed grave abuse of discretion in the fulfillment of its actions. Judicial review grants this court authority to invalidate acts-of the legislative, the executive, constitutional bodies, and administrative agencies-when these acts are contrary to the Constitution.159

The term "grave abuse of discretion," while defying exact definition, generally refers to such arbitrary, capricious, or whimsical exercise of judgment that is equivalent to lack of jurisdiction:

[T]he abuse of discretion must be patent and gross as to amount to an evasion of a positive duty or a virtual refusal to perform a duty enjoined by law, or to act at all in contemplation of law, as where the power is exercised in an arbitrary and despotic manner by reason of passion and hostility. Mere abuse of discretion is not enough: it must be grave.160

In other words: arbitrary, capricious, or whimsical exercise of any constitutionally mandated power has never been sanctioned by the sovereign to any constitutional department, agency, or organ of government.

The Commission on Elections argues that alleged errors in its conclusions regarding petitioner's citizenship, residency, and purported misrepresentation were based on its findings and the evidence submitted by the parties. It emphasizes that even if its conclusions might have been erroneous, it nevertheless based these on its own appreciation of the evidence in relation to the law and the Constitution. It claims to have only exercised its constitutionally bounded discretion. Consequently, in its view, the Commission on Elections cannot be deemed to have acted without or in excess of its jurisdiction.161

Grave abuse of discretion exists when a constitutional body makes patently gross errors in making factual inferences such that critical pieces of evidence presented by a party not traversed or even stipulated by the other parties are ignored.162 Furthermore a misinterpretation of the text of the Constitution or provisions of law, or otherwise a misreading or misapplication of the current state of jurisprudence, also amounts to grave abuse of discretion.163 In such cases, decisions are arbitrary in that they do not relate to the whole corpus of evidence presented. They are arbitrary in that they will not be based on the current state of our law. Necessarily, these give the strongest suspicion of either capriciousness or partiality beyond the imagination of our present Constitution.

Thus, writs of certiorari are issued: (a) where the tribunal's approach to an issue is tainted with grave abuse of discretion, as where it uses wrong considerations and grossly misreads the evidence at arriving at its conclusion;164 (b) where a tribunal's assessment is "far from reasonable[,] [and] based solely on very personal and subjective assessment standards when the law is replete with standards that can be used[;]"165 "(c) where the tribunal's action on the appreciation and evaluation of evidence oversteps the limits of its discretion to the point of being grossly unreasonable[;]"166 and ( d) where the tribunal uses wrong or irrelevant considerations in deciding an issue.167

Article VIII, Section 1 of the Constitution is designed to ensure that this court will not abdicate its duty as guardian of the Constitution's substantive precepts in favor of alleged procedural devices with lesser value.168 Given an actual case or controversy and in the face of grave abuse, this court is not rendered impotent by an overgenerous application of the political question doctrine.169 In general, the present mode of analysis will often require examination of the potential breach of the Constitution in a justiciable controversy.

II

Rule 23, Section 8 of the Commission on Elections' Rules of Procedure, insofar as it states that the Commission on Elections' decisions become final and executor five (5) days after receipt, is valid. It does not violate Article IX, Section 7 of the Constitution.

Article IX of the 1987 Constitution provides that any decision, order, or ruling of the Commission on Elections may be brought to this court on certiorari within thirty (30) days from receipt of a copy:

Section 7. Each Commission shall decide by a majority vote of all its Members, any case or matter brought before it within sixty days from the date of its submission for decision or resolution. A case or matter is deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pleading, brief, or memorandum required by the rules of the Commission or by the Commission itself. Unless otherwise provided by this Constitution or by law, any decision, order, or ruling of each Commission may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty days from receipt of a copy thereof (Emphasis supplied)

Rule 23, Section 8 of the Commission on Elections' Rules of Procedure, on the other hand, provides that decisions and rulings of the Commission on Elections En Banc are deemed final and executory if no restraining order is issued by this court within five (5) days from receipt of such a decision or resolution, thus:

Section 8. Ejfect if Petition Unresolved. -

. . . .

A Decision or Resolution is deemed final and executory if, in case of a Division ruling, no motion for reconsideration is filed within the reglementary period, or in cases of rulings of the Commission En Banc, no restraining order is issued by the Supreme Court within five (5) days from receipt of the decision or resolution.

Under the 1987 Constitution, the Commission on Elections has the power to promulgate its own rules of procedure. Article IX-A provides:

Section 6. Each Commission en banc may promulgate its own rules concerning pleadings and practice before it or before any of its offices. Such rules, however, shall not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights.

Similarly, in Article IX-C:

Section 3. The Commission on Elections may sit en banc or in two divisions, and shall promulgate its rules of procedure in order to expedite disposition of election cases, including pre-proclamation controversies. All such election cases shall be heard and decided in division, provided that motions for reconsideration of decisions shall be decided by the Commission en banc.

The interpretation of any legal provision should be one that is in harmony with other laws on the same subject matter so as to form a complete, coherent, and intelligible system. "Interpretare et concordare legibus est optimus interpretand," or every statute must be so construed and harmonized with other statutes as to form a uniform system of jurisprudence.170 Assessing the validity of the Commission on Elections' Rules of Procedure includes a determination of whether these rules can coexist with the remedy of certiorari as provided by Article IX, Section 7 of the Constitution.

A wide breadth of discretion is granted a court of justice in certiorari proceedings.171 In exercising this power, this court is to be guided by all the circumstances of each particular case "as the ends of justice may require."172 Thus, a writ of certiorari will be granted where necessary in order to prevent a substantial wrong or to do substantial justice.173

The Commission on Elections' Rules of Procedure are evidently procedural rules; they are remedial in nature. They cover only rules on pleadings and practice. They are the means by which its power or authority to hear and decide a class of cases is put into action.174 Rule 23, Section 8 of the Commission on Elections' Rules of Procedure refers only to the pleadings and practice before the Commission on Elections itself, and does not affect the jurisdiction of this court.

Accordingly, that the Commission on Elections may deem a resolution final and executory under its rules of procedure does not automatically render such resolution beyond the scope of judicial review under Article IX of the 1987 Constitution. Rule 23, Section 8 of the Commission on Elections' Rules of Procedure merely guides the Commission as to the status of a decision for its own operations; it does not prevent this court from acting on the same decision via certiorari proceedings. In any event, while it is true that certiorari does not immediately stay a decision of a constitutional commission, a temporary restraining order can still be issued, as in this case.

Finally, it should be noted that in promulgating this rule, the Commission on Elections was simply fulfilling its constitutional duty to "promulgate its rules of procedure in order to expedite disposition of election cases."175 Cases before the Commission on Elections must be disposed of without delay, as the date of the elections is constitutionally and statutorily fixed.176 The five-day rule is based on a reasonable ground: the necessity to prepare for the elections.

III

Any interpretation of the scope of the statutory power granted to the Commission on Elections must consider all the relevant constitutional provisions allocating power to the different organs of government.

Reading the entirety of the Constitution leads to the inescapable conclusion that the Commission on Elections' jurisdiction, statutorily granted in Section 78 of the Omnibus Election Code, with respect to candidates for the Offices of President and Vice President, is only with respect to determining whether a material matter asserted in a candidate's certificate of candidacy is false. For purposes of Section 78, a matter may be true or false only when it is verifiable. Hence, the section only refers to a matter of fact. It cannot refer to a legal doctrine or legal interpretation. Furthermore, the false representation on a material fact must be shown to have been done with intent. It must be accompanied with intent to deceive. It cannot refer to an honest mistake or error made by the candidate.

III. A

A certificate of candidacy is filed to announce a person's candidacy and to declare his or her eligibility for elective office. Section 74 of the Omnibus Election Code enumerates the items that must be included in a certificate of candidacy:

Sec. 74. Contents of certificate of candidacy. - The certificate of candidacy shall state that the person filing it is announcing his candidacy for the office stated therein and that he is eligible for said office; if for Member of the Batasang Pambansa, the province, including its component cities, highly urbanized city or district or sector which he seeks to represent; the political party to which he belongs; civil status; his date of birth; residence; his post office address for all election purposes; his profession or occupation; that he will support and defend the Constitution of the Philippines and will maintain true faith and allegiance thereto; that he will obey the laws, legal orders, and decrees promulgated by the duly constituted authorities; that he is not a pennanent resident or immigrant to a foreign country; that the obligation imposed by his oath is assumed voluntarily, without mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that the facts stated in the certificate of candidacy are true to the best of his knowledge.

Unless a candidate has officially changed his name through a court approved proceeding, a candidate shall use in a certificate of candidacy the name by which he has been baptized, or if has not been baptized in any church or religion, the name registered in the office of the local civil registrar or any other name allowed under the provisions of existing law or, in the case of a Muslim, his Hadji name after performing the prescribed religious pilgrimage: Provided, That when there are two or more candidates for an office with the same name and surname, each candidate, upon being made aware or such fact, shall state his paternal and maternal surname, except the incumbent who may continue to use the name and surname stated in his certificate of candidacy when he was elected. He may also include one nickname or stage name by which he is generally or popularly known in the locality.

The person filing a certificate of candidacy shall also affix his latest photograph, passport size; a statement in duplicate containing his bio-data and program of government not exceeding one hundred words, if he so desires.

Generally, the Commission on Elections has the ministerial duty to receive and acknowledge receipt of certificates of candidacy.177 The Commission on Elections has the competence to deny acceptance of a certificate of candidacy when a candidate's lack of qualifications appears patent on the face of the certificate of candidacy and is indubitable. 178 This is in line with its power to "[e]nforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of an election."179

For instance, if the date of birth in the certificate of candidacy clearly and patently shows that the candidate has not met the required age requirement for the office for which he or she is running, the Commission on Elections may motu proprio deny acceptance. Specifically, in such cases, the candidate has effectively made an admission by swearing to the certificate of candidacy. Therefore, in the interest of an orderly election, the Commission on Elections may simply implement the law.

This is not the situation in this case. Petitioner's Certificate of Candidacy did not patently show any disqualification or ineligibility. Thus, the denial of due course or cancellation of the certificate cannot be done motu proprio, but only when a petition is filed. The petition must be verified and based on the exclusive ground that a material representation in the certificate of candidacy is false.

Section 78 of the Omnibus Election Code provides:

Sec. 78. Petition to deny due course to or cancel a certificate of candidacy. - A verified petition seeking to deny due course or to cancel a certificate of candidacy may be filed by any person

exclusively on the ground that any material representation contained therein as required under Section 74 hereof is false. The petition may be filed at any time not later than twenty-five days from the time of the filing of the certificate of candidacy ad shall be decided, after due notice and hearing, not later than fifteen days before the election. (Emphasis supplied)

III.B

The Commission on Elections' discretion with respect to Section 78 is limited in scope.

The constitutional powers and functions of the Commission on Elections are enumerated in Article IX-C, Section 2 of the 1987 Constitution:

SECTION 2. The Commission on Elections shall exercise the following powers and functions:

(1) Enforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of an election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, and recall.

(2) Exercise exclusive original jurisdiction over all contests relating to the elections, returns, and qualifications of all elective regional, provincial, and city officials, and appellate jurisdiction over all contests involving elective municipal officials decided by trial courts of general jurisdiction, or involving elective barangay officials decided by trial courts of limited jurisdiction.

Decisions, final orders, or rulings of the Commission on election contests involving elective municipal and barangay offices shall be final, executory, and not appealable.

(3) Decide, except those involving the right to vote, all questions affecting elections, including determination of the number and location of polling places, appointment of election officials and inspectors, and registration of voters.

(4) Deputize, with the concurrence of the President, law enforcement agencies and instrumentalities of the Government, including the Armed Forces of the Philippines, for the exclusive purpose of ensuring free, orderly, honest, peaceful, and credible elections.

(5) Register, after sufficient publication, political parties, organizations, or coalitions which, in addition to other requirements, must present their platform or program of government; and accredit citizens' arms of the Commission on Elections. Religious denominations and sects shall not be registered. Those which seek to achieve their goals through violence or unlawful means, or refuse to uphold and adhere to this Constitution, or which are supported by any foreign government shall likewise be refused registration.

Financial contributions from foreign governments and their agencies to political parties, organizations, coalitions, or candidates related to elections constitute interference in national affairs, and, when accepted, shall be an additional ground for the cancellation of their registration with the Commission, in addition to other penalties that may be prescribed by law.

(6) File, upon a verified complaint, or on its own initiative, petitions in court for inclusion or exclusion of voters; investigate and, where appropriate, prosecute cases of violations of election laws, including acts or omissions constituting election frauds, offenses, and malpractices.

(7) Recommend to the Congress effective measures to minimize election spending, including limitation of places where propaganda materials shall be posted, and to prevent and penalize all forms of election frauds, offenses, malpractices, and nuisance candidacies.

(8) Recommend to the President the removal of any officer or employee it has deputized, or the imposition of any other disciplinary action, for violation or disregard of, or disobedience to its directive, order, or decision.

(9) Submit to the President and the Congress a comprehensive report on the conduct of each election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, or recall.

Except for item (2), all the powers enumerated in Article IX-C, Section 2 are administrative in nature.180 These powers relate to the Commission's general mandate to "[e]nforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of an election." The Commission on Elections' adjudicatory powers are limited to having "exclusive original jurisdiction over all contests relating to the elections, returns, and qualifications of all elective regional, provincial, and city officials" and "appellate jurisdiction over all contests involving elective municipal officials decided by trial courts of general jurisdiction, or involving elective barangay officials decided by trial courts of limited jurisdiction."

The Commission on Elections has no jurisdiction over the elections, returns, and qualifications of those who are candidates for the Office of President. They also do not have jurisdiction to decide issues "involving the right to vote[.]"181

The Commission on Elections was originally only an administrative agency.182 Under Commonwealth Act No. 607, it took over the President's function to enforce election laws.

Pursuant to amendments made to the 1935 Constitution, the Commission on Elections was transformed into a constitutional body "[having] exclusive charge of the enforcement and administration of all laws relative to the conduct of elections[.]"183

It was in the 1973 Constitution that the Commission on Elections was granted quasi-judicial powers in addition to its administrative powers. The Commission on Elections became the sole judge of all election contests relating to the elections, returns, and qualifications of members of the national legislature and elective provincial and city officials. Thus, in Article XII-C, Section 2(2) of the 1973 Constitution, the Commission on Elections was granted the power to:

SEC. 2 . . . .

. . . .

(2) Be the sole judge of all contests relating to the elections, returns, and qualifications of all Members of the Batasang Pambansa and elective provincial and city officials. (Emphasis supplied)

At present, the quasi-judicial power of the Commission on Elections is found in item (2) of Article IX-C, Section 2 of the Constitution.

"Contests" are post-election scenarios.184 Article IX-C, Section 2(2) of the Constitution speaks of "elective officials," not "candidates for an elective position." This means that the Commission on Elections may take cognizance of petitions involving qualifications for public office only after election, and this is only with respect to elective regional, provincial, city, municipal, and barangay officials.

With respect to candidates for President and Vice President, the Constitution reserved adjudicatory power with this court. Article VII, Section 4 of the 1987 Constitution outlines the dynamic relationship of the various constitutional organs in elections for President and Vice President, thus:

SECTION 4 . . . .

. . . .

The returns of every election for President and Vice-President, duly certified by the board of canvassers of each province or city, shall be transmitted to the Congress, directed to the President of the Senate. Upon receipt of the certificates of canvass, the President of Senate shall, not later than thirty days after the day of the election, open all certificates in the presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives in joint public session, and the Congress, upon determination of the authenticity and due execution thereof in the manner provided by law, canvass the votes.

The person having the highest number of votes shall be proclaimed elected, but in case two or more shall have an equal and highest number of votes, one of them shall forthwith be chosen by the vote of a majority of all the Members of the Congress, voting separately.

The Congress shall promulgate its rules for the canvassing of the certificates.

The Supreme Court, sitting en bane, shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications of the President or Vice-President, and may promulgate its rules for the purpose. (Emphasis supplied)

Reading the text of similar provisions185 relating to the House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal,186 Former Associate Justice Vicente V. Mendoza observed in his Separate Opinion in Romualdez-Marcos that there are no "authorized proceedings for determining a candidate's qualifications for an office before his election."187 He proposed that the Commission on Elections cannot remedy the perceived lacuna by deciding petitions questioning the qualifications of candidates before the election under its power to enforce election laws.188

This reading was later on qualified.

In Tecson v. Commission on Elections, 189 the petitions filed by Maria Jeanette Tecson and Zoilo Velez were dismissed for lack of jurisdiction. The petitions questioned directly before this court, before the elections were held, the qualifications of Fernando Poe, Jr. as a presidential candidate. With unanimity on this point, this court stated:

The rules categorically speak of the jurisdiction of the tribunal over contests relating to the election, returns and qualifications of the "President" or "Vice President", of the Philippines, and not of "candidates for President or Vice President. A quo warranto proceeding is generally defined as being an action against a person who usurps, intrudes into, or unlawfully holds or exercises a public office. In such context, the election contest can only contemplate a post-election scenario. In Rule 14, only a registered candidate who would have received either the second or third highest number of votes could file an election protest. This rule again presupposes a post election scenario.

It is fair to conclude that the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court, defined by Section 4, paragraph 7, of the 1987 Constitution, would not include cases directly brought before it, questioning the qualifications of a candidate for the presidency or vice-presidency before the elections are held.

Accordingly, G.R. No. 161434, entitled "Maria Jeanette C. Tecson, et al., vs. Commission on Elections et al.," and G.R. No. 161634, entitled "Zoilo Antonio Velez vs. Ronald Allan Kelley Poe a.k.a. Fernando Poe, Jr." would have to be dismissed for want of jurisdiction.190

On the other hand, with respect to the petitions that questioned the resolutions of the Commission on Elections, which in turn were decided on the basis of Section 78 of the Omnibus Election Code, Tecson clarified, with respect to the Petition docketed as G.R. No. 161824:

In seeking the disqualification of the candidacy of FPJ and to have the COMELEC deny due course to or cancel FPJ's certificate of candidacy for alleged misrepresentation of a material fact (i.e., that FPJ was a natural-born citizen) before the COMELEC, petitioner Fornier invoked Section 78 of the Omnibus Election Code-

Section 78. Petition to deny due course to or cancel a certificate of candidacy. - A verified petition seeking to deny due course or to cancel a certificate of candidacy may be filed by any person exclusively on the ground that any material representation contained therein as required under Section 74 hereof is false.- in consonance with the general powers of COMELEC expressed in Section 52 of the Omnibus Election Code -

Section 52. Powers and functions of the Commission on Elections. In addition to the powers and functions conferred upon it by the Constitution, the Commission shall have exclusive charge of the enforcement and administration of all laws relative to the conduct of elections for the purpose of ensuring free, orderly and honest elections - and in relation to Article 69 of the Omnibus Election Code which would authorize "any interested party" to file a verified petition to deny or cancel the certificate of candidacy of any nuisance candidate.

Decisions of the COMELEC on disqualification cases may be reviewed by the Supreme Court per Rule 64 in an action for certiorari under Rule 65 of the Revised Rules of Civil Procedure. Section 7, Article IX, of the 1987 Constitution also reads-

Each Commission shall decide by a majority vote of all its Members any case or matter brought before it within sixty days from the date of its submission for decision or resolution. A case or matter is deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pleading, brief, or memorandum, required by the rules of the Commission or by the Commission itself. Unless otherwise provided by this Constitution or by law, any decision, order or ruling of each Commission may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty days from receipt of a copy thereof.

Additionally, Section 1, Article VIII, of the same Constitution provides that judicial power is vested in one Supreme Court and in such lower courts as may be established by law which power "includes the duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable, and to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the Government.

It is sufficiently clear that the petition brought up in G.R. No. 161824 was aptly elevated to, and cold well be taken cognizance of by, this Court. A contrary view would be a gross denial to our people of their fundamental right to be fully informed, and to make a proper choice, on who could or should be elected to occupy the highest government post in the land.191 (Citations omitted)

A proper reading of the Constitution requires that every provision be given effect. Thus, the absurd situation where "contests" are entertained even if no petition for quo warranto was filed before the Presidential Electoral Tribunal,192 the Senate Electoral Tribunal,193 or the House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal194 must be avoided. This will be the case should the Commission on Elections be allowed to take cognizance of all petitions questioning the eligibility of a candidate. The provisions of the Constitution on the jurisdiction of the electoral tribunals over election contests would be rendered useless.

More importantly, the Commission on Elections' very existence and effectiveness inherently depend on its neutrality. Scrutiny of the qualifications of candidates for electoral positions of national importance was intentionally and expressly delegated to special electoral tribunals. Clearly, the credibility-and perhaps even the legitimacy-of those who are elected to these important public offices will be undermined with the slightest suspicion of bias on the part of the Commission on Elections. This is why the pressure to determine the qualifications of candidates to these positions has been purposely removed from the Commission on Elections. After all, given Article IX-A, Section 7 of the Constitution, any "case or matter" decided by a constitutional commission "may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty days from receipt of a copy thereof."195 The Commission on Elections will find itself in a very difficult situation should it disqualify a candidate on reasons other than clearly demonstrable or factual grounds only for this court to eventually overturn its ruling. The Commission on Elections, wittingly or unwittingly, would provide justifiable basis for suspicions of partiality.

It is also this evil that we must guard against as we further sketch the contours of the jurisdiction of the Commission on Elections and of this court.

Before elections, the Commission on Elections, under Section 78 of the Omnibus Election Code, may take cognizance of petitions involving qualifications for public office regardless of the elective position involved, but only on the limited and exclusive ground that a certificate of candidacy contains a material representation that is false.

Intent to deceive should remain an element of Section 78 petitions. Otherwise, the only issue to be resolved in Section 78 petitions would be whether the candidate possesses the qualifications required under the law. If the Commission acts on these petitions, it acts in excess of its jurisdiction. As discussed, the Commission on Elections may validly take cognizance of petitions involving qualifications only if the petitions were filed after election and only with respect to elective regional, provincial, city, municipal, and barangay officials.

III.C

Thus, to successfully challenge a certificate of candidacy under Section 78, a petitioner must establish that:

First, that the assailed certificate of candidacy contains a representation that is false;

Second, that the false representation is material, i.e., it involves the candidate's qualifications for elective office,196 such as citizenship197 and residency;198 and

Third, that the false material representation was made with a "deliberate attempt to mislead, misinform, or hide a fact that would otherwise render a candidate ineligible"199 or "with an intention to deceive the electorate as to one's qualifications for public office."200

In using its powers under Section 78, the Commission on Elections must apply these requirements strictly and with a default preference for allowing a certificate of candidacy in cases affecting the positions of President, Vice President, Senator, or Member of the House of Representatives. Section 78 itself mentions that the ground of material misrepresentation is exclusive of any other ground. Furthermore, in the guise of this statutory grant of power, the Commission on Elections cannot usurp the functions of this court sitting as the Presidential Electoral Tribunal nor of the Senate Electoral Tribunal, and the House of Representatives

Electoral Tribunal. Likewise, it cannot keep the most important collective of government-the People acting as an electorate-from exercising its most potent power: the exercise of its right to choose its leaders in a clean, honest, and orderly election.

As petitioner suggests, "the sovereign people, in ratifying the Constitution, intended that questions of a candidate's qualification ... be submitted directly to them."201 In the words of Former Chief Justice Reynato Puno in Frivaldo v. Commission on Elections,202 the People, on certain legal issues, choose to be the "final power of final legal adjustment."203

Consistent with this legal order, only questions of fact may be resolved in Section 78 proceedings. Section 78 uses the word "false;" hence, these proceedings must proceed from doubts arising as to the truth or falsehood of a representation in a certificate of candidacy.204 Only a fact is verifiable, and conversely, falsifiable, as opposed to an opinion on a disputed point of law where one's position is only as good as another's. Under Section 78, the Commission on Elections cannot resolve questions of lawas when it resolves the issue of whether a candidate is qualified given a certain set of facts-for it would arrogate upon itself the powers duly reserved to the electoral tribunals established by the Constitution.

Romualdez-Marcos v. Commission on Elections articulated the requirement of "deliberate attempt to mislead" in order that a certificate of candidacy may be cancelled.205 In 1995, Imelda Romualdez-Marcos filed her Certificate of Candidacy for Representative of the First District of Leyte, alleging that she resided in the district for seven (7) months. She later amended her Certificate to state that she had resided in Tacloban City "since childhood,"206 explaining that her original answer was an "honest mistake."207 The Commission on Elections nonetheless cancelled her Certificate of Candidacy for her failure to meet the one-year residency requirement for the position she was seeking.208

Admitting the defense of honest mistake and finding that Imelda Romualdez-Marcos satisfied the required period of residence, this court reversed the Commission on Elections' ruling. It stated that:

[I]t is the fact of residence, not a statement in certificate of candidacy which ought to be decisive in determining whether or not an individual has satisfied the constitution's residency qualification requirement. [The statement in the certificate of candidacy] becomes material only when there is or appears to be a deliberate attempt to mislead, misinform, or hide a fact which would otherwise render a candidate ineligible. It would be plainly ridiculous for a candidate to deliberately and knowingly make a statement in a certificate of candidacy which would lead to his or her disqualification.209

In Salcedo II v. Commission on Elections,210 this court affirmed the proclamation of Ermelita Cacao Salcedo as Mayor of Sara, Iloilo despite the contention that her marriage to Neptali Salcedo was void and that she, therefore, had materially misrepresented her surname to be "Salcedo. "211 This court ruled that the use of a specific surname in a certificate of candidacy is not the material representation contemplated in Section 78.212 There was no intent to deceive on the part of Ermelita Cacao Salcedo as she has been using "Salcedo" years before the election; hence, this court refused to cancel her Certificate of Candidacy.213

Intent to deceive has consistently been required to justify the cancellation of certificates of candidacy.214 Yet, in 2013, this court in Tagolino v. House of Representatives Electoral Tribunat215 stated that intent to deceive "is of bare significance to a Section 78 petition."216 This statement must be taken in context.

In Tagolino, Richard Gomez (Gomez) filed his Certificate of Candidacy for Representative for the Fourth District of Leyte. An opposing candidate, Buenaventura Juntilla (Juntilla), filed a petition before the Commission on Elections, alleging that Gomez resided in Greenhills, San Juan City, contrary to his representation in his Certificate of Candidacy that he resided in Ormoc City. Juntilla prayed for the cancellation of Gomez's Certificate of Candidacy.217

In its Resolution dated February 17, 2010, the First Division of the Commission on Elections granted Juntilla's Petition and declared Gomez "disqualified as a candidate for the Office of Congressman, Fourth District of Leyte, for lack of residency requirement."218 This Resolution was affirmed by the Commission on Elections En Banc, after which Gomez manifested that he accepted the finality of the Resolution.219

Thereafter, Lucy Torres-Gomez (Torres-Gomez) filed her Certificate of Candidacy as substitute candidate for her husband. The Liberal Party, to which Gomez belonged, endorsed Torres-Gomez's candidacy. Upon recommendation of its Law Department, the Commission on Elections En Banc allowed Torres-Gomez to substitute for Gomez in its Resolution dated May 8, 2010.220

The next day, on May 9, 2010, Juntilla moved for reconsideration. After the conduct of elections on May 10, 2010, Gomez, whose name remained on the ballots, garnered the highest number of votes among the candidates for representative.221 In view of his substitution, the votes were counted in favor of Torres-Gomez. Torres-Gomez was then "proclaimed the duly elected Representative of the Fourth District of Leyte. "222

To oust Torres-Gomez, Silverio Tagolino filed a petition for quo warranto before the House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal. Tagolino argued, among others, that Torres-Gomez failed to validly substitute Gomez, the latter's Certificate of Candidacy being void.223

The House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal dismissed the petition for quo warranto and ruled that Torres-Gomez validly substituted for her husband. According to the tribunal, the Commission on Elections declared Gomez disqualified; the Commission did not cancel Gomez's Certificate of Candidacy. Since Gomez was merely disqualified, a candidate nominated by the political party to which he belonged could validly substitute him.224

On certiorari, this court reversed and set aside the Decision of the House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal.225 Juntilla's Petition prayed for the cancellation of Gomez's certificate of candidacy.226 Although the Commission's First Division declared Gomez "disqualified" as a candidate for representative, the Commission nonetheless granted Juntilla's Petition "without any qualification."227

Juntilla's Petition was granted, resulting in the cancellation of Gomez's Certificate of Candidacy. Hence, Gomez was deemed a non-candidate for the 2010 Elections and could not have been validly substituted by Torres-Gomez. Torres-Gomez then could not have been validly elected as Representative of the Fourth District of Leyte.

In deciding Tagolino, this court distinguished a petition for disqualification under Section 68 of the Omnibus Election Code from a petition to deny due course to or cancel a certificate of candidacy under Section 78.228 As to whether intent to deceive should be established in a Section 78 petition, this court stated:

[I]t must be noted that the deliberateness of the misrepresentation, much less one's intent to defraud, is of bare significance in a Section 78 petition as it is enough that the person's declaration of a material qualification in the [certificate of candidacy] be false. In this relation, jurisprudence holds that an express finding that the person committed any deliberate misrepresentation is of little consequence in the determination of whether one's [certificate of candidacy] should be deemed cancelled or not. What remains material is that the petition essentially seeks to deny due course to and/or cancel the [certificate of candidacy] on the basis of one's ineligibility and that the same be granted without any qualification.229 (Citations omitted)

Tagolino notwithstanding, intent to deceive remains an indispensable element of a petition to deny due course to or cancel a certificate of candidacy.

As correctly pointed out by petitioner, the contentious statement in Tagolino is mere obiter dictum.230 That statement was not essential in resolving the core issue in Tagolino: whether a person whose certificate of candidacy was cancelled may be validly substituted. This had no direct relation to the interpretation of false material representations in the certificate of candidacy.

Moreover, this court En Banc affirmed the requirement after Tagolino.

In Villafuerte v. Commission on Elections,231 Hayudini v. Commission on Elections, 232 Jalover v. Osmeña, 233 and Agustin. v. Commission on Elections234-all decided after Tagolino-this court reaffirmed "intent to deceive" as an integral element of a Section 78 petition. Unlike Tagolino, this court's Decisions in Villafuerte, Hayudini, Jalover, and Agustin directly dealt with and squarely ruled on the issue of whether the Commission on Elections gravely abused its discretion in granting or denying Section 78 petitions. Their affirmation of intent to deceive as an indispensable requirement was part of their very ratio decidendi and not mere obiter dicta. Since this ratio decidendi has been repeated, it now partakes of the status of jurisprudential doctrine. Accordingly, the statement in Tagolino that dispenses with the requirement of intent to deceive cannot be considered binding.

It is true that Section 78 makes no mention of "intent to deceive." Instead, what Section 78 uses is the word "representation." Reading Section 78 in this way creates an apparent absence of textual basis for sustaining the claim that intent to deceive should not be an element of Section 78 petitions. It is an error to read a provision of law.

"Representation" is rooted in the word "represent," a verb. Thus, by a representation, a person actively does something. There is operative engagement in that the doer brings to fruition what he or she is pondering-something that is abstract and otherwise known only to him or her, a proverbial "castle in the air." The "representation" is but a concrete product, a manifestation, or a perceptible expression of what the doer has already cognitively resolved to do. One who makes a representation is one who intends to articulate what, in his or her mind, he or she wishes to represent. He or she actively and intentionally uses signs conventionally understood in the form of speech, text, or other acts.

Thus, representations are assertions. By asserting, the person making a statement pushes for, affirms, or insists upon something. These are hardly badges of something in which intent is immaterial. On the contrary, no such assertion can exist unless a person actually wishes to, that is, intends, to firmly stand for something.

In Section 78, the requirement is that there is "material representation contained therein as required by Section 74 hereof is false."235 A "misrepresentation" is merely the obverse of "representation." They are two opposite concepts. Thus, as with making a representation, a person who misrepresents cannot do so without intending to do so.

That intent to deceive is an inherent element of a Section 78 petition is reflected by the grave consequences facing those who make false material representations in their certificates of candidacy.236 They are deprived of a fundamental political right to run for public office.237 Worse, they may be criminally charged with violating election laws, even with perjury.238 For these reasons, the false material representation referred to in Section 78 cannot "just [be] any innocuous mistake."239

Petitioner correctly argued that Section 78 should be read in relation to Section 74's enumeration of what certificates of candidacy must state. Under Section 74, a person filing a certificate of candidacy declares that the facts stated in the certificate "are true to the best of his [or her] knowledge." The law does not require "absolute certainty"240 but allows for mistakes in the certificate of candidacy if made in good faith.241 This is consistent with the "summary character of proceedings relating to certificates of candidacy. "242

IV

From these premises, the Commission on Elections should have dismissed Tatad' s Petition for Disqualification. The Commission on Elections showed bias and acted arbitrarily when it motu proprio converted the Petition into one which Tatad did not intend, contrary to the interest of the other party. While the Commission on Elections has the necessary and implied powers concomitant with its constitutional task to administer election laws, it cannot do so by favoring one party over the other.

Significantly, Tatad was not the only petitioner in those cases. There were three other petitions against one candidate, which already contained most if not all the arguments on the issues raised by Tatad. There was, thus, no discernable reason for the Commission on Elections not to dismiss a clearly erroneous petition. The Commission on Elections intentionally put itself at risk of being seen not only as being partial, but also as a full advocate of Tatad, guiding him to do the correct procedure.

On this matter, the Commission on Elections clearly acted arbitrarily.

Section 68 of the Omnibus Election Code grants the Commission on Elections jurisdiction over petitions for disqualification. Section 68 enumerates the grounds for filing a disqualification petition:

Sec. 68. Disqualifications. - Any candidate who, in action or protest in which he is a party is declared by final decision of a competent court guilty of, or found by the Commission of having

(a) given money or other material consideration to influence, induce or corrupt the voters or public officials performing electoral functions; (b) committed acts of terrorism to enhance his candidacy; (c) spent in his election campaign an amount in excess of that allowed by this Code; (d) solicited, received or made any contribution prohibited under Sections 89, 95, 96, 97 and 104; or (e) violated any of Sections 80, 83, 85, 86 and 261, paragraphs d, e, k, v, and cc, sub-paragraph 6, shall be disqualified from continuing as a candidate, or if he has been elected, from holding the office. Any person who is a permanent resident of or an immigrant of a foreign country in accordance with the residence requirement provided for in the election laws.

Apart from the grounds provided in Section 68, the grounds in Section 12 of the Omnibus Election Code may likewise be raised in a petition for disqualification.243 Section 12 of the Omnibus Election Code states:

Sec. 12. Disqualifications. -Any person who has been declared by competent authority insane or incompetent, or has been sentenced by final judgment for subversion, insurrection, rebellion, or for any offense for which he has been sentenced to a penalty of more than eighteen months or for a crime involving moral turpitude, shall be disqualified to be a candidate and to hold any office, unless he has been given plenary pardon or granted amnesty.

This disqualifications to be a candidate herein provided shall be deemed removed upon the declaration by competent authority that said insanity or incompetence had been removed or after the expiration of a period of five years from his service of sentence, unless within the same period he again becomes disqualified.

Although denominated as a Petition for Disqualification, Tatad' s Petition before the Commission on Elections did not raise any ground for disqualification under Sections 12 and 68 of the Omnibus Election Code.

Instead, Tatad argued that petitioner lacked the required qualifications for presidency; hence, petitioner should not be allowed to run for president.

The law does not allow petitions directly questioning the qualifications of a candidate before the elections. Tatad could have availed himself of a petition to deny due course to or cancel petitioner's certificate of candidacy under Section 78 on the ground that petitioner made a false material representation in her certificate of candidacy. However, Tatad's petition before the Commission on Elections did not even pray for the cancellation of petitioner's certificate of candidacy.

The Commission on Elections gravely abused its discretion in either implicitly amending the petition or incorrectly interpreting its procedural device so as to favor Tatad and allow his petition. The Commission should have dismissed Tatad's petition for want of jurisdiction. In failing to do so, it acted arbitrarily, whimsically, and capriciously. The Commission on Elections on this point acted with grave abuse of discretion.

V

There was no material misrepresentation with respect to petitioner's conclusion that she was a natural-born Filipina. Her statement was not false. The facts upon which she based her conclusion of law was laid bare through her allegations, and a substantial number of these were the subject of stipulation of the parties. Neither private respondents nor the Commission on Elections was able to disprove any of the material facts supporting the legal conclusion of the petitioner. Petitioner was entitled to make her own legal conclusion from her interpretation of the relevant constitutional and statutory provisions. This court has yet to rule on a case that-at the time of the filing of the certificate of candidacy until this moment-squarely raised the issue of the citizenship and the nature of citizenship of a foundling.

Thus, the Commission on Elections had no jurisdiction under Section 78 of the Omnibus Election Code to rule on the nature of citizenship of petitioner. Even assuming without granting that it had that competence, the Commission gravely abused its discretion when it cancelled petitioner's Certificate of Candidacy on this ground. There was no material misrepresentation as to a matter of fact. There was no intent to deceive. Petitioner, even as a foundling, presented enough facts to make a reasonable inference that either or both of her parents were Filipino citizens when she was born.

V.A

The Commission on Elections submits that since petitioner admitted that she is a foundling, the burden of evidence was passed on to her "to prove that her representation in her [Certificate of Candidacy ]-that she is eligible to run for President-is not false."244 The Commission argues that this declaration carried an admission that petitioner is of unknown parentage. Thus, private respondents do not need to prove that petitioner's parents are foreigners. Instead, it was petitioner's burden to show evidence that she is a natural-born Filipino citizen.245

Elamparo echoed the Commission on Elections' arguments. Petitioner's admission that she is a foundling was enough substantial evidence on the part of private respondents to discharge the burden that rested upon them as petitioners before the Commission on Elections. Petitioner's admission trumped all other evidence submitted to the Commission on Elections of government recognition of her citizenship.246

As opposed to burden of proof,247 burden of evidence shifts between the parties.248 The party who alleges must initially prove his or her claims.249 Once he or she is able to show a prima facie case in his or her favor, the burden of evidence shifts to the other party.250

Thus, in an action for cancellation of a certificate of candidacy under Section 78 of the Omnibus Election Code, the person who filed the petition alleging material misrepresentation has the burden of proving such claim.251 He or she must establish that there is material misrepresentation under the required standard of evidence. In cases before quasi-judicial bodies, the standard of evidence is "substantial evidence or that amount of relevant evidence which a reasonable mind might accept as adequate to justify a conclusion.252

If, during the course of hearing, petitioner shows a prima facie case of material misrepresentation, the burden of evidence shifts. The opposing party will then need to controvert the claims made.253

Private respondents who initiated the action before the Commission on Elections failed to establish a prima facie case of material misrepresentation to warrant a shift of burden of evidence to petitioner. Based on this ground, the petitions for cancellation of certificate of candidacy should have already been dismissed at the level of the Commission on Elections.

Even assuming that the burden of proof and evidence shifted to petitioner, the Commission on Elections erred in only considering petitioner's statement that she is a foundling. It committed a grave error when it excluded all the other pieces of evidence presented by petitioner and isolated her admission (and the other parties' stipulation) that she was a foundling in order to conclude that the burden of evidence already shifted to her.

Petitioner's admission that she is a foundling merely established that her biological parents were unknown. It did not establish that she falsely misrepresented that she was born of Filipino parents. It did not establish that both her biological parents were foreign citizens.

The Commission on Elections was blind to the following evidence alleged by petitioner and accepted by the other parties:

(1) She was found in a church in Jaro, Iloilo;

(2) When she was found, she was only an infant sufficient to be considered newborn;

(3) She was found sometime in September 1968;

(4) She was immediately registered as a foundling;

(5) Jaro, Iloilo did not have an international airport; and

(6) The physical characteristics of petitioner are consistent with a large majority of Filipinos.

All these facts can be used to infer that at least one of her biological parents is Filipino. These should be sufficient to establish that she is natural-born in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Constitution. The Commission on Elections arbitrarily disregarded these pieces of evidence. It chose to rely only on the admitted fact that she was a foundling to claim that the burden of evidence has already shifted.

V. B

The Commission on Elections was mistaken when it concluded that the burden of evidence shifted upon admission of the status of a foundling.

For purposes of Section 78 of the Omnibus Election Code, private respondents still had the burden of showing that: (1) both of petitioner's biological parents were foreign citizens; (2) petitioner had actual knowledge of both her biological parents' foreign citizenship at the time of filing of her Certificate of Candidacy; and (3) she had intent to mislead the electorate with regard to her qualifications.

The Commission on Elections cited and relied heavily on Senior Associate Justice Antonio Carpio's Dissenting Opinion in Tecson. On the basis of this Dissent, the Commission on Elections concluded that petitioner cannot invoke any presumption of natural-born citizenship.254 The Dissenting Opinion quoted Paa v. Chan,255 in that "[i]t is incumbent upon a person who claims Philippine citizenship to prove to the satisfaction of the Court that he is really a Filipino. No presumption can be indulged in favor of the claimant of Philippine citizenship, and any doubt regarding citizenship must be resolved in favor of the State."256

Elementary in citing and using jurisprudence is that the main opinion of this court, not the dissent, is controlling. Reliance by the Commission on Elections on the dissent without sufficiently relating it to the pronouncements in the main opinion does not only border on contumacious misapplication of court doctrine; it is utterly grave abuse of discretion.

Tecson, correctly read, resolved the issue of citizenship using presumptions. From the death certificate of Fernando Poe, Jr.'s grandfather Lorenzo Pou, this court assumed that he was born sometime in 1870 or during the Spanish regime.257 Lorenzo Pou' s death certificate shows San Carlos, Pangasinan as his place of residence. On this basis, this court inferred that San Carlos, Pangasinan was also Lorenzo Pou' s residence before death such that he would have benefitted from the Philippine Bill's "en masse Filipinization" in 1902 :258

In ascertaining, in G.R. No. 161824, whether grave abuse of discretion has been committed by the COMELEC, it is necessary to take on the matter of whether or not respondent FPJ is a natural-born citizen, which, in turn, depended on whether or not the father of respondent, Allan F. Poe, would have himself been a Filipino citizen and, in the affirmative, whether or not the alleged illegitimacy of respondent prevents him from taking after the Filipino citizenship of his putative father. Any conclusion on the Filipino citizenship of Lorenzo Pou could only be drawn from the presumption that having died in 1954 at 84 years old, when the Philippines was under Spanish rule, and that San Carlos, Pangasinan, his place of residence upon his death in 1954, in the absence of any other evidence, could have well been his place of residence before death, such that Lorenzo Pou would have benefited from the "en masse Filipinization" that the Philippine Bill had effected in 1902. That citizenship (of Lorenzo Pou), if acquired, would thereby extend to his son, Allan F. Poe, father of respondent FPJ. The 1935 Constitution, during which regime respondent FPJ has seen first light, confers citizenship to all persons whose fathers are Filipino citizens regardless of whether such children are legitimate or illegitimate.259

The Commission on Elections acted with utter arbitrariness when it chose to disregard this finding and its analogous application to petitioner and, instead, chose to rely on one of the dissenting opinions.

Moreover, the 1967 case of Paa v. Chan cited by the dissent favored by the Commission on Elections does not apply to this case.

Paa involved a quo warranto petition questioning the eligibility of an elected councilor on the ground of being a Chinese citizen.260 It did not involve a petition for cancellation of certificate of candidacy.

In Paa, the councilor's registration as alien before the Bureau of Immigration was undisputed. The councilor's father was also registered as an alien on April 30, 1946.261

In petitioner's case, private respondents only relied on her foundling status to prove her alleged material misrepresentation of her qualifications. They did not present evidence, direct or circumstantial, to substantiate their claims against petitioner's candidacy. In other words, unlike Paa where evidence existed to support a claim of foreign citizenship, private 0 respondents in this case showed none.

Even assuming that it could apply to this case, the 2004 case of Tecson had already overturned the 1967 pronouncements in Paa.

The Commission on Elections further submits the 2009 case of Go v. Ramos,262 which reestablished the ruling against the use of presumptions in favor of claimants of Filipino citizenship when it reiterated Paa.263

Go is likewise inapplicable to this case. It involved a deportation complaint with allegations that a person-Go, the petitioner-was an illegal and undesirable alien.264 Unlike in this case, it involved birth certificates clearly showing that Go and his siblings were Chinese citizens.265 Furthermore, Go was also decided by this court sitting in Division. Thus, it cannot overturn Tecson, which was decided by this court sitting En Banc.

V.C

Tecson v. Commission on Elections266 involved a similar petition alleging material misrepresentation in the Certificate of Candidacy of Fernando Poe, Jr. who claimed to have been a natural-born Filipino citizen.267 This court ruled in favor of Fernando Poe, Jr. and dismissed the petitions even though his natural-born citizenship could not be established conclusively. This court found that petitioner in that case failed to substantiate his claim of material misrepresentation.268 Former Associate Justice Vitug, speaking for the majority, discussed:

But while the totality of the evidence may not establish conclusively that respondent FPJ is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, the evidence on hand still would preponderate in his favor enough to hold that he cannot be held guilty of having made a material misrepresentation in his certificate of candidacy in violation of Section 78, in relation to Section 74, of the Omnibus Election Code. Petitioner has utterly failed to substantiate his case before the Court, notwithstanding the ample opportunity given to the parties to present their position and evidence, and to prove whether or not there has been material misrepresentation, which, as so ruled in Romualdez-Marcos v. COMELEC, must not only be material, but also deliberate and willful.269 (Emphasis supplied)

V.D

Even if we assume that it was petitioner who had the burden of evidence, a complete and faithful reading of the provisions of the entire Constitution, together with the evidence that petitioner presented, leads to the inescapable conclusion that as a newborn abandoned by her parents in Jaro, Iloilo in 1968, she was at birth Filipina. Thus, being Filipina at birth, petitioner did not have to do anything to perfect her Filipino citizenship. She is natural-born.

Furthermore, there is no shred of evidence to rebut the circumstances of her birth. There is no shred of evidence that can lead to the conclusion that both her parents were not Filipino citizens.

The whole case of private respondents, as well as the basis of the Commission on Elections' Resolutions, is a presumption that all newborns abandoned by their parents even in rural areas in the Philippines are presumed not to be Filipinos. Private respondents' approach requires that those who were abandoned-even because of poverty or shame-must exert extraordinary effort to search for the very same parents who abandoned them and might not have wanted to be identified in order to have a chance to be of public service.

V.E

Constitutional construction mandates that we begin with the relevant text and give its words their ordinary meaning whenever possible, consistent with verba legis. 270 As much as possible, the language of the text must be understood in its common usage and sense so as to maintain its presence in the People's consciousness.271 The language of the provision itself is the primary source from which this court determines constitutional intent.272 Thus:

We look to the language of the document itself in our search for its meaning. We do not of course stop there, but that is where we begin. It is to be assumed that the words in which constitutional provisions are couched express the objective sought to be attained. They are to be given their ordinary meaning except where technical terms are employed in which case the significance thus attached to them prevails. As the Constitution is not primarily a lawyer's document, it being essential for the rule of law to obtain that it should ever be present in the people's consciousness, its language as much as possible should be understood in the sense they have in common use. What it says according to the text of the provision to be construed compels acceptance and negates the power of the courts to alter it, based on the postulate that the framers and the people mean what they say. Thus, these are the cases where the need for construction is reduced to a minimum.273 (Emphasis supplied)

Reading the text of the Constitution requires that its place in the whole context of the entire document must be considered. The Constitution should be read as a whole-ut magis val eat quam pereat. 274 Thus, in Civil Liberties Union v. Executive Secretary: 275

It is a well-established rule in constitutional construction that no one provision of the Constitution is to be separated from all the others, to be considered alone, but that all the provisions bearing upon a particular subject are to be brought into view and to be so interpreted as to effectuate the great purposes of the instrument. Sections bearing on a particular subject should be considered and interpreted together as to effectuate the whole purpose of the Constitution and one section is not to be allowed to defeat another, if by any reasonable construction, the two can be made to stand together.

In other words, the court must harmonize them, if practicable, and must lean in favor of construction which will render every word operative, rather than one which may make the words idle and nugatory.276 (Citations omitted)

In granting reconsideration in La Bugal-B 'laan Tribal Association, Inc. v. Ramos, 277 this court discussed that "[t]he Constitution should be read in broad, life-giving strokes. It should not be used to strangulate economic growth or to serve narrow, parochial interests."278

In Social Weather Stations, Inc. v. Commission on Elections, 279 this court's discussion on statutory construction emphasized the need to adhere to a more holistic approach in interpretation:

[T]he assumption that there is, in all cases, a universal plain language is erroneous. In reality, universality and uniformity in meaning is a rarity. A contrary belief wrongly assumes that language is static.

The more appropriate and more effective approach is, thus, holistic rather than parochial: to consider context and the interplay of the historical, the contemporary, and even the envisioned. Judicial interpretation entails the convergence of social realities and social ideals. The latter are meant to be effected by the legal apparatus, chief of which is the bedrock of the prevailing legal order: the Constitution. Indeed, the word in the vernacular that describes the Constitution - saligan - demonstrates this imperative of constitutional primacy.

Thus, we refuse to read Section 5.2(a) of the Fair Election Act in isolation. Here, we consider not an abstruse provision but a stipulation that is part of the whole, i.e., the statute of which it is a part, that is aimed at realizing the ideal of fair elections. We consider not a cloistered provision but a nonn that should have a present authoritative effect to achieve the ideals of those who currently read, depend on, and demand fealty from the Constitution.280 (Emphasis supplied)

Still faithful with the relevant text and its place in the entire document, construction of constitutional meaning allows a historical trace of the changes that have been made in the text-from the choice of language, the additions, the omissions, and the revisions. The present constitutional text can be compared to our earlier Constitutions. Changes or retention of language and syntax congeals meaning.

Article IV, Section 1 of the Constitution on who are citizens of the Philippines, for example, may be traced back to earlier organic laws,281 and even farther back to laws of colonizers that were made effective in the Philippine Islands during their occupation.282 Some influences of their history, as enshrined in their laws, were taken and reflected in our fundamental law.

We resort to contemporaneous construction and aids only when the text is ambiguous or capable of two or more possible meanings.283 It is only when the ambiguity remains even after a plain and contemporary reading of the relevant words in the text and within the context of the entire document that legal interpretation requires courts to go further. This includes examining the contemporaneous construction contained in analogous cases, statutes, and international norms that form part of the law of the land. This also includes discerning the purpose of the constitutional provision in light of the facts under consideration. For this purpose, the original understanding of the provisions by the People that ratified the document, as well as the discussions of those that participated in the constitutional convention or commission that drafted the document, taken into its correct historical context, can be illuminating.

Discerning constitutional meaning is an exercise in discovering the sovereign's purpose so as to judge the more viable among competing interpretations of the same legal text. The words as they reside in the whole document should primarily provide the clues. Secondarily, contemporaneous construction may aid in illumination if verba legis fails. Contemporaneous construction may also validate the clear textual or contextual meaning of the Constitution.

Contemporaneous construction is justified by the idea that the Constitution is not exclusively read by this court. The theory of a constitutional order founded on democracy is that all organs of government and its People can read the fundamental law. Only differences in reasonable interpretation of the meaning of its relevant text, occasioned by an actual controversy, will be mediated by courts of law to determine which interpretation applies and would be final. The democratic character of reading the Constitution provides the framework for the policy of deference and constitutional avoidance in the exercise of judicial review. Likewise, this is implied in the canonical doctrine that this court cannot render advisory opinions. Refining it further, this court decides only constitutional issues that are as narrowly framed, sufficient to decide an actual case.284

Contemporaneous construction engages jurisprudence and relevant statutes in determining the purpose behind the relevant text.

In the hierarchy of constitutional interpretation, discerning purpose through inference of the original intent of those that participated in crafting the draft Constitution for the People's ratification, or discerning the original understanding of the past society that actually ratified the basic document, is the weakest approach.

Not only do these interpretative methodologies allow the greatest subjectivity for this court, it may also be subject to the greatest errors. For instance, those that were silent during constitutional conventions may have voted for a proposition due to their own reasons different from those who took the floor to express their views. It is even possible that the beliefs that inspired the framers were based on erroneous facts.

Moreover, the original intent of the framers of the Constitution is different from the original understanding of the People who ratified it. Thus, in Civil Liberties Union:

While it is permissible in this jurisdiction to consult the debates and proceedings of the constitutional convention in order to arrive at the reason and purpose of the resulting Constitution, resort thereto may be had only when other guides fail as said proceedings are powerless to vary the terms of the Constitution when the meaning is clear. Debates in the constitutional convention "are of value as showing the views of the individual members, and as indicating the reasons for their votes, but they give is no light as to the views of the large majority who did not talk, much less of the mass of our fellow citizens whose votes at the polls gave the instrument the force of fundamental law. We think it safer to construe the constitution from what appears upon its face." The proper interpretation therefore depends more on how it was understood by the people adopting it than in the framer's understanding thereof285 (Emphasis supplied)

We apply these considerations in the interpretation of the provisions of the Constitution relevant to this case.

V.F

Petitioner is natural-born under any of two possible approaches.

The first approach is to assume as a matter of constitutional interpretation that all foundlings found in the Philippines, being presumptively born to either a Filipino biological father or a Filipina biological mother, are natural-born, unless there is substantial proof to the contrary. There must be substantial evidence to show that there is a reasonable probability that both, not just one, of the biological parents are not Filipino citizens.

This is the inevitable conclusion reached when the entirety of the provisions of the Constitution is considered alongside the contemporary construction based on statutes and international norms that form part of the law of the land. It is also the most viable conclusion given the purpose of the requirement that candidates for President must be natural-born.

The second approach is to read the definition of natural-born in Section 2 in relation to Article IV, Section 1 (2). Section 1 (2) requires that the father or the mother is a Filipino citizen.286

There is no requirement that the father or mother should be natural-born Filipino citizens. It is possible that one or both of the parents are ethnically foreign. Thus, physical features will not be determinative of natural-born citizenship.

There is no requirement of citizenship beyond the first degree of ascendant relationship. In other words, there is no necessity to prove indigenous ethnicity. Contrary to the strident arguments of the Commission on Elections, there is no requirement of Filipino bloodline.

Significantly, there is also no requirement that the father or mother should be definitively identified. There can be proof of a reasonable belief that evidence presented in a relevant proceeding substantially shows that either the father or the mother is a Filipino citizen.

V.G

The minimum constitutional qualifications for President are clearly enumerated in Article VII, Section 2:

Section 2. No person may be elected President unless he is a natural born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines at least ten years immediately preceding such election.

Parsing the provision's clear meaning in the order enumerated, the qualifications are:

One, he or she must be "a natural born citizen";

Two, he or she must be "a registered voter";

Three, he or she must be "able to read and write";

Four, he or she must be "at least forty years of age on the day of the election"· and '

Five, he or she must be "a resident of the Philippines at least ten years immediately preceding such election."

Petitioner's possession of the second, third, and fourth minimum qualifications are not in issue in this case. A closer analysis of this provision makes certain conclusions apparent.

The phrase, "ten years immediately preceding such election" qualifies "a resident of the Philippines" as part of the fifth minimum constitutional requirement. It does not qualify any of the prior four requirements. The ten-year requirement does not qualify "able to read and write." Likewise, it cannot textually and logically qualify the phrase, "at least forty years of age" or the phrase, "a registered voter."

Certainly then, the ten-year requirement also does not qualify "a natural born citizen." Being natural-born is an inherent characteristic. Being a citizen, on the other hand, may be lost or acquired in accordance with law. The provision clearly implies that: (a) one must be a natural-born citizen at least upon election into office, and (b) one must be a resident at least ten years prior to the election. Citizenship and residency as minimum constitutional requirements are two different legal concepts.

In other words, there is no constitutional anchor for the added requirement that within the entire ten-year period prior to the election when a candidate is a resident, he or she also has to have reacquired his or her natural-born citizen status.

Citizenship refers to political affiliation. It is a fiction created by law. Residence, on the other hand, refers to one's domicile. It is created by one's acts, which is indicative of his or her intentions.

To require her natural-born citizenship status in order to legally consider the commencement of her residency is, therefore, to add and amend the minimum requirements of the Constitution.

Furthermore, the Constitution intends minimum qualifications for those who wish to present themselves to be considered by the People for the Office of President. No educational attainment, profession, or quality of character is constitutionally required as a minimum. Inherent in the text of the Constitution is an implied dynamic. The electorate, acting collectively during a specific election, chooses the weight of other considerations. It is not for the Commission on Elections or this court to discreetly implant and, therefore, dictate on the electorate in the guise of interpreting the provisions of the Constitution and declaring what is legal, the political wisdom of considerations. This is consistent also with Article II, Section I of the Constitution.287

Thus, that petitioner once lost and then reacquired her natural-born citizenship is not part of the minimum constitutional requirements to be a candidate for President. It is an issue that may be considered by the electorate when they cast their ballots.

On a second level of constitutional interpretation, a contemporaneous construction of Article VII, Section 2 with Republic Act No. 9225, otherwise known as the Citizenship Retention and Re-acquisition Act on 2003,288 supports this reading.

The Constitution provides that "Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law."289 On July 7, 2006, petitioner took her Oath of Allegiance under Section 3 of Republic Act No. 9225. On July 10, 2006, she filed a Petition for Reacquisition of her Philippine citizenship before the Bureau of Immigration and Deportation, and her

Petition was granted.290

Section 3 of Republic Act No. 9225 provides for the Oath of Allegiance to the Republic that may be taken by natural-born citizens of the Philippines who lost their Philippine citizenship when they became naturalized citizens of another country, in order to reacquire their Philippine citizenship:

Section 3. Retention of Philippine Citizenship. - Any provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding, natural-born citizens of the Philippines who have lost their Philippine citizenship by reason on their naturalization as citizens of a foreign country are hereby deemed to have re-acquired Philippine citizenship upon taking the following oath of allegiance to the Republic:

"I ______________ , solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines and obey the laws and legal orders promulgated by the duly constituted authorities of the Philippines; and I hereby declare that I recognize and accept the supreme authority of the Philippines and will maintain true faith and allegiance thereto; and that I impose this obligation upon myself voluntarily without mental reservation or purpose of evasion."

Natural-born citizens of the Philippines who, after the effectivity of this Act, become citizens of a foreign country shall retain their Philippine citizenship upon taking the aforesaid oath.291 Upon taking this Oath, those who became citizens of another country prior to the effectivity of Republic Act No. 9225 reacquire their Philippine citizenship, while those who became citizens of another country after to the effectivity of Republic Act No. 9225 retain their Philippine citizenship.

Taking the Oath enables the enjoyment of full civil and political rights, subject to all attendant liabilities and responsibilities under existing laws and the different solemnities under Section 5 of Republic Act No. 9225. Different conditions must be complied with depending on whether one intends to exercise the right to vote, seek elective public office, or assume an appointive public office, among others:

Sec. 5. Civil and Political Rights and Liabilities. - Those who retain or re-acquire Philippine citizenship under this Act shall enjoy full civil and political rights and be subject to all attendant liabilities and responsibilities under existing laws of the Philippines and the following conditions:

(1) Those intending to exercise their right of suffrage must meet the requirements under Section 1, Article V of the Constitution, Republic Act No. 9189, otherwise known as the Overseas Absentee Voting Act of 2003' and other existing laws;

(2) Those seeking elective public office in the Philippines shall meet the qualifications for holding such public office as required by the Constitution and existing laws and, at the time of the filing of the certificate of candidacy, make a personal and sworn renunciation of any and all foreign citizenship before any public officer authorized to administer an oath;

(3) Those appointed to any public office shall subscribe and swear to an oath of allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines and its duly constituted authorities prior to their assumption of office; Provided, That they renounce their oath of allegiance to the country where they took that oath;

(4) Those intending to practice their profession in the Philippines shall apply with the proper authority for a license or permit to engage in such practice; and

(5) That the right to vote or be elected or appointed to any public office in the Philippines cannot be exercised by, or extended to, those who:

a. are candidates for or are occupying any public office in the country of which they are naturalized citizens; and/or

b. are in active service as commissioned or noncommissioned officers in the armed forces of the country which they are naturalized citizens. (Emphasis supplied)

Sobejana-Condon v. Commission on Elections292 discussed the mandatory nature of the required sworn renunciation under Section 5 of Republic Act No. 9225. This provision was intended to complement Article XI, Section 18 of the Constitution in that "[p ]ublic officers and employees owe the State and this Constitution allegiance at all times and any public officer or employee who seeks to change his citizenship or acquire the status of an immigrant of another country during his tenure shall be dealt with by law."293

Republic Act No. 9225 only requires that the personal and sworn renunciation of foreign citizenship be made "at the time of the filing of the certificate of candidacy" for those seeking elective public position. It does not require a ten-year period similar to the residency qualification.

V.H

The concept of natural-born citizens is in Article IV, Section 2:

Sec. 2. Natural-born citizens are those who are citizens of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship. Those who elect Philippine citizenship in accordance with paragraph (3), Section 1 hereof shall be deemed natural-born citizens. (Emphasis supplied)

Citizens, on the other hand, are enumerated in Section 1 of the same Article:

Section 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:

(1) Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution;

(2) Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines;

(3) Those born before January 17, 1973, of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority; and

(4) Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.294

The critical question is whether petitioner, as a foundling, was Filipina at birth.

Citizenship essentially is the "right to have rights."295 It is one's "personal and more or less permanent membership in a political community. . . . The core of citizenship is the capacity to enjoy political rights, that is, the right to participate in government principally through the right to vote, the right to hold public office[,] and the right to petition the government for redress of grievance."296

Citizenship also entails obligations to the community.297 Because of the rights and protection provided by the state, its citizens are presumed to be loyal to it, and even more so if it is the state that has protected them since birth.

V.I

The first level of constitutional interpretation permits a review of the evolution of these provisions on citizenship in the determination of its purpose and rationale.

This court in Tecson detailed the historical development of the concept of Philippine citizenship, dating back from the Spanish occupation.298 During the Spanish regime, the native inhabitants of the Islands were denominated as "Spanish subjects" or "subject of Spain" to indicate their political status.299 The Spanish Constitution of 1876 declared persons born in Spanish territory as Spaniards, but this was never extended to the Philippine Islands due to the mandate of Article 89 in that the Philippines would be governed by special laws.300 The Civil Code of Spain became effective in this jurisdiction on December 18, 1889, making the first categorical listing on who were Spanish citizens,301 thus:

(a) Person born in Spanish territory,

(b) Children of a Spanish father or mother, even if they were born outside of Spain,

(c) Foreigners who have obtained naturalization papers,

(d) Those who, without such papers, may have become domiciled inhabitants of any town of the Monarchy.302

The Philippine Revolution in 1898 marked the end of the Spanish era and the entry of the Americans. Spain was forced to cede the Philippine colony to the United States. Pursuant to the Treaty of Paris between the two countries on December 10, 1989, the native inhabitants were not automatically converted to American citizens.303 Since they also ceased to be "Spanish subjects," they were "issued passports describing them to be citizens of the Philippines entitled to the protection of the United States":304

Spanish subject, natives of the Peninsula, residing in the territory over which Spain by the present treaty relinquishes or cedes her sovereignty may remain in such territory or may remove therefrom . . . . In case they remain in the territory they may preserve their allegiance to the Crown of Spain by making . . . a declaration of their decision to preserve such allegiance; in default of which declaration they shall be held to have renounced it and to have adopted the nationality of the territory in which they may reside.

Thus-

The civil rights and political status of the native inhabitants of the territories hereby ceded to the United States shall be determined by Congress.305

The concept of "Philippine citizens" crystallized with the adoption of the Philippine Bill of 1902,306 where the term "citizens of the Philippine Islands" first appeared:307

Section 4. That all inhabitants of the Philippine Islands continuing to reside therein, who were Spanish subjects on the eleventh day of April, eighteen hundred and ninety-nine, and then resided in said Islands, and their children born subsequent thereto, shall be deemed and held to be citizen of the Philippine Islands and as such entitled to the protection of the United States, except such as shall have elected to preserve their allegiance to the Crown of Spain in accordance with the provisions of the treaty of peace between the United States and Spain signed at Paris December tenth, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight. (Emphasis supplied)

The United States Congress amended this section on March 23, 1912 to include a proviso for the enactment by the legislature of a law on acquiring citizenship. This was restated in the Jones Law of 1916, otherwise known as the Philippine Autonomy Act.308 The proviso in the 1912 amendment reads:

Provided, That the Philippine Legislature, herein provided for, is hereby authorized to provide by law for the acquisition of Philippine citizenship by those natives of the Philippine Islands who do not come within the foregoing provisions, the natives of the insular possessions of the United States, and such other persons residing in the Philippine Islands who are citizens of the United States, or who could become citizens of the United States under the laws of the United States if residing therein.309

Thus, the Jones Law of 1916 provided that native-born inhabitants of the Philippines were deemed Philippine citizens as of April 11, 1899 if he or she was "(l) a subject of Spain on April 11, 1899, (2) residing in the Philippines on said date, and (3) since that date, not a citizen of some other country. "310

While common law used by the United States follows }us soli as the mode of acquiring citizenship, the 1935 Constitution adopted }us sanguinis or blood relations as basis for Philippine citizenship,311 thus:

SECTION 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:

(1) Those who are citizens of the Philippine Islands at the time of the adoption of this Constitution

(2) Those born in the Philippines Islands of foreign parents who, before the adoption of this Constitution, had been elected to public office in the Philippine Islands.

(3) Those whose fathers are citizens of the Philippines.

(4) Those whose mothers are citizens of the Philippines and upon reaching the age of majority, elect Philippine citizenship.

(5) Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.312

Subsection (4), when read with then civil law provisions on the automatic loss of Filipino citizenship by women who marry foreign husbands and automatically acquire his foreign citizenship, posed a discriminatory situation for women and their children.313 Thus, the 1973 Constitution addressed this concern with the following revisions:

SECTION 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:

(1) Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution.

(2) Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines.

(3) Those who elect Philippine citizenship pursuant to the provisions of the Constitution of nineteen hundred and thirty-five.

(4) Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.

SEC. 2. A female citizen of the Philippines who marries an alien shall retain her Philippine citizenship, unless by her act or omission she is deemed, under the law, to have renounced her citizenship.314

The 1973 Constitution also provided a definition for "natural-born citizens" since the 1935 Constitution, similar to the United States Constitution, required the President to be a "natural-born citizen" without defining the term. Prior to the 1935 Constitution, public offices were filled through appointment by the colonizer.315 Thus, Article III, Section 4 of the 1973 Constitution added a definition for natural-born citizen, as follows:

SEC. 4. A natural-born citizen is one who is a citizen of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect his Philippine citizenship.316

The current Constitution adopted most of the provisions of the 1973 Constitution on citizenship, with further amendment in subsection (3) for purposes of correcting the irregular situation created by the 1935 Constitution.

V.J

Natural-born citizenship is an American concept that we adopted in our Constitution. This term appears only once in the United States Constitution-in the presidential qualification clause317--and has no definition in American laws. No explanation on the origin or purpose of the presidential qualification clause can even be found in the Convention's recorded deliberations.318 Since the United States was under British rule prior to their independence, some theories suggest that the concept was introduced in the text as a check against foreign infiltration in the administration of national government, thus:

It has been suggested, quite plausibly, that this language was inserted in response to a letter sent by John Jay to George Washington, and probably to other delegates, on July 25, 1787, which stated:

Permit me to hint, whether it would be wise and seasonable to provide a strong check to the admission of Foreigners into the administration of our national Government; and to declare expressly that the Command in Chief of the American army shall not be given to nor devolve on, any but a natural born Citizen.

Possibly this letter was motivated by distrust of Baron Von Steuben, who had served valiantly in the Revolutionary forces, but whose subsequent loyalty was suspected by Jay. Another theory is that the Jay letter, and the resulting constitutional provision, responded to rumors that the Convention was concocting a monarchy to be ruled by a foreign monarch.319

The 1935 Constitution borrowed the term "natural-born citizen" without defining the concept. It was only the 1973 Constitution that provided that "[a] natural-born citizen is one who is a citizen of the Philippines from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect his Philippine citizenship."

V.K

There are only two categories of citizens: natural-born and naturalized.

A natural-born citizen is defined in Article IV, Section 2 as one who is a citizen of the Philippines "from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect Philippine citizenship." On the other hand, a naturalized citizen is one who is not natural-born.

In Bengson v. House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal, 320 this court ruled that if a person is not naturalized, he or she is considered a natural-born citizen of the Philippines:

[O]nly naturalized Filipinos are considered not natural-born citizens. It is apparent from the enumeration of who are citizens under the present Constitution that there are only two classes of citizens: ... A citizen who is not a naturalized Filipino, i.e., did not have to undergo the process of naturalization to obtain Philippine citizenship, necessarily is a natural-born Filipino.321

Former Associate Justice Panganiban clarifies this concept in his Concurring Opinion in Bengson. Naturalized citizens are "former aliens or foreigners who had to undergo a rigid procedure, in which they had to adduce sufficient evidence to prove that they possessed all the qualifications and none of the disqualifications provided by law in order to become Filipino citizens. "322

A person who desires to acquire Filipino citizenship is generally required to file a verified petition.323 The applicant must prove, among others, that he or she is of legal age, with good moral character, and has the capacity to adapt to Filipino culture, tradition, and principles, or otherwise has resided in the Philippines for a significant period of time.324 The applicant must prove himself or herself not to be a threat to the state, the public, and to the Filipinos' core beliefs.325

Petitioner did not undergo the naturalization process. She reacquired her Filipino citizenship through Republic Act No. 9225.

The Commission on Elections contends that in availing herself of the benefits under Republic Act No. 9225, petitioner reacquired Philippine citizenship by naturalization, not natural-born citizenship, since she had to perform several acts to perfect this citizenship.326 Moreover, the earliest time Philippine residency can be reestablished for those who reacquire Philippine citizenship under Republic No. 9225 is upon reacquisition of citizenship.327

Our jurisprudence holds otherwise. Those who avail themselves of the benefits under Republic Act No. 9225 reacquire natural-born citizenship. Bengson ruled that repatriation involves the restoration of former status or the recovery of one's original nationality:

Moreover, repatriation results in the recovery of the original nationality. This means that a naturalized Filipino who lost his citizenship will be restored to his prior status as a naturalized Filipino citizen. On the other hand, tf he was originally a natural-born citizen before he lost his Philippine citizenship, he will be restored to his former status as a natural-born Filipino. 328

While Bengson involved Commonwealth Act No. 63, its ruling is still consistent with the declared policy under the current system of reacquiring Philippine citizenship pursuant to Republic Act No. 9225. One's status as a natural-born Filipino is immutable: "all Philippine citizens of another country shall be deemed not to have lost their Philippine citizenship."329 Republic Act No. 9225 requires certain solemnities, but these requirements are only for the purpose of effecting the incidents of the citizenship that a naturalized Filipino never lost. These requirements do not operate to make new citizens whose citizenship commences only from the time they have been complied with.

To consider petitioner, a foundling, as not natural-born will have grave consequences. Naturalization requires that petitioner is of legal age. While it is true that she could exert time and extraordinary expense to find the parents who might have abandoned her, this will not apply to all foundlings. Thus, this approach will concede that we will have a class of citizens who are stateless due to no fault of theirs.

V.L

There is no need for an express statement in the Constitution's citizenship provisions that foundlings are natural-born Filipino citizens. A contrary interpretation will be inconsistent with the other provisions of the Constitution. The Constitution should be interpreted as a whole to "effectuate the whole purpose of the Constitution."330

Article II, Section 13 and Article XV, Section 3 of the 1987 Constitution enjoin the state to defend children's well-being and protect them from any condition that is prejudicial to their development. This includes preventing discriminatory conditions in fact as well as in law:

Article II, SECTION 13. The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation-building and shall promote and protect their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual, and social well-being. It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism, and encourage their involvement in public and civic affairs.

Article XV, SECTION 3. The State shall defend:

. . . .

(2) The right of children to assistance, including proper care and nutrition, and special protection from all forms of neglect, abuse, cruelty, exploitation, and other conditions prejudicial to their development[.] (Emphasis supplied)

Crucial government positions are exclusive to natural-born citizens of the Philippines. The 1987 Constitution requires the following positions to be filled by natural-born citizens:

(1) President;331

(2) Vice President;332

(3) Senator;333

(4) Member of the House of Representatives;334

(5) Member of the Supreme Court or any lower collegiate court;335

(6) Chairperson and Commissioners of the Civil Service Commission;336

(7) Chairperson and Commissioners of the Commission on Elections;337

(8) Chairperson and Commissioners of the Commission on Audit;338

(9) Ombudsman and his deputies;339

(10) Board of Governors of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas;340

(11) Chairperson and Members of the Commission on Human Rights;341

Other positions that are required to be filled by natural-born citizens include, among others, city fisca1s ,342 assistant city fisca1s ,343 Presiding Judges and Associate Judges of the Sandiganbayan, other public offices,344 and some professions.345 Other incentives are also limited to natural-born citizens.346

An interpretation that foundlings are not natural-born Filipino citizens would mean that we should teach our foundling citizens to never aspire to serve the country in any of the above capacities.

This is not only inconsistent with the text of our Constitution's citizenship provisions, which required only evidence of citizenship and not of the identities of the parents. It unnecessarily creates a classification of citizens with limited rights based on the circumstances of their births. This is discriminatory.

Our Constitution provides that citizens shall have equal protection of the law and equal access to opportunities for public service. They are protected from human indignities and political inequalities:

Article II, SECTION 26. The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service, and prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law.

Article III, SECTION 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.

Article XIII, SECTION 1. The Congress shall give highest priority to the enactment of measures that protect and enhance the right of all the people to human dignity, reduce social, economic, and political inequalities, and remove cultural inequities by equitably diffusing wealth and political power for the common good. (Emphasis supplied)

The equal protection clause guarantees that "persons under like circumstances and falling within the same class are treated alike, in terms of 'privileges conferred and liabilities enforced.' It is a guarantee against 'undue favor and individual or class privilege, as well as hostile discrimination or oppression of inequality. "'347

Apart from the anonymity of their biological parents, there is no substantial distinction348 between foundlings and children with known Filipino parents, all of whom are protected by the state from birth. The foundlings' fortuitous inability to identify their biological parents who abandoned them cannot be the basis of a law or an interpretation that has the effect of treating them as less entitled to the rights and protection given by the state. To base a classification on this circumstance would be to sanction statelessness and the marginalization of a particular class who, by force of chance, was already made to start life under tragic circumstances.

This court, as an agent of the state, is constitutionally mandated to defend the well-being and development of children. We have no competence to reify classes that discriminate children based on the circumstances of their births. These classifications are prejudicial to a child's development.

Further, inasmuch as foundlings are citizens of the Philippines, they are human beings whose dignity we value and rights we respect. Thus:

Article II, SECTION 11. The State values the dignity of every human person and guarantees full respect for human rights. (Emphasis supplied)

V.M

Contemporaneous construction by other constitutional organs deserves consideration in arriving at a correct interpretation of the Constitution.

Illuminating guidance from how other constitutional organs interpret the fundamental legal document is premised on the understanding of a basic principle: the Constitution as law is legible to all of government as well as its People. Its plain reading, therefore, is accessible to all. Thus, interpretation and application of its provision are not the sole prerogative of this court, although this court's interpretation is final for each actual case or controversy properly raised.

The legislature has provided statutes essentially based on a premise that foundlings are Filipino citizens at birth.

It is also our state policy to protect children's best interest. In Republic Act No. 9344, otherwise known as the Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006:

SEC. 2. Declaration of State Policy. - The following State policies shall be observed at all times:

. . . .

(b) The State shall protect the best interests of the child through measures that will ensure the observance of international standards of child protection, especially those to which the Philippines is a party. Proceedings before any authority shall be conducted in the best interest of the child and in a manner which allows the child to participate and to express himself/herself freely. The participation of children in the program and policy formulation and implementation related to juvenile justice and welfare shall be ensured by the concerned government agency. (Emphasis supplied)

The "best interest of the child" is defined as the "totality of the circumstances and conditions which are most congenial to the survival, protection and feelings of security of the child and most encouraging to the child's physical, psychological and emotional development."349

Consistent with this law is the Philippines' ratification350 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. This treaty has the effect of law and requires the domestic protection of children's rights to immediate registration and nationality after birth, against statelessness, and against discrimination based on their birth status.351 Pertinent provisions of the treaty read:

Preamble

The State Parties to the present Convention,

Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Bearing in mind that the peoples of the United Nations have, in the Charter, reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person, and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom.

Recognizing that the United Nations has, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants on Human Rights, proclaimed and agreed that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status,

Recalling that, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has proclaimed that childhood is entitled to special care and assistance,

. . . .

Have agreed as follows:

. . . .

Article 2

1. State parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child's or his or her parent's or legal guardian's race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status.

2. States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that the child is protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child's parents, legal guardians, or family members.

Article 3

1. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.

2. States Parties undertake to ensure the child such protection and care as is necessary for his or her well-being, taking into account the rights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legally responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take all appropriate legislative and administrative measures.

. . . .

Article 7

1. The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and. as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents.

2. States Parties shall ensure the implementation of these rights in accordance with their national law and their obligations under the relevant international instruments in this field, in particular where the child would otherwise be stateless. (Emphasis supplied)

The Philippines also ratified352 the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. This treaty, which has the effect of law, also requires that children have access to immediate registration and nationality, and defends them against discrimination, thus:

Article 24 . . . .

1. Every child shall have, without any discrimination as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, national or social origin, property or birth, the right to such measures of protection as are required by his status as a minor, on the part of his family, society and the State.

2. Every child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have a name.

3. Every child has the right to acquire a nationality.

. . . .

Article 26. All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this respect, the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. (Emphasis supplied)

Treaties are "international agreement[s] concluded between states in written form and governed by international law, whether embodied in a single instrument or in two or more related instruments and whatever its particular designation. "353 They require concurrence by the Senate before they become binding upon the state. Thus, Article VII, Section 21 of the Constitution provides:

SECTION 21. No treaty or international agreement shall be valid and effective unless concurred in by at least two-thirds of all the Members of the Senate.

Ratification of treaties by the Senate makes it legally effective and binding by transformation. It is treated similar to a statute. In Pharmaceutical and Health Care Association of the Philippines v. Duque III, et al. :354

Under the 1987 Constitution, international law can become part of the sphere of domestic law either by transformation or incorporation. The transformation method requires that an international law be transformed into a domestic law through a constitutional mechanism such as local legislation. The incorporation method applies when, by mere constitutional declaration, international law is deemed to have the force of domestic law.

Treaties become part of the law of the land through transformation pursuant to Article VII, Section 21 of the Constitution which provides that "[n]o treaty or international agreement shall be valid and effective unless concurred in by at least two-thirds of all the members of the Senate." Thus, treaties or conventional international law must go through a process prescribed by the Constitution for it to be transformed into municipal law that can be applied to domestic conflicts.355 (Emphasis supplied)

No further legislative act apart from ratification is necessary. Government-including the judiciary-is obligated to abide by these treaties in accordance with the Constitution and with our international obligations captured in the maxim pacta sunt servanda.

Foundlings, by law and through our Constitution, cannot be discriminated against. They are legally endowed with rights to be registered and granted nationality upon birth. Statelessness unduly burdens them, discriminates against them, and is detrimental to their development.

V.N

Republic Act No. 8552, otherwise known as the Domestic Adoption Act of 1998, is entitled An Act Establishing the Rules and Policies on Domestic Adoption of Filipino Children and for Other Purposes. It was enacted as a means to "provide alternative protection and assistance through foster care or adoption of every child who is neglected, orphaned, or abandoned."356

Abandoned children may include foundlings:357

SECTION 5. Location of Unknown Parent(s). - It shall be the duty of the Department or the child-placing or child-caring agency which has custody of the child to exert all efforts to locate his/her unknown biological parent(s). If such efforts fail, the child shall be registered as a foundling and subsequently be the subject of legal proceedings where he/she shall be declared abandoned. (Emphasis supplied)

Similarly, Republic Act No. 8043, otherwise known as the Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995, is entitled An Act establishing the Rules to Govern Inter-Country Adoption of Filipino Children, and For Other Purposes. It includes foundlings among those who may be adopted:

SECTION 8. Who May Be Adopted. - Only a legally free child may be the subject of inter-country adoption. In order that such child may be considered for placement, the following documents must be submitted to the Board:

a) Child study;

b) Birth certificate/foundling certificate;

c) Deed of voluntary commitment/decree of abandonment/death certificate of parents;

d) Medical evaluation/history;

e) Psychological evaluation, as necessary; and

f) Recent photo of the child. (Emphasis supplied)

Further, foundling certificates may be presented in lieu of authenticated birth certificates as requirement for the issuance of passports to foundlings to be adopted by foreign parents under Republic Act No. 8043:

SECTION 5. If the applicant is an adopted person, he must present a certified true copy of the Court Order of Adoption, certified true copy of his original and amended birth certificates as issued by the OCRG. If the applicant is a minor, a Clearance from the DSWD shall be required. In case the applicant is for adoption by foreign parents under R.A. No. 8043, the following, shall be required:

a) Certified true copy of the Court Decree of Abandonment of Child, the Death Certificate of the child's parents, or the Deed of Voluntary Commitment executed after the birth of the child.

b) Endorsement of child to the Intercountry Adoption Board by the DSWD.

c) Authenticated Birth or Foundling Certificate.358 (Emphasis supplied)

The statutes providing for adoption only allow the recognition of filiation for children who are Filipinos. They allow adoption of foundlings. Therefore, foundlings are, by law, presumed to be Filipino.

The executive branch has also assumed petitioner's natural-born status as Filipina.

Petitioner's citizenship status was never questioned throughout her entire life until she filed her Certificate of Candidacy for President in 2015. Until the proceedings that gave rise to these consolidated cases, her natural-born status was affirmed and reaffirmed through different government acts.

Petitioner was granted an order of reacquisition of natural-born citizenship under Republic Act No. 9225 by the Bureau of Immigration on July 18, 2006. The President of the Philippines appointed her as Chairperson of the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board-a government position that requires natural-born citizenship359-on October 6, 2010. The Commission on Elections also allowed her to run for Senator in the 2013 Elections despite public knowledge of her foundling status. Petitioner's natural-born status was recognized by the People when she was elected, and by the Senate Electoral Tribunal when it affirmed her qualifications to run for Senator on November 17, 2015.

Petitioner was likewise provided a foundling certificate after she was found. She was also the subject of an adoption process.

V.O

Even if there is no legal presumption of natural-born status for all foundlings, enough evidence was presented by petitioner before the Commission on Elections to prove that at least one-if not both-of her parents were Filipino citizens.

Petitioner's Filipino biological lineage cannot be proven easily by direct evidence such as birth certificates or witness testimonies of her birth. Her status as an abandoned child makes it improbable, if not too expensive, to prove her citizenship through DNA evidence.

Our rules, however, allow different manners of proving whether any one of her biological parents were Filipinos.

Aside from direct evidence, facts may be proved by using circumstantial evidence. In Suerte-Felipe v. People:360

Direct evidence is that which proves the fact in dispute without the aid of any inference or presumption; (Lack County vs. Neilon, 44 Or. 14, 21, 74 P. 212) while circumstantial evidence is the proof of fact or facts from which, taken either singly or collectively, the existence of a particular fact in dispute may be inferred as a necessary or probable consequence (State vs. Avery, 113 Mo. 475, 494, 21 S.W. 193; Reynolds Trial Ev., Sec. 4, p. 8).361

Circumstantial evidence is further defined in People v. Raganas:362

Circumstantial evidence is that which relates to a series of facts other than the fact in issue, which by experience have been found so associated with such fact that in a relation of cause and effect, they lead us to a satisfactory conclusion.363 (Citation omitted)

Rule 133, Section 4 of the Rules of Court provides when circumstantial evidence is sufficient for conviction:

Section 4. Circumstantial evidence, when sufficient. - Circumstantial evidence is sufficient for conviction if:

(a) There is more than one circumstances;

(b) The facts from which the inferences are derived are proven; and

(c) The combination of all the circumstances is such as to produce a conviction beyond reasonable doubt.

Circumstantial evidence is generally used for criminal cases. This court, however, has not hesitated to use circumstantial evidence in other cases.364 There is no reason not to consider circumstantial facts as evidence as a method of proof.

If circumstantial evidence may be sufficient to satisfy conviction on the basis of the highest standard of proof, i.e. beyond proof beyond reasonable doubt, then it can also satisfy the less stringent standard of proof required in cases before the Commission on Elections. As a quasi-judicial body, the Commission on Elections requires substantial evidence, or "such relevant evidence as a reasonable mind might accept as adequate to support a conclusion."365

Petitioner was found in Jaro, Iloilo at a parish church on September 3, 1968.366 Iloilo, as in most if not all provinces of the Philippines, had a population composed mostly of Filipinos.367 Petitioner is described as having "brown almond-shaped eyes, a low nasal bridge, straight black hair and an oval-shaped face."368 She is only 5 feet and 2 inches tall.369

Petitioner wants this court to take judicial notice that majority of Filipinos are Roman Catholics. Many Filipinos are poor. Poverty and shame may be dominant reasons why infants are abandoned.370

There was also no international airport in Jaro, Iloilo at the time when petitioner was born.

These circumstances provide substantial evidence to infer the citizenship of her biological parents. Her physical characteristics are consistent with that of many Filipinos. Her abandonment at a Catholic Church is consistent with the expected behavior of a Filipino in 1968 who lived in a predominantly religious and Catholic environment. The nonexistence of an international airport in Jaro, Iloilo can reasonably provide context that it is illogical for a foreign father and a foreign mother to visit a rural area, give birth and leave their offspring there.

The Solicitor General adds that petitioner is, in terms of probability, more likely born a Filipina than a foreigner with the submission of this table:371

NUMBER OF FOREIGN AND FILIPINO CHILDREN BORN
IN THE PHILIPPINES: 1965-1975 AND 2010-2014

YEAR FOREIGN CHILDREN BORN IN THE PHILIPPINES FILIPINO CHILDREN BORN IN THE PHILIPPINES
1965 1,479 795,415
1966 1,437 823,342
1967 1,440 840,302
1968 1,595 898,570
1969 1,728 946,753
1970 1,521 966,762
1971 1,401 963,749
1972 1,784 968,385
1973 1,212 1,045,290
1974 1,496 1,081,873
1975 1,493 1,223,837
2010 1,244 1,782,877
2011 1,140 1,746,685
2012 1,454 1,790,367
2013 1,315 1,751,523
2014 1,351 1,748,782

Source: Philippine Statistics Authority
[illegible]

Based on the above data, out of the 900, 165 recorded births in the Philippines in 1968, only 1,595 or 0.18% of newborns were foreign. This translates to roughly 99.8% chance that petitioner was born a Filipina at birth.

VI

Petitioner committed no material misrepresentation with respect to her residency. The facts that can reasonably be inferred from the evidence presented clearly show that she satisfied the requirement that she had residency 10 years immediately preceding the election.

VI.A

The requirement for residency is stated in the 1987 Constitution as: "[n]o person may be elected President unless he is ... a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election."372

In this jurisdiction, "residence" does not admit of a singular definition. Its meaning varies to relate to the purpose. The "term 'resides,' like the terms 'residing' and 'residence,' is elastic and should be interpreted in light of the object or purpose of the statute or rule in which it is employed."373 Residence, thus, is different under immigration laws, the Civil Code or the Family Code, or election laws.

Article 50 of the Civil Code spells out a distinction between "residence" and "domicile":

Article 50. For the exercise of civil rights and the fulfillment of civil obligations, the domicile of natural persons is the place of their habitual residence.

This distinction has been further explained, as follows:

There is a difference between domicile and residence. 'Residence' is used to indicate the place of abode, whether permanent or temporary' 'domicile' denotes a fixed permanent residence to which, when absent, one has the intention of returning. A man may have a residence in one place and a domicile in another.' 'Residence is not domicile, but domicile is residence coupled with intention to remain for an unlimited time. A man can have but one domicile for one and the same purpose at any time, but he may have numerous places of residence. His place of residence generally is his place of domicile, but is not by any means necessarily so, since no length of residence without intention of remaining will constitute domicile.374

Procedural law on venue follows this conception of residence as "the place of abode, whether permanent or temporary"375 and which is distinct from domicile (also referred to as "legal residence") as "fixed permanent residence."376 In Ang Kek Chen v. Spouses Calasan:377

The crucial distinction that must be made is between "actual residence" and "domicile." The case of Garcia Fule v. Court of Appeals had already made the distinction in 1976. The pertinent portion of the case reads as follows:

But, the far-ranging question is this: What does the term "resides" mean? . . . We lay down the doctrinal rule that the term "resides" connotes ex vi termini "actual residence" as distinguished from "legal residence or domicile." This term "resides," like the terms "residing" and "residence," is elastic and should be interpreted in the light of the object or purpose of the statute or rule in which it is employed. In the application of venue statutes and rules - . . . residence rather than domicile is the significant factor. Even where the statute uses the word "domicile" still it is construed as meaning residence and not domicile in the technical sense. Some cases make a distinction between the terms "residence" and "domicile" but as generally used in statutes fixing venue, the terms are synonymous, and convey the same meaning as the term "inhabitant." In other words, "resides" should be viewed or understood in its popular sense, meaning the personal, actual or physical habitation of a person, actual residence or place of abode. It signifies physical presence in a place and actual stay thereat. In this popular sense, the term means merely residence, that is personal residence, not legal residence or domicile. Residence simply requires bodily presence as an inhabitant in a given place, while domicile requires bodily presence in that place and also an intention to make it one's domicile. No particular length of time of residence is required though; however, the residence must be more than temporary.378

It is clear that in granting respondents' Motion for Reconsideration, the CA accepted the argument of respondent Atty. Calasan that "residence" is synonymous with "domicile."

In Saludo, Jr. v. American Express International, Inc., the term "residence" was equated with "domicile" as far as election law was concerned. However, the case also stated that:

[F]or purposes of venue, the less technical definition of "residence" is adopted. Thus, it is understood to mean as "the personal, actual or physical habitation of a person, actual residence or place of abode. It signifies physical presence in a place and actual stay thereat. In this popular sense, the term means merely residence, that is, personal residence, not legal residence or domicile. Residence simply requires bodily presence as an inhabitant in a given place, while domicile requires bodily presence in that place and also an intention to make it one's domicile. "379 (Citations omitted)

In this jurisdiction, it is settled doctrine that for election purposes, the term "residence" contemplates "domicile."380

As early as 1928, when the Jones Law of 1916 was still in effect, this court noted in Nuval v. Guray381 that the term residence "is so used as synonymous with domicile."382 The 1941 case of Gallego v. Vera,383 which was promulgated when the 193 5 Constitution was in effect, cited Nuval and maintained the same position. Under the auspices of the present 1987 Constitution, this court stated in Co v. Electoral Tribunal of the House of Representatives384 that "the term residence has been understood as synonymous with domicile not only under the previous Constitutions but also under the 1987 Constitution."385

For the same purpose of election law, the question of residence is mainly one of intention. 386 In Gallego v. Vera:387

The term "residence" as used in the election law is synonymous with "domicile," which imports not only intention to reside in a fixed place but also personal presence in that place, coupled with conduct indicative of such intention. In order to acquire a domicile by choice, there must concur (1) residence or bodily presence in the new locality, (2) an intention to remain there, and (3) an intention to abandon the old domicile. In other words, there must be an animus non revertendi and an animus manendi. The purpose to remain in or at the domicile of choice must be for an indefinite period of time. The acts of the person must conform with his purpose. The change of residence must be voluntary; the residence at the place chosen for the domicile must be actual; and to the fact of residence there must be added the animus manendi.388

Jurisprudence has established three (3) fundamental principles governing domicile: "first, that a man [or woman] must have a residence or domicile somewhere; second, that where once established it remains until a new one is acquired; and third, a man [or woman] can have but one domicile at a time. "389

Domicile may be categorized as: "(1) domicile of origin, which is acquired by every person at birth; (2) domicile of choice, which is acquired upon abandonment of the domicile of origin; and (3) domicile by operation of law, which the law, attributes to a person independently of his residence or intention."390

Domicile of origin is acquired at birth and continues until replaced by the acquisition of another domicile. In effect, one's domicile of origin is the domicile of one's parents or of the persons upon whom one is legally dependent at birth.391

Building on this concept, this court has emphasized that as a rule, "domicile of origin is not easily lost and that it is lost only when there is an actual removal or change of domicile, a bona fide intention of abandoning the former residence and establishing a new one, and acts which correspond with such purpose."392 Consistent with this, it has held that there is a "presumption in favor of a continuance of an existing domicile."393

Controversies adverting to loss of domicile must overcome the presumption that domicile is retained.394 The burden of proof is, thus, on the party averring its loss.395 This presumption is "particularly strong"396 when what is involved is domicile of origin.397

The rationale for this was explained in this court's citation in In re Eusebio v. Eusebio.: 398

It is often said, particularly in the English cases, that there is a stronger presumption against change from a domicile of origin than there is against other changes of domicile. 'Domicile of origin ... differs from domicile of choice mainly in this - that is character is more enduring, its hold stronger, and less easily shaken off.' The English view was forcibly expressed in a Pennsylvania case in which Lewis, J., said: 'The attachment which every one feels for his native land is the foundation of the rule that the domicile of origin is presumed to continue until it is actually changed by acquiring a domicile elsewhere. No temporary sojourn in a foreign country will work this change.' In a federal case in Pennsylvania the same point was emphasized.399

Likewise, in Faypon v. Quirino:400

It finds justification in the natural desire and longing of every person to return to the place of his birth. This strong feeling of attachment to the place of one's birth must be overcome by positive proof of abandonment for another.401

Domicile may be lost and reacquired. Domicile of choice "is a domicile chosen by a person to replace his or her former domicile."402 It is the domicile acquired by a person through the exercise of his or her own free will and shown by his or her specific acts and conduct.

The election of a new domicile must be shown by clear and convincing evidence that: one, there is an actual removal or an actual change of domicile; two, there is a bona fide intention of abandoning the former place of residence and establishing a new one; and three, there must be definite acts which correspond to the purpose of establishing a new domici1e.403

As mentioned, domicile by operation of law is the "domicile that the law attributes to a person independent of a person's residence or intention."404 This court has previously stated that "a minor follows the domicile of his parents."405 Thus, a minor's domicile of origin is replaced (by operation of law) when the minor's parents take the minor along with them in reestablishing their own domicile.

VI.B

This jurisdiction's imposition of residency as a qualification for elective public office traces its roots from the United States' own traditions relating to elections. These traditions were imparted to the Philippines as it transitioned from Spanish colonial rule to American colonial rule, evolving alongside the Philippines' passage from a colony to a commonwealth of the United States, and ultimately, to an independent state.

The fifth paragraph of Article II, Section 1 of the United States Constitution406 sets forth the eligibility requirements for President of the United States:

No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States. 407 (Emphasis supplied)

The residency requirement was included in order that the People may "have a full opportunity to know [the candidate's] character and merits, and that he may have mingled in the duties, and felt the interests, and understood the principles and nourished the attachments, belonging to every citizen in a republican government."408 Under the framework of the United States Constitution, residence was "to be understood as not an absolute inhabitancy within the United States during the whole period; but such an inhabitancy, as includes a permanent domicile in the United States."409

In the Philippines, residency as a requirement for elective public office was incorporated into the Jones Law of 1916, pertinent provisions of which provided:

Section 13.-Election and Qualification of Senators. That the members of the Senate of the Philippines, except as herein provided, shall be elected for terms of six and three years, as hereinafter provided, by the qualified electors of the Philippines. Each of the senatorial districts defined as hereinafter provided shall have the right to elect two senators. No person shall be an elective member of the Senate of the Philippines who is not a qualified elector and over thirty years of age, and who is not able to read and write either the Spanish or English language, and who has not been a resident of the Philippines for at least two consecutive years and an actual resident of the senatorial district from which chosen for a period of at least one year immediately prior to his election.

Section 14.-Election and Qualifications of Representatives. That the members of the House of Representatives shall, except as herein provided, be elected triennially by the qualified electors of the Philippines. Each of the representative districts hereinafter provided for shall have the right to elect one representative. No person shall be an elective member of the House of Representatives who is not a qualified elector and over twenty-five years of age, and who is not able to read and write either the Spanish or English language, and who has not been an actual resident of the district from which elected for at least one year immediately prior to his election: Provided, That the members of the present Assembly elected on the first Tuesday in June, nineteen hundred and sixteen, shall be the members of the House of Representatives from their respective districts for the term expiring in nineteen hundred and nineteen.410 (Emphasis supplied)

Under the Jones Law of 1916, the requirement was relevant solely to members of the Legislature as it was only the positions of Senator and Member of the House of Representatives that were susceptible to popular election. Executive power was vested in the Governor-General who was appointed by the President of the United States with the advice and the consent of the Senate of the United States.411

The Independence Act of 1934, otherwise known as the Tydings-McDuffie Act, paved the way for the Philippines' transition to independence. Under this Act, the 1935 Constitution was adopted. The residency requirement, which under the Jones Law already applied to legislators, was extended to the President and the Vice President. Relevant provisions of the 1935 Constitution stated:

Article VI. Section 2. No person shall be a Member of the National Assembly unless he has been five years a citizen of the Philippines, is at least thirty years of age, and, at the time of his election, a qualified elector, and a resident of the province in which he is chosen for not less than one year immediately prior to his election.

Article VII. Section 3. No person may be elected to the office of President or Vice-President, unless he be a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a qualified voter, forty years of age or over, and has been a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding the election. (Emphasis supplied)

When the 1973 Constitution was adopted, the same residency requirement of 10 years was retained for the position of President. The 1973 Constitution abolished the position of Vice President. Article VII, Section 2 of the 1973 Constitution provided:

No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines. a registered voter, able to read and write, at least fifty years of age on the day of election for President, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election. (Emphasis supplied)

The 1973 Constitution also retained the residency requirement for those seeking to become members of the Batasang Pambansa. Article VIII, Section 4 of the 1973 Constitution provided:

No person shall be a Member of the Batasang Pambansa as a regional representative unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and, on the day of the election, is at least twenty-five years of age, able to read and write, a registered voter in the Region in which he shall be elected, and a resident thereof for a period of not less than one year immediately preceding the day of the election.

A sectoral representative shall be a natural-born citizen, able to read and write, and shall have such other qualifications as may be provided by law. (Emphasis supplied)

The present 1987 Constitution retains the residency requirement for elective officials both in the executive (i.e., President and Vice President) and legislative (i.e., Senators and Members of the House of Representatives) branches:

Article VI. Section 3. No person shall be a Senator unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, and, on the day of the election, is at least thirty-five years of age, able to read and write, a registered voter, and a resident of the Philippines for not less than two years immediately preceding the day of the election.

Article VI. Section 6. No person shall be a Member of the House of Representatives unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and, on the day of the election, is at least twenty-five years of age, able to read and write, and, except the party-list representatives, a registered voter in the district in which he shall be elected, and a resident thereof for a period of not less than one year immediately preceding the day of the election.

Article VII. Section 2. No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election.

Article VII. Section 3. There shall be a Vice-President who shall have the same qualifications and term of office and be elected with and in the same manner as the President. He may be removed from office in the same manner as the President.

The Vice-President may be appointed as a Member of the Cabinet. Such appointment requires no confirmation. (Emphasis supplied)

Similarly, Section 39(a) of the Local Government Code412 provides that, in order to be eligible for local elective public office, a candidate must possess the following qualifications: (1) a citizen of the Philippines; (2) a registered voter in the barangay, municipality, city, or province or in the case of a member of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan, Sangguniang Panlungsod, or Sangguniang Bayan, the district where he or she intends to be elected; (3) a resident therein for at least one (1) year immediately preceding the day of the election; and (4) able to read and write Filipino or any other local language or dialect.

VI.C

This jurisdiction's requirement of residency for elective public office seeks to ensure that a candidate is acquainted with the conditions of the community where he or she seeks to be elected and to serve.413 It is meant "to give candidates the opportunity to be familiar with the needs, difficulties, aspirations, potentials for growth and all matters vital to the welfare of their constituencies; likewise, it enables the electorate to evaluate the office seekers' qualifications and fitness for the job they aspire for."414 Stated differently, it seeks "to exclude a stranger or newcomer, unacquainted with the conditions and needs of a community and not identified with the latter, from an elective office to serve that community[.]"415 As Aquino v. Commission on Elections416 added, it is also a safeguard against candidates "from taking advantage of favorable circumstances existing in that community for electoral gain."417

The length of residency required for an elective post is commensurate with what is deemed to be the period necessary to acquire familiarity with one's intended constituency and sensitivity to their welfare.

VI.D

Both requirements for elective public office, citizenship and residency, are two distinct concepts. One is not a function of the other; the latter is not contingent on the former. Thus, the loss or acquisition of one does not necessarily result in the loss or acquisition of the other. Change of domicile as a result of acquiring citizenship elsewhere is neither inevitable nor inexorable. This is the clear import of Japzon v. Commission on Elections,418 where this court dissociated domicile from citizenship by explaining that the reacquisition of one does not ipso facto result in the reacquisition of the other:

As has already been previously discussed by this Court herein, Ty's reacquisition of his Philippine citizenship under Republic Act No. 9225 had no automatic impact or effect on his residence / domicile. He could still retain his domicile in the USA, and he did not necessarily regain his domicile in the Municipality of General Macarthur, Eastern Samar, Philippines. Ty merely had the option to again establish his domicile in the Municipality of General Macarthur, Eastern Samar, Philippines, said place becoming his new domicile of choice. The length of his residence therein shall be determined from the time he made it his domicile of choice, and it shall not retroact to the time of his birth.419 (Emphasis supplied)

Though distinct, residency and citizenship may both consider locus. They both have geographical aspects: citizenship entails inclusion in a political community, which generally has established territory; residency pertains to one's place of abode.

Thus, in Caballero v. Commission on Elections,420 citing Coquilla v. Commission on Elections,421 we noted that the acquisition of citizenship in a foreign country may result in an abandonment of domicile in the Philippines. This statement was premised on the specific observation that in Canada, permanent residence was a requirement for naturalization as a Canadian citizen. Caballero's naturalization as a Canadian citizen, therefore, also necessarily meant that he was a resident of Canada:

Petitioner was a natural born Filipino who was born and raised in Uyugan, Batanes. Thus, it could be said that he had his domicile of origin in Uyugan, Batanes. However, he later worked in Canada and became a Canadian citizen. In Coquilla v. COMELEC we ruled that naturalization in a foreign country may result in an abandonment of domicile in the Philippines. This holds true in petitioner's case as permanent resident status in Canada is required for the acquisition of Canadian citizenship. Hence, petitioner had effectively abandoned his domicile in the Philippines and transferred his domicile of choice in Canada. His frequent visits to Uyugan, Batanes during his vacation from work in Canada cannot be considered as waiver of such abandonment.422 (Emphasis supplied)

VI.E

Even as this court has acknowledged that citizenship may be associated with residency, ·the decisive factor in determining whether a candidate has satisfied the residence requirement remains to be the unique "fact of residence."423

There is no shortcut to determining one's domicile. Reference to formalities or indicators may be helpful-they may serve as guideposts-but these are not conclusive. It remains that domicile is a matter of intention. For domicile to be lost and replaced, there must be a manifest intention to abandon one's existing domicile. If one does not manifestly establish his or her (new) domicile of choice, his or her (old) domicile of origin remains.

The primacy of intention is settled. In Limbona v. Commission on Elections,424 this court stated in no uncertain terms that "for purposes of election law, the question [of] residence is mainly one of intention."425

This primacy is equally evident in the requisites for acquisition of domicile of choice (and concurrent loss of one's old domicile):

In order to acquire a domicile by choice, these must concur: (1) residence or bodily presence in the new locality, (2) an intention to remain there[in], and (3) an intention to abandon the old domicile.426

These requisites were refined in Romualdez-Marcos:427

[D]omicile of origin is not easily lost. To successfully effect a change of domicile, one must demonstrate:

1. An actual removal or an actual change of domicile;

2. A bona fide intention of abandoning the former place of residence and establishing a new one; and

3. Acts which correspond with the purpose.428

Intention, however, is a state of mind. It can only be ascertained through overt acts. Ascertaining the second requirement-a bona fide intention to abandon and replace one's domicile with another-further requires an evaluation of the person's "acts, activities and utterances."429 Romualdez-Marcos' inclusion of the third requirement demonstrates this; bona fide intention cannot stand alone, it must be accompanied by and attested to by "[a]cts which correspond with the purpose."430

Examining a person's "acts, activities and utterances"431 requires a nuanced approach. It demands a consideration of context. This court has made it eminently clear that there is no expedient solution as to how this is determined: "There is no hard and fast rule by which to determine where a person actually resides."432 Domicile is ultimately a factual matter and is not so easily resolved by mere reference to whether formalities have been satisfied or whether preconceived a priori indicators are attendant.

The better considered cases delved deeply and analytically into the overt acts of the person whose domicile is under scrutiny.

For instance, in Co v. Electoral Tribunal of the House of Representatives,433 respondent Jose Ong, Jr. was proclaimed by the Commission on Elections as the duly elected Representative of the Second Congressional District of Samar. Petitioner Antonio Co protested Ong's proclamation, but the House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal upheld his election. This court sustained the ruling of the House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal. Adverting to the concept of animus revertendi, this court noted that Ong's prolonged stay in Manila to study and to practice his profession as an accountant was not tantamount to abandoning his domicile of origin in Laoang, Samar. Instead, the court appreciated his many trips back to Laoang, Samar as indicative of animus revertendi:

[T]he private respondent stayed in Manila for the purpose of finishing his studies and later to practice his profession. There was no intention to abandon the residence in Laoang, Samar. On the contrary, the periodical journeys made to his home province reveal that he always had the animus revertendi.434

In Mitra v. Commission on Elections, 435 this court considered as grave abuse of discretion the Commission on Elections' use of "highly subjective non-legal standards" in determining whether an individual has established a new domici1e.436

To hearken to Japzon, naturalization has no automatic effect on domicile. One who changes his or her citizenship merely acquires an option to establish his or her new domicile of choice.437

Romualdez-Marcos438 emphasized that "it is the fact of residence, not a statement in a certificate of candidacy which ought to be decisive in determining whether or not an individual has satisfied the constitution's residency qualification requirement."439 A singular statement in a prior certificate of candidacy should "not, however, be allowed to negate the fact of residence . . . if such fact were established by means more convincing than a mere entry on a piece of paper."440

Likewise, this court has held that being a registered voter in a specific district does not ipso facto mean that a candidate must have been domiciled in that district, thereby precluding domicile in another district.441 So too, it has been held that the exercise of the right of suffrage does not sufficiently establish election of residency in a specific place, although it engenders a strong presumption of residence.442

In appropriate cases, this court has not shied away from laboring to scrutinize attendant facts. This court's pronouncements in Dumpit-Michelena v. Commission on Elections443 hinged on the observation that a beach house can hardly be considered a place of residence as it is at most a place of temporary relaxation.444 In Sabili v. Commission on Elections,445 this court noted that apart from the presence of a place (i.e., a house and lot) where one can actually live in, actual physical presence may also be established by "affidavits of various person ... and the Certification of [the] barangay captain. "446

Even less does the residence requirement justify reference to misplaced, inordinate standards. A person is not prohibited from travelling abroad lest his or her domicile be considered lost. This court has clarified that, if at all, return to the Philippines after travelling abroad affirms one's animus manendi and animus revertendi.447 So too, this court has emphasized that the establishment of a new domicile does not require one to be in that abode 24 hours a day, seven (7) days a week.448 It has been stressed that ultimately, what matters is the candidate's demonstration of intention to establish domicile through clear acts.

Blanket reliance on pre-determined indicators of what suffices to establish or retain domicile is misguided. Each case arises from a unique context. A nuanced, context-based examination of each case is imperative.

VI.F

Ideally, one can point to a singular definitive moment when new residence is acquired and previous residence is simultaneously lost. Good sense, however, dictates that this situation is hardly availing. This is especially true when a person is not acting out of a premeditated design to establish formalistic compliance with legal requirements.

Thus, this court has acknowledged that establishing residence may be an "incremental process"449 that may last for an extended period. This highlights the factual nature of residency questions. Acknowledging that establishing residence may be effected through a step-by-step process requires a careful examination of the acts of the person whose residence is in question.

This court has expressly acknowledged that "initial',450 and "preparatory moves',451 count. Thus, residence is deemed acquired (or changed) as soon as these moves are established. Equally vital are the context in which he or she accomplished such actions and even seemingly innocuous nuances that could have actually tilted the course of that person's actions.

This court's Decision in Mitra452 illustrates how the acquisition or establishment of residence may transpire through an incremental process. This court agreed with the position of gubernatorial candidate Abraham Mitra that he had established a new domicile in Aborlan, Palawan as early as 2008. This court, thus, disagreed with the Commission on Elections' observation that "the Maligaya Feedmill building could not have been Mitra's residence because it is cold and utterly devoid of any indication of Mitra's personality and that it lacks loving attention and details inherent in every home to make it one's residence."453

The following actions of Mitra were instead particularly notable: in January 2008, he "started a pineapple growing project in a rented farmland near Maligaya Feedmill and Farm located in Barangay lsaub, Aborlan";454 a month later, he "leased the residential portion of the said Maligaya Feedmill."455 In March 2008, he "started to occupy and reside in said premises. "456

Holding that the Commission on Elections committed grave abuse of discretion in concluding that Mitra failed to satisfy the residence requirement to qualify him as a candidate for Governor of Palawan, this court explained:

The respondents significantly ask us in this case to adopt the same faulty approach of using subjective norms, as they now argue that given his stature as a member of the prominent Mitra clan of Palawan, and as a three term congressman, it is highly incredible that a small room in a feed mill has served as his residence since 2008.

We reject this suggested approach outright for the same reason we condemned the COMELEC's use of subjective non-legal standards. Mitra's feed mill dwelling cannot be considered in isolation and separately from the circumstances of his transfer of residence, specifically, his expressed intent to transfer to a residence outside of Puerto Princesa City to make him eligible to run for a provincial position; his preparatory moves starting in early 2008; his initial transfer through a leased dwelling; the purchase of a lot for his permanent home; and the construction of a house in this lot that, parenthetically, is adjacent to the premises he leased pending the completion of his house. These incremental moves do not offend reason at all, in the way that the COMELEC's highly subjective non-legal standards do.457 (Emphasis supplied, citations omitted)

Sabili v. Commission on Elections 458 similarly acknowledged that establishing residence may be an incremental process. In sustaining petitioner Meynardo Sabili' s position that he has been a resident of Lipa City for two (2) years and eight (8) months leading to the May 2010 Elections, thereby qualifying him to run for Mayor of Lipa City, this court explained:

[A] transfer of domicile/residence need not be completed in one single instance. Thus, in Mitra v. Commission on Elections, where the evidence showed that in 2008, petitioner Mitra had leased a small room at Maligaya F eedmills located in Aborlan and, in 2009 purchased in the same locality a lot where he began constructing his house, we recognized that petitioner "transferred by incremental process to Aborlan beginning 2008 and concluded his transfer in early 2009" and thus, he transferred his residence from Puerto Princesa City to Aborlan within the period required by law. We cannot treat the transfer to the Pinagtong-ulan house any less than we did Mitra's transfer to the Maligaya Feedmills room.459

In approaching residence questions, therefore, what is crucial is a comprehensive or holistic, rather than a myopic or isolationist, appreciation of the facts. Not only must all the pertinent facts be considered, so too must be their relationships and synergies. To do otherwise would be to render lip service to the basic imperative of an exacting consideration of facts in residence controversies.

VI.G

Applying these doctrinal principles, petitioner satisfied the residence requirement provided in Article VII, Section 2 of the 1987 Constitution. It was grave abuse of discretion for the Commission on Elections to hold that she committed a material misrepresentation in her Certificate of Candidacy for President.

The Commission on Elections committed a grievous error when it invoked the date petitioner's Philippine citizenship was reacquired (i.e., July 7, 2006) as the earliest possible point when she could have reestablished residence in the Philippines. This erroneous premise was the basis for summarily setting aside all the evidence submitted by petitioner which pointed to the reestablishment of her residence at any point prior to July 7, 2006. Thus, by this faulty premise, the Commission on Elections justified the evasion of its legally enjoined and positive duty to treat petitioner's residence controversy as a factual matter and to embark on a meticulous and comprehensive consideration of the evidence.

At the onset, the Commission on Elections flat-out precluded the timely reestablishment of petitioner's residence in the Philippines because it held that "the earliest possible date that the respondent could have re- established her residence in the Philippines is when she reacquired her Filipino Citizenship on July 2006."460 In doing so, it relied on this court's Decisions in Coquillia v. Commission on Elections, 461 Japzon v. Commission on Elections, 462 and Caballero v. Commission on Elections. 463

In its assailed December 23, 2015 Resolution denying petitioner's Motion for Reconsideration with respect to the Petition filed by Elamparo, the Commission on Elections explained:

Foremost, the Commission is not convinced that the Second Division "chose to rely on a single piece of evidence" - respondent's 2013 COC, to the exclusion of all others, in resolving the issue of residence. It does not persuade us that as the Second Division "entirely omitted" to mention the evidence of respondent enumerated in Respondent's Motion, it did not consider them at all. A judge is not bound to mention in his decision every bit of evidence on record. He is presumed to have regularly discharged his duty to consider and weigh all evidence formally offered by the parties which are admissible.

. . . .

To indulge respondent, however, the Commission now looks, one by one on the pieces of evidence allegedly ignored by the Second Division which are, along with their purpose for offer, are enumerated in Respondent's Motion. Unfortunately, an examination of these evidence leads to but one crucial and fatal conclusion: that all of them were executed before July 2006, and/or are offered to prove that she can reckon her residency before July 2006 - the date of reacquisition by respondent of her Filipino citizenship. This is fatal because, following the cases of Coquilla v. COMELEC, Japzon v. COMELEC, and Caballero v. COMELEC, the earliest possible date that respondent could have reestablished her residence in the Philippines is when she re-acquired her Filipino Citizenship on July 2006. Yes, on this finding, we affirm the Second Division for the reasons that follow.464

In its assailed December 23, 2015 Resolution denying petitioner's Motion for Reconsideration with respect to the petitions filed by Tatad, Contreras, and Valdez, the Commission on Elections explained:

As a US citizen and a foreigner, Respondent was allowed only temporary residence in the Philippines, Respondent's alien citizenship remained a legal impediment which prevented her from establishing her domicile in the Philippines. To establish permanent residence in the Philippines, it was necessary for Respondent to secure prior authorization from the Bureau of Immigration and Deportation ""BID"), such as in the form of a permanent resident visa issued by the Republic of the Philippines showing that she was authorized to permanently reside in the Philippines. This is the rule en:mciated by the Supreme Court in the case of Coquilla vs. Commission on Elections et al. 465

It is this dogmatic reliance on formal preconceived indicators that this court has repeatedly decried is grave abuse of discretion. Worse, the Commission on Elections relied on the wrong formal indicators of residence.

The Commission on Elections ignored the basic distinction between citizenship and residence. Likewise, it erroneously considered a visa-a mere permission to enter-as a badge of residence, and equated an immigrant with one who is domiciled in the Philippines. So too, the Commission on Elections' indiscriminate reliance on Coquilla, Japzon, and Caballero indicates a failure in properly appreciating the factual nuances of those cases as against those of this case.

Citizenship and residency are distinct, mutually exclusive concepts. One is not a function of the other. Residence is not necessarily contingent on citizenship. The loss or acquisition of one does not mean the automatic loss or acquisition of the other. Change of domicile as a result of acquiring citizenship elsewhere is neither inevitable nor inexorable.

Japzon v. Commission on Elections466 could not have been more emphatic: "[R]eacquisition of . . . Philippine citizenship . . . [has] no automatic impact or effect on residence/domicile."467 Residence, as does citizenship, entreats a consideration of locus or geography. It is true that they may be related or connected, but association is different from causation.

Caballero v. Commission on Elections468 was extremely careful in its syntax: "naturalization in a foreign country may result in an abandonment of domicile in the Philippines. "469 The use of the word "may" reveals this court's recognition that citizenship is not conclusive of domicile. In controversies relating to a candidate's residence, citizenship may be considered and it may engender implications, but these implications are never to be considered infallible.

VI.H

As with citizenship, non-possession of a permanent resident or immigrant visa does not negate residency for election purposes.

A visa is but a travel document given by the issuing country to travelers for purposes of border control.470 Holders of a visa are "conditionally authorised to enter or leave a territory for which it was issued, subject to permission of an immigration official at the time of actual entry."471 Conditions of entry usually include date of validity, period of stay, number of allowed entry, and territory covered.472

In this jurisdiction, visas are issued by a consular officer of the Philippine Embassy or Consulate as a permit to go to the Philippines and seek permission to enter the country at its port of entry. The decision to admit or disallow entry into the country belongs to immigration authorities at the port of entry.473 Hence, the mere issuance of a visa does not denote actual admission into, let alone prolonged stay, i.e., domicile, in the country.

The statutory definition of "immigrant," as provided in Section 50 G) of Commonwealth Act No. 613, otherwise known as the Philippine Immigration Act of 1940, sustains the distinction between an immigrant and one who is actually domiciled in the Philippines:

SEC. 50. As used in this Act:-

. . .

(j) The term "immigrant" means any alien departing from any place outside the Philippines destined for the Philippines, other than a nonimmigrant. (Emphasis supplied)

The definition's operative terms are contained in the phrases "departing from" and "destined for." These phrases, which are but different sides of the same coin, attest to how an immigrant is not necessarily one who establishes domicile in the Philippines, but merely one who travels from a foreign country into the Philippines. As with a visa, the pivotal consideration is entry into, not permanent stay, in the Philippines.474

In fact, a former Filipino may obtain an immigrant visa without even intending to reside or actually residing in the Philippines. As petitioner pointed out:

5.289.5. Thus, a former Filipino who has previously been allowed entry into the Philippines may secure a "non-quota immigrant visa" provided he or she submits the following documentary requirements: (a) "Letter request addressed to the Commissioner;" (b) "Duly accomplished CGAF (BI Form CGAF-001-Rev 2);" (c) "Photocopy of passport bio-page and latest admission with valid authorized stay;" (d) "Birth Certificate of the applicant;" (e) "Valid National Bureau of Investigation [NBI] Clearance, if application is filed six (6) months or more from the date of first arrival in the Philippines;" (t) "BI Clearance Certificate;" and (g) "Original or certified true copy of Bureau of Quarantine Medical Clearance, if applicant is a national of any of the countries listed under Annex 'A' of Immigration Operations order No. SBM-14-059-A who arrived in the Philippines on or after June 2014."

5.289.6. None of the 7 documentary requirements listed above would indicate whether the applicant intends to make the Philippines his or her ''permanent home. "None of these documents would show whether he or she, indeed, necessarily intends to abandon his or her foreign domicile. Indeed, a foreigner may want to be an permanent resident here, but would always want to return to his or her home country, which intent to return is determinative of what domicile is under election law.

5.289.7. It is highly probable, therefore, for a former Filipino to secure an "immigrant" visa, without really being a "resident" of the Philippines, as the term is understood in election law.475 (Emphasis supplied)

The Commission on Elections insists that petitioner should have obtained a visa that supposedly evidences permanent resident status. However, it failed to acknowledge that petitioner did not even need a visa to accomplish the purpose that a visa serves, that is, to enter the Philippines. Beginning May 24, 2005, petitioner's entries to the Philippines were through the visa-free Balikbayan Program provided for by Republic Act No. 6768, as amended by Republic Act No. 9174. Section 3(c) of Republic Act No. 6768, as amended, provides:

SEC. 3 Benefits and Privileges of the Balikbayan. - The balikbayan and his or her family shall be entitled to the following benefits and privileges:

. . . .

(c) Visa-free entry to the Philippines for a period of one (1) year for foreign passport holders, with the exception of restricted nationals;

Petitioner falls within the definition of a balikbayan, under Section 2(a) of Republic Act No. 6768, as amended."476 She is a "Filipino citizen ... who had been naturalized in a foreign country [who came] or return[ed] to the Philippines."477 She was, thus, well-capacitated to benefit from the Balikbayan Program.

The Balikbayan Program is not only a scheme that dispenses with the need for visas; it is a system that affirmatively works to enable balikbayans to reintegrate themselves into the Philippines. Alternatively stated, it works to enable balikbayans to reestablish domicile in the Philippines. Pertinent provisions of Republic Act No. 6768, as amended, spell out a "Kabuhayan Program":

Section 1. Balikbayan Program. - . . .

The program shall include a kabuhayan shopping privilege allowing tax-exempt purchase of livelihood tools providing the opportunity to avail of the necessary training to enable the balikbayan to become economically self-reliant members of society upon their return to the country. The program shall likewise showcase competitive and outstanding Filipino-made products.

Sec. 6. Training Programs. - The Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) through the OWWA, in coordination with the Technology and Livelihood Resource Center (TLRC), Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), livelihood corporation and other concerned government agencies, shall provide the necessary entrepreneurial training and livelihood skills programs and marketing assistance to a balikbayan, including his or her immediate family members, who shall avail of the kabuhayan program in accordance with the existing rules on the government's reintegration program.

In the case of non-OFW balikbayan, the Department of Tourism shall make the necessary arrangement with the TLRC and other training institutions for possible livelihood training.

Enabling balikbayans to establish their livelihood in the Philippines, Republic Act No. 6768, as amended, can have as a logical result their reestablishment here of their permanent abodes.

VI.I

The Commission on Elections' erroneous reliance on Coquilla, Japzon, and Caballero demonstrates its evasion of its duty to engage in the required meticulous factual analysis. A closer examination of these cases as well as of a similar case that private respondents Elamparo and Valdez invoked in the February 16, 2016 oral arguments-Reyes v. Commission on Elections478-reveals that the conclusions in those cases were reached not because of a practically spellbound invocation of citizenship.

Rather, they were reached because: first, the persons whose residence were in question failed to present any evidence at all of reestablishing residence of choice in the Philippines before their repatriation was effected (or if they did, their evidence were deemed negligible); and second, the countervailing evidence presented against them demonstrated that they failed to reestablish residence ahead of their repatriation.

Coquilla involved only two (2) pieces of evidence in favor of Teodulo Coquilla:479 first, his Community Tax Certificate; and second, his own verbal statements regarding his intent to run for public office. With only these in support of his cause, the more reasonable conclusion was that Coquilla did not intend to return for good to the Philippines, but only to temporarily vacation.480

Japzon was not even about reestablishing residence ahead of reacquiring natural-born citizenship pursuant to Republic Act No. 9225. Japzon even militates against the Commission on Elections' position as it expressly stated that "reacquisition of his Philippine citizenship under Republic Act No. 9225 had no automatic impact or effect on [the candidate's] residence I domicile"481 and, thus, should be taken as an indicator of when residence may or may not be reckoned.

In Reyes, Regina Ongsiako-Reyes argued that she never lost her domicile of origin (i.e., Boac, Marinduque).482 As to her claim that she satisfied the residence requirement, this court approvingly quoted the following observations of the Commission on Elections First Division:

The only proof presented by [petitioner] to show that she has met the one-year residency requirement of the law and never abandoned her domicile of origin in Boac, Marinduque is her claim that she served as Provincial Administrator of the province from January 18, 2011 to July 13, 2011. But such fact alone is not sufficient to prove her one-year residency. For, [petitioner] has never regained her domicile in Marinduque as she remains to be an American citizen. No amount of her stay in the said locality can substitute the fact that she has not abandoned her domicile of choice in the USA.483 (Citations omitted)

Caballero cited Coquilla and, as previously discussed, took pains to dissociate residence from citizenship. In any case, Rogelio Batin Caballero, candidate for Mayor of Uyugan, Batanes, himself admitted that he only had an actual stay of nine (9) months in Uyugan, Batanes prior to the 2013 Elections, albeit claiming that it was substantial compliance with the Local Government Code's one-year residence requirement.484

In contrast with Coquilla, Japzon, Reyes, and Caballero, petitioner here presented a plethora of evidence attesting to the reestablishment of her domicile well ahead of her reacquisition of Philippine citizenship on July 7, 2006:

(1) United States Passport No. 017037793 issued to petitioner on December 18, 2001, indicating that she travelled back to the Philippines on May 24, 2005, consisting of 13 pages

(2) E-mail exchanges on various dates from March 18, 2005 to September 29, 2006 between petitioner and her husband and representatives of Victory Van Corporation, and National Veterinary Quarantine Service of the Bureau of Animal Industry of the Philippines, consisting of 23 pages

(3) Official Transcript of Records of Brian Daniel Poe Llamanzares, issued by the Beacon School, consisting of one (1) page

(4) Certification issued by the Registrar of La Salle Green Hills dated April 15, 2015, consisting of one (1) page

(5) Elementary Pupil's Permanent Record for Hanna Mackenzie Llamanzares, issued by Assumption College, consisting of two (2) pages

(6) Secondary Student's Permanent Record for Hanna Mackenzie Llamanzares, issued by Assumption College, consisting of two (2) pages

(7) Certificate of Attendance dated April 8, 2015, issued by the Directress of the Learning Connection, Ms. Julie Pascual Penaloza, consisting of one (1) page

(8) Certification dated April 14, 2015 issued by the Directress of the Green Meadows Leaming Center, Ms. Anna VillalunaReyes, consisting of one (1) page

(9) Elementary Pupil's Permanent Record for JesusaAnika Carolina Llamanzares, issued by Assumption College, consisting of one (1) page

(10) Identification Card, issued by the Bureau of Internal Revenue to petitioner on July 22, 2005, consisting of one (1) page

(11) Condominium Certificate of Title No. 11985-R covering Unit 7F of One Wilson Place, issued by the Registry of Deeds of San Juan City on February 20, 2006, consisting of four (4) pages

(12) Condominium Certificate of Title No. 11986-R covering the parking slot for Unit 7F of One Wilson Place, issued by the Registry of Deeds of San Juan City on February 20, 2006, consisting of two (2) pages

(13) Declaration of Real Property No. 96-39721 covering Unit 7F of One Wilson Place, issued by the Office of the City Assessor of San Juan City on April 25, 2006, consisting of one ( 1) page

(14) Declaration of Real Property No. 96-39722 covering the parking slot of Unit 7F of One Wilson Place, issued by the Office of the City Assessor of San Juan City on April 25, 2006, consisting of one page

(15) Receipt No. 8217172, issued by the Salvation Army on February 23, 2006, consisting of one (1) page

(16) Receipt No. 8220421, issued by the Salvation Army on February 23, 2006, consisting of one (1) page

(17) E-mail from the U.S.A. Postal Service, sent on March 28, 2006 to petitioner's husband, confirming the latter's submission of a request for change of address to the U.S.A. Postal Service, consisting of one (1) page

(18) Final Statement issued by the First American Title Insurance Company, which indicates as Settlement Date: "04-27/2006", consisting of two (2) pages

(19) Transfer Certificate of Title No. 290260 covering a 509-square meter lot at No. 106, Rodeo Drive, Corinthian Hills, Barangay Ugong Norte, Quezon City, issued by the Registry of Deeds of Quezon City on June 1, 2006, consisting of four (4) pages

(20) Questionnaire Information for Determining Possible Loss of U.S. Citizenship issued by the U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs, accomplished by petitioner on July 12, 2011

(21) Affidavit of Jesusa Sonora Poe dated November 8, 2015, consisting of three (3) pages

(22) Affidavit of Teodoro Llamanzares dated November 8, 2015, consisting of three (3) pages485

The Commission on Elections chose to ignore all these pieces of evidence showing reestablishment of residence prior to July 7, 2006 by the mere invocation of petitioner's then status as one who has not yet reacquired Philippine citizenship. The Commission on Elections relied on a manifestly faulty premise to justify its position that all of petitioner's evidence relating to the period before July 7, 2006 deserved no consideration. Clearly, this was grave abuse of discretion on the part of the Commission on Elections in two (2) respects: first, in using citizenship as a shortcut; and second, in evading its positive duty to scrutinize the facts and evidence.

VI.J

As with Mitra and Sabili, petitioner has shown by substantial evidence that the incremental process of establishing her residence in the Philippines commenced on May 24, 2005 and was completed in the latter part of April 2006. The Constitution requires that a candidate for the May 9, 2016486 Presidential Elections must establish residency at least by May 9, 2006.

Her evidence satisfies the three (3) requisites for establishing domicile of choice in the Philippines:

First, bodily presence in the Philippines is demonstrated by her actual arrival in the country on May 24, 2005.

Second, animus manendi or intent to remain in the Philippines is demonstrated by:

(1) Petitioner's travel records, which indicate that even as she could momentarily leave for a trip abroad, she nevertheless constantly returned to the Philippines;

(2) Affidavit of Jesusa Sonora Poe, which attests to how, upon their arrival in the Philippines on May 24, 2005, petitioner and her children first lived with her at 23 Lincoln St., Greenhills West, San Juan City, thereby requiring a change in the living arrangements at her own residence;

(3) The school records of petitioner's children, which prove that they have been continuously attending Philippine schools beginning in June 2005;

(4) Petitioner's Tax Identification Number Identification Card, which indicates that "shortly after her return in May 2005, she considered herself a taxable resident and submitted herself to the Philippines' tax jurisdiction";487 and

(5) Two condominium certificates of title (one for Unit 7F, One Wilson Place, and another for a corresponding parking slot which were both purchased in early 2005), and along with corresponding Declarations of Real Property Tax Declarations which establish intent to permanently reside in the Philippines.

Lastly, animus non revertendi or intent to abandon domicile in the United States is demonstrated by:

(1) Affidavit of Jesusa Sonora Poe, which "attests to, among others, the reasons which prompted [petitioner] to leave the [United States] and return permanently to the Philippines";488

(2) Affidavit of petitioner's husband, which affirms petitioner's explanations of how they made arrangements for their relocation to the Philippines as early as March 2005;

(3) Petitioner and her husband's documented inquiries and exchanges with property movers as regards the transfer of their effects and belongings from the United States to the Philippines, which affirms their intent to permanently leave the United States as early as March 2005;

(4) The actual relocation and transfer of effects and belongings, "which were packed and collected for storage and transport to the Philippines on February and April 2006";489

(5) Petitioner's husband's act of informing the United States Postal Service that he and his family are abandoning their address in the United States as of March 2006;

(6) Petitioner and her husband's sale of their family home in the United States on April 27, 2006;

(7) Petitioner's husband's resignation from his work in the United States effective April 2006; and

(8) Petitioner's husband's actual return to the Philippines on May 4, 2006.

With due recognition to petitioner's initial and preparatory moves (as was done in Mitra and Sabili), it is clear that petitioner's residence in the Philippines was established as early as May 24, 2005.

Nevertheless, even if we are to depart from Mitra and Sabili and insist on reckoning the reestablishment of residence only at that point when all of its steps have been consummated, it remains that petitioner has proven that she has satisfied Article VII, Section 2 of the 1987 Constitution's ten-year residence requirement.

VI.K

The evidence relied upon by the Commission on Elections fail to controvert the timely reestablishment of petitioner's domicile.

Insisting that petitioner failed to timely reestablish residence, the Commission on Elections underscores three (3) facts: first, her husband, Teodoro Llamanzares, "remained a resident of the US in May 2005, where he kept and retained his employment";490 second, petitioner, using her United States passport, supposedly travelled frequently to the United States from May 2005 to July 2006; and third, a statement in the Certificate of Candidacy she filed for Senator indicating that she was a resident of the Philippines for only six (6) years and six (6) months as of May 13, 2013, which must mean that: first, by May 9, 2016, she shall have been a resident of the Philippines for a cumulative period of nine (9) years and six (6) months; and second, she started to be a resident of the Philippines only in November 2006.

None of these facts sustain the Commission on Elections' conclusions.

Relying on the residence of petitioner's husband is simply misplaced. He is not a party to this case. No incident relating to his residence (or even citizenship) binds the conclusions that are to be arrived at in this case. Petitioner was free to establish her own residence. The position that the residence of the wife follows that of the husband is antiquated and no longer binding. Article 110 of the Civil Code491 used to provide that "[t]he husband shall fix the residence of the family." But it has long been replaced by Article 152 of the Family Code,492 which places the wife on equal footing as the husband.

To accept the Commission on Elections' conclusions is to accept an invitation to return to an antiquated state of affairs. The Commission's conclusions not only run counter to the specific text of Article 152 of the Family Code; it renounces the entire body of laws upholding "the fundamental equality before the law of women and men."493

Chief of these is Republic Act No. 7192, otherwise known as the Women in Development and Nation Building Act. Section 5 of this Act specifically states that "[w]omen of legal age, regardless of civil status, shall have the capacity to act ... which shall in every respect be equal to that of men under similar circumstances." As underscored by Associate Justice Lucas P. Bersamin in the February 9, 2016 oral arguments, a wife may choose "to have her own domicile for purposes of conducting her own profession or business":494

JUSTICE BERSAMIN:
Yes. Is the position of the COMELEC like this, that a dual citizen can only have one domicile or ...

COMMISSIONER LIM:
Yes, definitely because that is the ruling in jurisprudence, "A person can have only one domicile at that time."

JUSTICE BERSAMIN:
Alright, who chooses that domicile for her?

COMMISSIONER LIM:
In the ... (interrupted)

JUSTICE BERSAMIN:
At that time when he or she was a dual citizen.

COMMISSIONER LIM:
In the context of marriage, it's a joint decision of husband and wife, Yes, Your Honor.

JUSTICE BERSAMIN:
Okay, we have a law, a provision in the Civil Code reiterated in the Family Code ... (interrupted)

COMMISSIONER LIM:
Yes ...

JUSTICE BERSAMIN:
. . . that it is the husband who usually defines the situs of the domicile?

COMMISSIONER LIM:
Yes, Your Honor.

JUSTICE BERSAMIN:
Except if the wife chooses to have her own domicile for purposes of conducting her own profession or business.

COMMISSIONER LIM:
Yes, Your Honor.

JUSTICE BERSAMIN:
That's under the Women in Nation Building Act.

COMMISSIONER LIM:
Yes, Your Honor.495

Reliance on petitioner's husband's supposed residence reveals an even more basic flaw. This presupposes that residence as used in the Civil Code and the Family Code is to be equated with residence as used in the context of election laws. Even if it is to be assumed that the wife follows the residence fixed by the husband, it does not mean that what is reckoned in this sense as residence, i.e., the family home, is that which must be considered as residence for election purposes.

In any case, petitioner amply demonstrated that their family home had, in fact, been timely relocated from the United States.1âwphi1 Initially, it was in her mother's residence at 23 Lincoln St., Greenhills West, San Juan City. Later, it was transferred to Unit 7F, One Wilson Place; and finally to Corinthian Hills, Quezon City.

Apart from the sheer error of even invoking a non-party's residence, petitioner's evidence established the purpose for her husband's stay in the United States after May 24, 2005: that it was "for the sole and specific purpose of 'finishing pending projects, and to arrange for the sale of the family home there."'496 This assertion is supported by evidence to show that a mere seven (7) days after their house in the United States was sold, that is, as soon as his reason for staying in the United States ceased, petitioner's husband returned to the Philippines on May 4, 2006.497

Equally unavailing are petitioner's travels to the United States from May 2005 to July 2006.

In the first place, petitioner travelled to the United States only twice within this period. This hardly qualifies as "frequent," which is how the Commission on Elections characterized her travels.498 As explained by petitioner:

Her cancelled U.S.A. Passport shows that she travelled to the U.S.A. only twice during this period. Moreover, each trip (from 16 December 2005 to 7 January 2006 and from 14 February 2006 to 11 March 2006) did not last more than a month.499

The Commission on Elections' choice to characterize as "frequent" petitioner's two trips, neither of which even extended longer than a month, is a red flag, a badge of how it gravely abused its discretion in refusing to go about its task of meticulously considering the evidence.

Moreover, what is pivotal is not that petitioner travelled to the United States. Rather, it is the purpose of these trips. If at all, these trips attest to the abandonment of her domicile in the United States and her having reestablished it in the Philippines. As petitioner explained, it was not out of a desire to maintain her abode in the United States, but it was precisely to wrap up her affairs there and to consummate the reestablishment of her domicile in the Philippines:

5.258.1. In her Verified Answers, Sen. Poe explained why she had to travel to the U.S.A. on 14 February 2006, and it had, again, nothing to do with supposedly maintaining her domicile in the U.S.A.

5.258.2. To reiterate, Sen. Poe's trip to the U.S.A. in February 2006 was "for the purpose of supervising the disposal of some of the family's remaining household belongings." The circumstances that lead to her travel to the U.S.A. were discussed in detail in pars. 5.241 to 5.243 above. During this February 2006 trip to the U.S.A., Sen. Poe even donated some of the family's household belongings to the Salvation Army.

5.258.3. On the other hand, Sen. Poe's trip to the U.S.A. from 16 December 2005 to 7 January 2006 was also intended, in part, to "to attend to her family's ongoing relocation."500

The Commission on Elections' begrudging attitude towards petitioner's two trips demonstrates an inordinate stance towards what animus non revertendi or intent to abandon domicile in the United States entails. Certainly, reestablishing her domicile in the Philippines cannot mean a prohibition against travelling to the United States. As this court emphasized in Jalover v. Osmefia,501 the establishment of a new domicile does not require a person to be in his home 24 hours a day, seven (7) days a week.502 To hold otherwise is to sustain a glaring absurdity.

The statement petitioner made in her Certificate of Candidacy for Senator as regards residence is not fatal to her cause.

The assailed Commission on Elections' Resolution in G.R. No. 221697 stated that:

Respondent cannot fault the Second Division for using her statements in the 2013 COC against her. Indeed, the Second Division correctly found that this is an admission against her interest. Being such, it is 'the best evidence which affords the greatest certainty of the facts in dispute. The rationale for the rule is based on the presumption that no man would declare anything against himself unless such declaration was true. Thus, it is fair to presume that the declaration corresponds with the truth, and it is his fault if it does not.'

Moreover, a [Certificate of Candidacy], being a notarial document, has in its favor the presumption of regularity. To contradict the facts stated therein, there must be evidence that is clear, convincing and more than merely preponderant. In order for a declarant to impugn a notarial document which he himself executed, it is not enough for him to merely execute a subsequent notarial document. After executing an affidavit voluntarily wherein admissions and declarations against the affiant's own interest are made under the solemnity of an oath, the affiant cannot just be allowed to spurn them and undo what he has done.

Yes, the statement in the 2013 COC, albeit an admission against interest, may later be impugned by respondent. However, she cannot do this by the mere expedient of filing her 2016 COC and claiming that the declarations in the previous one were "honest mistakes". The burden is upon her to show, by clear, convincing and more than preponderant evidence, that, indeed, it is the latter COC that is correct and that the statements made in the 2013 COC were done without bad faith. Unfortunately for respondent, she failed to discharge this heavy burden.503

Untenable is the Commission on Elections' conclusion that a certificate of candidacy, being a notarized document, may only be impugned by evidence that is clear, convincing, and more than merely preponderant because it has in its favor a presumption of regularity. Notarizing a document has nothing to do with the veracity of the statements made in that document. All that notarization does is to convert a private document into a public document, such that when it is presented as evidence, proof of its genuineness and due execution need no longer be shown.504 Notarization does not sustain a presumption that the facts stated in notarized documents are true and correct.

More importantly, Romualdez-Marcos505 has long settled that "[i]t is the fact of residence, not a statement in a certificate of candidacy which ought to be decisive in determining whether or not an individual has satisfied the constitution's residency qualification requirement."506 It further stated that an "honest mistake should not, however, be allowed to negate the fact of residence ... if such fact were established by means more convincing than a mere entry on a piece of paper."507

The facts-as established by the evidence-will always prevail over whatever inferences may be drawn from an admittedly mistaken declaration.

Jurisprudence itself admits of the possibility of a mistake. Nevertheless, the mistaken declaration serves neither as a perpetually binding declaration nor as estoppel. This is the unmistakable import of Romualdez.

This primacy of the fact of residence, as established by the evidence, and how it prevails over mere formalistic declarations, is illustrated in Perez v. Commission on Elections. 508

In Perez, the petitioner Marcita Perez insisted that the private respondent Rodolfo Aguinaldo, a congressional candidate in the 1998 Elections, remained a resident of Gattaran, Cagayan, and that he was unable to establish residence in Tuguegarao, Cagayan. In support of her claims, she "presented private respondent's [previous] certificates of candidacy for governor of Cagayan in the 1988, 1992, and 1995 elections; his voter's affidavit which he used in the 1987, 1988, 1992, 1995, and 1997 elections; and his voter registration record dated June 22, 1997, in all of which it is stated that he is a resident of Barangay Calaoagan Dackel, Municipality of Gattaran. "509

This court did not consider as binding "admissions" the statements made in the documents presented by Perez. Instead, it sustained the Commission on Elections' appreciation of other evidence proving that Aguinaldo managed to establish residence in Tuguegarao. It also cited Romualdez-Marcos and affirmed the rule that the facts and the evidence will prevail over prior (mistakenly made) declarations:

In the case at bar, the COMELEC found that private respondent changed his residence from Gattaran to Tuguegarao, the capital of Cagayan, in July 1990 on the basis of the following: (1) the affidavit of Engineer Alfredo Ablaza, the owner of the residential apartment at 13-E Magallanes St., Tuguegarao, Cagayan, where private respondent had lived in 1990; (2) the contract of lease between private respondent, as lessee, and Tomas T. Decena, as lessor, of a residential apartment at Kamias St., Tanza, Tuguegarao, Cagayan, for the period July 1, 1995 to June 30, 1996; (3) the marriage certificate, dated January 18, 1998, between private respondent and Lerma Dumaguit; (4) the certificate of live birth of private respondent's second daughter; and (5) various letters addressed to private respondent and his family, which all show that private respondent was a resident of Tuguegarao, Cagayan for at least one (1) year immediately preceding the elections on May 11, 1998.

There is thus substantial evidence supporting the finding that private respondent had been a resident of the Third District of Cagayan and there is nothing in the record to detract from the merit of this factual finding.

. . . .

Moreover, as this Court said in Romualdez-Marcos v. COMELEC:

It is the fact of residence, not a statement in a certificate of candidacy, which ought to be decisive in determining whether or not an individual has satisfied the constitution's residency qualification requirement. The said statement becomes material only when there is or appears to be a deliberate attempt to mislead, misinform, or hide a fact which would otherwise render a candidate ineligible.

In this case, although private respondent declared in his certificates of candidacy prior to the May 11, 1998 elections that he was a resident of Gattaran, Cagayan, the fact is that he was actually a resident of the Third District not just for one (1) year prior to the May 11, 1998 elections but for more than seven (7) years since July 1990. His claim that he had been a resident of Tuguegarao since July 1990 is credible considering that he was governor from 1988 to 1998 and, therefore, it would be convenient for him to maintain his residence in Tuguegarao, which is the capital of the province of Cagayan.510

Even assuming that an "admission" is worth considering, the mere existence of any such admission does not imply its conclusiveness. "No doubt, admissions against interest may be refuted by the declarant."511 This is true both of admissions made outside of the proceedings in a given case and of "[a]n admission, verbal or written, made by the party in the course of the proceedings in the same case."512 As regards the latter, the Revised Rules on Evidence explicitly provides that "[t]he admission may be contradicted ... by showing that it was made through palpable mistake." Thus, by mistakenly "admitting," a party is not considered to have brought upon himself or herself an inescapable contingency. On the contrary, that party is free to present evidence proving not only his or her mistake but also of what the truth is.

Petitioner here has established her good faith, that is, that she merely made an honest mistake. In addition, she adduced a plethora of evidence, "more convincing than a mere entry on a piece of paper,"513 that proves the fact of her residence, which was reestablished through an incremental process commencing on May 24, 2005.

The fact of petitioner's honest mistake is accounted for. Working in her favor is a seamless, consistent narrative. This controverts any intent to deceive. It is an honest error for a layperson.

Firstly, her Certificate of Candidacy for Senator must be appreciated for what it is: a document filed in relation to her candidacy for Senator, not for President. Under Article VI, Section 3 of the 1987 Constitution, all that election to the Senate requires is residence in the Philippines for "not less than two years immediately preceding the day of the election." For purposes of her Certificate of Candidacy for Senator, petitioner needed to show residence for only two (2) years and not more. As petitioner explained, she accomplished this document without the assistance of a lawyer.514 Thus, it should not be taken against her (and taken as a badge of misrepresentation) that she merely filled in information that was then apropos, though inaccurate.

As Commission on Elections Chairperson Andres Bautista noted in his Concurring and Dissenting Opinion to the assailed Commission on Elections' Resolution in G.R. No. 221697:

[The] residency requirement for Senator is two (2) years. Hence, when [petitioner] stated in her 2013 COC that she was a resident . . . for [6 years and 6 months], it would seem that she did so without really considering the legal or constitutional requirement as contemplated by law. After all, she had already fully complied with the two-year residence requirement.515

The standard form for the certificate of candidacy that petitioner filed for Senator required her to specify her "Period of Residence in the Philippines before May 13, 2013."516 This syntax lent itself to some degree of confusion as to what the "period before May 13, 2013" specifically entailed. It was, thus, quite possible for a person filling out a blank certificate of candidacy to have merely indicated his or her period of residence as of the filing of his or her Certificate of Candidacy. This would not have been problematic for as long as the total period of residence relevant to the position one was running for was complied with.

Affirming the apparent tendency to confuse, the Commission on Elections itself revised the template for certificates of candidacy for the upcoming 2016 Elections. As petitioner pointed out, the certificate of candidacy prepared for the May 9, 2016 Elections is now more specific. It now requires candidates to specify their "Period of residence in the Philippines up to the day before May 09, 2016."517

It is true that reckoning six (6) years and six (6) months from October 2012, when petitioner filed her Certificate of Candidacy for Senator, would indicate that petitioner's residence in the Philippines commenced only in April 2006. This seems to belie what petitioner now claims: that her residence in the Philippines commenced on May 24, 2005. This, however, can again be explained by the fact that petitioner, a layperson, accomplished her own Certificate of Candidacy for Senator without the better advice of a legal professional.

To recall, jurisprudence appreciates the establishment of domicile as an incremental process. In this incremental process, even initial, preparatory moves count.518 Residence is deemed acquired (or changed) as soon as these moves are demonstrated.519 Nevertheless, the crucial fact about this manner of appreciating the establishment of domicile is that this is a technical nuance in jurisprudence. Laypersons can reasonably be expected to not have the acumen to grasp this subtlety. Thus, as petitioner explained, it was reasonable for her to reckon her residency from April 2006, when all the actions that she and her family needed to undertake to effect their transfer to the Philippines were consummated.520 Indeed, as previously pointed out, the latter part of April leading to May 2006 is the terminal point of the incremental process of petitioner's reestablishing her residence in the Philippines.

Insisting on November 2006 as petitioner's supposedly self-declared start of residence in the Philippines runs afoul of the entire corpus of evidence presented. Neither petitioner's evidence nor the entirety of the assertions advanced by respondents against her manages to account for any significant occurrence in November 2006 that explains why petitioner would choose to attach her residency to this date. In the face of a multitude of countervailing evidence, nothing sustains November 2006 as a starting point.

There were two documents-a 2012 Certificate of Candidacy for Senator and a 2015 Certificate of Candidacy for President-that presented two different starting points for the establishment of residency. Logic dictates that if one is true, the other must be false.

The Commission on Elections insisted, despite evidence to the contrary, that it was the 2015 Certificate of Candidacy for President that was false. Petitioner admitted her honest mistake in filling out the 2012 Certificate of Candidacy for Senator. She explained how the mistake was made. She further presented evidence to show that it is the 2015 Certificate of Candidacy that more accurately reflects what she did and intended.

By itself, the Commission on Elections' recalcitrance may reasonably raise public suspicion that its conclusions in its Resolutions were preordained despite the compendium of evidence presented. It was clearly unfounded and arbitrary-another instance of the Commission on Elections' grave abuse of discretion.

Accordingly, the conclusion warranted by the evidence stands. The fact of petitioner's residence as having commenced on May 24, 2005, completed through an incremental process that extended until April/May 2006, was "established by means more convincing than a mere entry on a piece of paper."521

VI.L

Another fact cited against petitioner is her continuing ownership of two (2) real properties in the United States. Specifically, Valdez noted that petitioner "still maintains two (2) residential houses in the US, one purchased in 1992, and the other in 2008."522

This fails to controvert the timely reestablishment of petitioner's residence in the Philippines.

First, Valdez's characterization of the two properties as "residential" does not mean that petitioner has actually been using them as her residence. Classifying real properties on the basis of utility (e.g., as residential, agricultural, commercial, etc.) is merely a descriptive exercise. It does not amount to an authoritative legal specification of the relationship between the real property owner and the property. Thus, one may own agricultural land but not till it; one may own a commercial property but merely lease it out to other commercial enterprises.

To say that petitioner owns "residential" property does not mean that petitioner is actually residing in it.

In the Answer523 she filed before the Commission on Elections, petitioner has even explicitly denied Valdez's assertion "insofar it is made to appear that (she) 'resides' in the 2 houses mentioned."524 As against Valdez's allegation, petitioner alleged and presented supporting evidence that her family's residence has been established in Corinthian Hills, Quezon City. As pointed out by petitioner, all that Valdez managed to do was to make an allegation, considering that he did not present proof that any of the two (2) properties in the United States has been and is still being used by petitioner's family for their residence.

Second, even on the assumption that the remaining properties in the United States may indeed be characterized as petitioner's residence, Valdez's assertion fails to appreciate the basic distinction between residence and domicile. It is this distinction that permits a person to maintain a separate residence simultaneously with his or her domicile.

Ultimately, it does not matter that petitioner owns residential properties in the United States, or even that she actually uses them as temporary places of abode. What matters is that petitioner has established and continues to maintain domicile in the Philippines.

Romualdez-Marcos 525 is on point:

Residence, in its ordinary conception, implies the factual relationship of an individual to a certain place. It is the physical presence of a person in a given area, community or country. The essential distinction between residence and domicile in law is that residence involves the intent to leave when the purpose for which the resident has taken up his abode ends. One may seek a place for purposes such as pleasure, business, or health. If a person's intent be to remain, it becomes his domicile; if his intent is to leave as soon as his purpose is established it is residence. It is thus, quite perfectly normal for an individual to have different residences in various places. However, a person can only have a single domicile, unless, for various reasons, he successfully abandons his domicile in favor of another domicile of choice. In Uytengsu vs. Republic, we laid this distinction quite clearly:

"There is a difference between domicile and residence. 'Residence['] is used to indicate a place of abode, whether permanent or temporary; 'domicile' denotes a fixed permanent residence to which, when absent, one has the intention of returning. A man may have a residence in one place and a domicile in another. Residence is not domicile, but domicile is residence coupled with the intention to remain for an unlimited time. A man can have but one domicile for the same purpose at any time, but he may have numerous places of residence. His place of residence is generally his place of domicile, but it is not by any means necessarily so since no length of residence without intention of remaining will constitute domicile. "526 (Citations omitted)

There is nothing preventing petitioner from owning properties in the United States and even from utilizing them for residential purposes. To hold that mere ownership of these is tantamount to abandonment of domicile is to betray a lack of understanding of the timelessly established distinction between domicile and residence.

It was grave abuse of discretion for the Commission to Elections to cancel petitioner's Certificate of Candidacy on grounds that find no support in law and jurisprudence, and which are not supported by evidence. Petitioner made no false representation in her Certificate of Candidacy, whether in respect of her citizenship or in respect of her residence. She is a natural-born Filipina at the time of her filing of her Certificate of Candidacy. She satisfies the requirement of having been a resident of the Philippines 10 years prior to the upcoming elections.

The burden of evidence rests on the person who makes the affirmative allegation. In an action for cancellation of certificate of candidacy under Section 78 of the Omnibus Election Code, it is the person who filed the action who has the burden of showing that the candidate made false representations in his or her certificate of candidacy.

To prove that there is misrepresentation under Section 78, the person claiming it must not only show that the candidate made representations that are false and material. He or she must also show that the candidate intentionally tried to mislead the electorate regarding his or her qualifications. Without showing these, the burden of evidence does not shift to the candidate.

Private respondents failed to show the existence of false and material misrepresentation on the part of petitioner. Instead, it relied on petitioner's admission that she is a foundling.

Relying on the single fact of being an abandoned newborn is unreasonable, arbitrary, and discriminatory. It fails to consider all other pieces of evidence submitted by petitioner for the fair and unbiased consideration of the Commission on Elections.

The principles of constitutional construction favor an interpretation that foundlings like petitioner are natural-born citizens of the Philippines absent proof resulting from evidence to the contrary. Such proof must show that both-not only one-of petitioner's parents were foreigners at the time of her birth.

Without conceding that foundlings are not-even presumptively- natural-born Filipinos, petitioner has presented substantial evidence that her biological parents are Filipinos.

The Constitution provides for only two types of citizens: (1) natural-born, and (2) naturalized citizens. Natural-born citizens are specifically defined as persons who do not have to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Filipino citizenship. These acts refer to those required under our naturalization laws. More particularly, it involves the filing of a petition as well as the establishment of the existence of all qualifications to become a Filipino citizen.

Petitioner never had to go through our naturalization processes. Instead, she has been treated as a Filipino citizen upon birth, subject to our laws. Administrative bodies, the Commission on Elections, the President, and most importantly, the electorate have treated her as a Filipino citizen and recognized her natural-born status.

Not being a Filipino by naturalization, therefore, petitioner could have acquired Filipino citizenship because her parent/s, from her birth, has/have always been considered Filipino citizen/s who, in accordance with our jus sanguinis principle, bestowed natural-born citizenship to her under Article IV, Section 1(1) to (3) of the Constitution.

Our Constitution and our domestic laws, including the treaties we have ratified, enjoin us from interpreting our citizenship provisions in a manner that promotes exclusivity and an animus against those who were abandoned and neglected.

We have adopted and continue to adopt through our laws and practice policies of equal protection, human dignity, and a clear duty to always seek the child's well-being and best interests. We have also obligated ourselves to defend our People against statelessness and protect and ensure the status and nationality of our children immediately upon birth.

Therefore, an interpretation that excludes foundlings from our natural-born citizens is inconsistent with our laws and treaty obligations. It necessarily sanctions unequal treatment of a particular class through unnecessary limitation of their rights and capacities based only on their birth status.

Petitioner cannot be expected to present the usual evidence of her lineage. It is precisely because she is a foundling that she cannot produce a birth record or a testimony on the actual circumstances and identity of her biological parents.

However, the circumstances of and during her birth lead to her parent/s' Filipino citizenship as the most probable inference.

Petitioner was born in Jaro, Iloilo, the population of which consisted mainly of Filipinos. Her physical features are consistent with the physical features of many Filipinos. She was left in front of a Catholic Church, no less-consistent with the expectation from a citizen in a predominantly Catholic environment. There was also no international airport in J aro, Iloilo to and from which foreigners may easily come and go to abandon their newborn children. Lastly, statistics show that in 1968, petitioner had a 99.8% chance of being born a Filipino.

For these reasons, a claim of material misrepresentation of natural-born status cannot be based solely on a candidate's foundling status. Private respondents should have been more diligent in pursuing their claim by presenting evidence other than petitioner's admission of foundling status.

The conclusion that she is a natural-born Filipina is based on a fair and reasonable reading of constitutional provisions, statutes, and international norms having the effect of law, and on the evidence presented before the Commission on Elections.

Petitioner has shown by a multitude of evidence that she has been domiciled in the Philippines beginning May 24, 2005. Her reestablishment of residence was not accomplished in a singular, definitive episode but spanned an extended period. Hers was an incremental process of reestablishing residence.

This incremental process was terminated and completed by April 2006 with the sale of her family's former home in the United States and the return of her husband to the Philippines following this sale. Specifically, her husband returned to the Philippines on May 4, 2006. Whichever way the evidence is appreciated, it is clear that petitioner has done all the acts necessary to become a resident on or before May 9, 2006, the start of the ten-year period for reckoning compliance with the 1987 Constitution's residence requirement for presidential candidates.

The Commission on Elections did not examine the evidence deliberately and with the requisite analytical diligence required by our laws and existing jurisprudence. Instead, it arbitrarily ignored petitioner's evidence. It chose to anchor its conclusions on formalistic requirements and technical lapses: reacquisition of citizenship, issuance of a permanent resident or immigrant visa, and an inaccuracy in a prior Certificate of Candidacy.

Misplaced reliance on preconceived indicators of what suffices to establish or retain domicile-a virtual checklist of what one should, could, or would have done-is precisely what this court has repeatedly warned against. This is tantamount to evasion of the legally ordained duty to engage in a meticulous examination of the facts attendant to residency controversies.

Worse, the Commission on Elections went out of its way to highlight supposedly damning details-the circumstances of petitioner's husband, her intervening trips to the United States-to insist upon its conclusions. This conjectural posturing only makes more evident how the Commission on Elections gravely abused its discretion. Not only did it turn a blind eye to the entire body of evidence demonstrating the restoration of petitioner's domicile; it even labored at subverting them.

Clearly, the Commission on Elections' actions constituted grave abuse of discretion amounting to utter lack of jurisdiction. These actions being unjust as well as unchristian, we have no choice except to annul this unconstitutional act.

Admittedly, there is more to democracy than having a wider choice of candidates during periodic elections. The quality of democracy increases as people engage in meaningful deliberation often moving them to various types of collective action to achieve a better society. Elections can retard or aid democracy. It weakens society when these exercises reduce the electorate to subjects of entertainment, slogans, and empty promises. This kind of elections betrays democracy· They transform the exercise to a contest that puts premium on image rather than substance. The potential of every voter gets wasted. Worse, having been marginalized as mere passive subjects, voters are then manipulated by money and power.

Elections are at their best when they serve as venues for conscious and deliberate action. Choices made by each voter should be the result of their own reasoned deliberation. These choices should be part of their collective decision to choose candidates who will be accountable to them and further serious and workable approaches to the most pressing and relevant social issues. Elections are at their best when the electorate are not treated simply as numbers in polling statistics, but as partners in the quest for human dignity and social justice.

This case should be understood in this context. There are no guarantees that the elections we will have in a few months will lead us to more meaningful freedoms. How and when this comes about should not solely depend on this court. In a working constitutional democracy framed by the rule of just law, how we conceive and empower ourselves as a people should also matter significantly.

ACCORDINGLY, I vote to GRANT the consolidated Petitions for Certiorari. The assailed Resolutions dated December 1, 2015 of the Commission on Elections Second Division and December 23, 2015 of the Commission on Elections En Banc in SPA No. 15-001 (DC), and the assailed Resolutions dated December 11, 2015 of the Commission on Elections First Division and December 23, 2015 of the Commission on Elections En Banc in SPA No. 15-002 (DC), SPA No. 15-007 (DC), and SPA No. 15-139 (DC) must be ANNULLED and SET ASIDE.

Petitioner Mary Grace Natividad S. Poe-Llamanzares made no material misrepresentation in her Certificate of Candidacy for President in connection with the May 9, 2016 National and Local Elections. There is no basis for the cancellation of her Certificate of Candidacy .

MARVIC M.V.F. LEONEN
Associate Justice


Footnotes

1 Const., art. VII, sec. 2 provides:

ARTICLE VII. Executive Department

. . . .

SECTION 2. No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election.

2 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), pp. 2706-2736. The Decision was concurred in by Senators Paolo Benigno "Barn" A. Aquino IV, Pilar Juliana "Pia" S. Cayetano, Cynthia A. Villar, Vicente C. Sotto III, and Loren B. Legarda, and dissented from by Senior Associate Justice Antonio T. Carpio, Associate Justices Teresita J. Leonardo-De Castro and Arturo D. Brion, and Senator Maria Lourdes Nancy S. Binay.

3 Id. at 3827, Petitioner's Memorandum.

4 COMELEC Official May 13, 2013 National and Local Elections Results

<http://www.comelec.gov. ph/?r=Archives/RegularElections/2013NLE/Results/SenatorialE lections2013> (visited March 7, 2016).

5 Const., art. VI, sec. 3 provides:

ARTICLE VI. The Legislative Department

. . . .

SECTION 3. SECTION 3. No person shall be a Senator unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, and, on the day of the election, is at least thirty-five years of age, able to read and write, a registered voter, and a resident of the Philippines for not less than two years immediately preceding the day of the election.

6 CONST., art. IV, sec. 1 provides:

ARTICLE IV. Citizenship

SECTION 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:

(1) Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this Constitution;

(2) Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines;

(3) Those born before January 17, 1973, of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority; and

(4) Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.

7 CONST., art. IV, sec. 1.

8 CONST., art. IV, sec. 1.

9 See Rep. Act No. 8552 (1998) and Rep. Act No. 8043 (1995).

10 See Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), pp. 22-26, Petition. Petitioner was granted an order of reacquisition of natural-born citizenship under Republic Act No. 9225 by the Bureau of Immigration on July 18, 2006. The President of the Philippines appointed her as Chairperson of the Movie and Television Review and Classification Board-a government position that requires natural-born citizenship--on October 6, 2010.

11 On August 21, 1990, we ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. We also ratified the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights on October 23, 1986.

12 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 5, Petition.

13 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 4566, Annex C of the Solicitor General's Memorandum, Certification issued on February 9, 2016 by the Philippine Statistics Office, signed by Deputy National Statistician Estela T. De Guzman.

14 Batas Big. 881 (1985), Omnibus Election Code, sec. 78 provides:

SECTION 78. Petition to deny due course to or cancel a certificate of candidacy. - A verified petition seeking to deny due course or to cancel a certificate of candidacy may be filed by the person exclusively on the ground that any material representation contained therein as required under Section 74 hereof is false. The petition may be filed at any time not later than twenty-five days from the time of the filing of the certificate of candidacy and shall be decided, after due notice and hearing, not later than fifteen days before the election.

15 Romualdez-Marcos v. COMELEC, 318 Phil. 329, 377 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

16 Gallego v. Vera, 73 Phil. 453, 455-456 (1941) [Per J. Ozaeta, En Banc].

17 Id. at 456.

18 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 254, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

19 Id.

20 Id.

21 318 Phil. 329, 386 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

22 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3816, Petitioner's Memorandum.

23 Id.; Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 218, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

24 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), pp. 3821-3822, Petitioner's Memorandum; Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 218, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SP A Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

25 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3822, Petitioner's Memorandum; Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p.218, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

26 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), pp. 3819-3820 and 3824, Petitioner's Memorandum; Rollo (G.R. No.221698-221700), p. 218, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

27 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3819, Petitioner's Memorandum.

28 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), pp. 3824-3825, Petitioner's Memorandum; Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 220, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SP A Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

29 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3825, Petitioner's Memorandum; Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p.220, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

30 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3824, Petitioner's Memorandum; Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p.219, COMELEC First Division Resolution {SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

31 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3825, Petitioner's Memorandum; Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p.220, COMELEC First Division Resolution {SPA Nos. 15-002 {DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

32 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), pp. 3816 and 3833, Petitioner's Memorandum; Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 220, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

33 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3822, Petitioner's Memorandum.

34 Id. at 3824; Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 219, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

35 392 Phil. 342 (2000) [Per J. Panganiban, En Banc].

36 Id. at 345.

37 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), pp. 224-259, COMELEC En Banc Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-001 (DC) was signed by Commissioners J. Andres D. Bautista (Chair), Christian Robert S. Lim, Al A. Parrefio, Luie Tito F. Guia, Arthur D. Lim, Ma. Rowena Amelia V. Guanzon, and SheriffM. Ahas.

38 Id. at 258.

39 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), pp. 216-264, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)) was signed by Presiding Commissioner Christian Robert S. Lim, and Commissioners Luie Tito F. Guia, and Ma. Rowena Amelia V. Guanzon.

40 Id. at 352-381.

41 Id.at381.

42 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3814, Petitioner's Memorandum.

43 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 217, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

44 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3814, Petitioner's Memorandum.

45 Id.at3815.

46 Id.

47 Id.

48 Id.

49 Id.

50 Id. at 3816.

51 Id. Emphasis supplied.

52 Id.

53 Id. at 2707, SET Decision (SET Case No. 001-15).

54 Id. at 3816, Petitioner's Memorandum.

55 Id.

56 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 218, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15- 002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and I5-139 (DC)).

57 Id.

58 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3817, Petitioner's Memorandum.

59 Id.

60 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 218, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

61 Id.

62 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), pp. 3817-3818, Petitioner's Memorandum.

63 Id.at3817.

64 Id. at 3818.

65 Id.

66 Id.

67 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 218, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

68 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3819, Petitioner's Memorandum; Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 218, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

69 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3819, Petitioner's Memorandum.

70 Id.

71 Id.

72 Id.; Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 218, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

73 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3819, Petitioner's Memorandum.

74 Id. at 3819-3820.

75 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), pp. 218-219, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

76 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3820, Petitioner's Memorandum.

77 Id. at 3820-3821.

78 Id. at 3821.

79 Id. Rep. Act No. 6768, sec. 3(c), as amended by Rep. Act No. 9174, sec. 3 provides:

SEC. 3 Benefits and Privileges of the Balikbayan. - The balikbayan and his or her family shall be entitled to the following benefits and privileges:

. . . .

(c) Visa-free entry to the Philippines for a period of one (1) year for foreign passport holders, with the exception of restricted nationals;

80 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3821, Petitioner's Memorandum.

81 Id.

82 Id.

83 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3822, Petitioner's Memorandum; Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 219, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

84 Id.

85 Id.

86 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3822, Petitioner's Memorandum.

87 Id.

88 Id.

89 Id.

90 Id.

91 Id. at 2707, SET Decision (SET Case No. 001-15).

92 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 219, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

93 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3822, Petitioner's Memorandum.

94 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 219, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

95 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3822, Petitioner's Memorandum.

96 Id.

97 Id. at 3824.

98 Id.

99 Id.

100 Id.

101 Id. at 3824-3825.

102 Id. at 3825.

103 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 220, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

104 Id.

105 Id.

106 Id.

107 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3827, Petitioner's Memorandum.

108 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 220, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

109 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3827, Petitioner's Memorandum.

110 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 220, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

111 Id.

112 Id.

113 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3828, Petitioner's Memorandum.

114 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 220, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

115 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3828, Petitioner's Memorandum.

116 Id. at 2708, SET Decision (SET Case No. 001-15).

117 Id. at 23, Petition.

118 Id.

119 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 2708, SET Decision (SET Case No. 001-15).

120 Id.

121 Id. at 3832.

122 Id.

123 Id. at 3833.

124 Id. at 2708, SET Decision (SET Case No. 001-15).

125 Id.

126 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 221, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

127 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3823, Petitioner's Memorandum.

128 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 221, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

129 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3824, Petitioner's Memorandum.

130 Id. at 2708, SET Decision (SET Case No. 001-15), p. 3.

131 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 221, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

132 Id.

133 Id. at 222.

134 Id.

135 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3835, Petitioner's Memorandum.

136 Id.

137 Id. at 9, Petition.

138 Id. at 4.

139 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 222, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)) dated December 11.

140 Id.

141 Id.

142 ld.at217.

143 Id. at 222.

144 Id.

145 Id.

146 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3556-B, Supreme Court Resolution dated February 16, 2016.

147 Id. at 29-30, Petition.

148 Id. at 33.

149 Id.

150 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 263, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

151 ld. at 357, COMELEC En Banc Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002 (DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

152 Id. at 381.

153 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3.

154 ld. at 2011-2013.

155 Id. at 2012.

156 Id. at 3084-P, Supreme Court Advisory.

157 RULES OF COURT, Rule 64 provides:

Sec. 2.Mode of review. A judgment or final order or resolution of the Commission on Elections and the Commission on Audit may be brought by the aggrieved party to the Supreme Court on certiorari under Rule 65, except as hereinafter provided.

158 RULES OF COURT, Rule 65 provides:

Section I .Petition for certiorari. When any tribunal, board or officer exercising judicial or quasijudicial functions has acted without or in excess of its or his jurisdiction, or with grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction, and there is no appeal, or any plain, speedy, and adequate remedy in the ordinary course of law, a person aggrieved thereby may file a verified petition in the proper court, alleging the facts with certainty and praying that judgment be rendered annulling or modifying the proceedings of such tribunal, board or officer, and granting such incidental reliefs as law and justice may require.

The petition shall be accompanied by a certified true copy of the judgment, order or resolution subject thereof, copies of all pleadings and documents relevant and pertinent thereto, and a sworn certification of non-forum shopping as provided in the third paragraph of section 3, Rule 46.

159 Araullo v. Aquino III, G.R. No. 209287, February 3, 2015,

<http://sc.judiciary.gov. ph/pdf/web/viewer.html?file=/jurisprudence/20l5/february2015/209287 .pdf> 8-9 [Per J. Bersamin, En Banc].

160 Mitra v. Commission on Elections, 636 Phil. 753, 777 (2010) [Per J. Brion, En Banc].

161 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 4590, COMELEC Memorandum.

162 Abasta Shipmanagement Corporation, 670 Phil. 136, 151 (201 l) [Per J. Brion, Second Division].

163 Nightowl Watchman & Security Agency, Inc. v. Lumahan, G.R. No. 212096, October 14, 2015, <http://sc.judiciary.gov.ph/pdf/web/viewer.html?file=/jurisprudence/20I5/october2015/212096.pdf> 7 [Per J. Brion, Second Division].

164 Mitra v. Commission on Elections, 636 Phil. 753, 777-778, 782 (2010) [Per J. Brion, En Banc].

165 Id. at 787.

166 Id. at 778.

167 Varias v. Commission on Elections, 626 Phil. 292, 314 (2010) [Perl. Brion, En Banc].

168 Lambino v. Commission on Elections, 536 Phil. l, Ill (2006) [Per J. Carpio, En Banc].

169 Diocese of Bacolod v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 205728, January 21, 2015,

<http ://sc.judiciary.gov.ph/pd f/web/viewer.html ?file=/jurisprudence/2015/j anuary2015/205 72 8. pdf> [Per J. Leonen, En Banc].

170 Lim v. Gamosa, G.R. No. 193964, December 2, 2015

<http://sc.judiciary.gov.ph/pdf/web/viewer.html?file=/jurisprudence/20l5/december2015/ 193964.pdf> 15 [Per J. Perez, First Division].

171 Gutib v. Court ofAppeals, 371 Phil. 293, 307 (1999) [Per J. Bellosillo, Second Division].

172 Id. at 308.

173 Id.

174 Department of Agrarian Reform Adjudication Board v. Lubrica, 497 Phil. 313, 326 (2005) [Per J. Tinga, Second Division].

175 CONST., art. IX-C, sec. 3.

176 CONST., art. VI, sec. 8 and art. VII, sec. 4.

177 Batas Big. 881 ( 1985), Omnibus Election Code, sec. 76.

178 Cipriano v. Comelec, 479 Phil. 677, 689 (2004) [Per J. Puno, En Banc].

179 CONST., art. IX-C, sec. 2(1) provides:

ARTICLE IX. Constitutional Commissions

. . . .

C. The Commission on Elections

SECTION 2. The Commission on Elections shall exercise the following powers and functions:

(1) Enforce and administer all laws and regulations relative to the conduct of an election, plebiscite, initiative, referendum, and recall.

[Note however paragraph (2), which limits its quasi judicial power.]

180 Bayton v. Commission on Elections, 444 Phil. 812, 824 (2003) [Per J. Carpio, En Banc].

181 CONST., art. IX-C, sec. 2(3).

182 Loong v. Commission on Elections, 365 Phil. 386, 423 (1999) [Per J. Puno, En Banc].

183 Id.

184 See Tecson v. Commission on Elections, 468 Phil. 421, 461 (2004) [Per J. Vitug, En Banc].

185 CONST., art. VI, sec. 17.

186 CONST., art. VI, sec. 17 provides:

ARTICLE VI. The Legislative Department

. . . .

SECTION 17. The Senate and the House of Representatives shall each have an Electoral Tribunal which shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications of their respective Members. Each Electoral Tribunal shall be composed of nine Members, three of whom shall be Justices of the Supreme Court to be designated by the Chief Justice, and the remaining six shall be Members of the Senate or the House of Representatives, as the case may be, who shall be chosen on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties and the parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein. The senior Justice in the Electoral Tribunal shall be its Chairman.

187 J. Mendoza, Separate Opinion in Romualdez-Marcos v. Commission on Elections, 318 Phil. 329, 457 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

188 ld. at 461-462.

189 468 Phil. 421 (2004) [Per J. Vitug, En Banc].

190 Id. at 462.

191 Id. at 458-460.

192 CONST., art. VII, sec. 4 partly provides:

ARTICLE VII. Executive Department

. . . .

SECTION 4. . . .

. . . .

The Supreme Court, sitting en banc, shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications of the President or Vice- President, and may promulgate its rules for the purpose.

193 CONST., art. VI, sec. 17 provides:

ARTICLE VI. The Legislative Department

. . . .

SECTION 17. The Senate and the House of Representatives shall each have an Electoral Tribunal which shall be the sole judge of all contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications of their respective Members. Each Electoral Tribunal shall be composed of nine Members, three of whom shall be Justices of the Supreme Court to be designated by the Chief Justice, and the remaining six shall be Members of the Senate or the House of Representatives, as the case may be, who shall be chosen on the basis of proportional representation from the political parties and the parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented therein. The senior Justice in the Electoral Tribunal shall be its Chairman.

194 CONST., art. VI, sec. 17.

195 CONST., art. IX-A, sec. 7. See discussion in part II.

196 See Jalover v. Osmeiia, G.R. No. 209286, September 23, 2014, 736 SCRA 267 [Per J. Brion, En Banc]; Hayudini v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 207900, April 22, 2014, 723 SCRA 223 [Per J. Peralta, En Banc]; Villafuerte v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 206698, February 25, 2014, 717 SCRA 312 [Per J. Peralta, En Banc]; Gonzalez v. Commission on Elections, 660 Phil. 225 (2011) [Per J. Villarama, Jr., En Banc]; Mitra v. Commission on Elections, 636 Phil. 753 (2010) [Per J. Brion, En Banc]; Maruhom v. Commission on Elections, 611 Phil. 501 (2009) [Per J. Chico-Nazario, En Banc]; Velasco v. Commission on Elections, 595 Phil. 1172 (2008) [Per J. Brion, En Banc]; Justimbaste v. Commission on Elections, 593 Phil. 383 (2008) [Per J. Carpio Morales, En Banc]; Lluz v. Commission on Elections, 551 Phil. 428 (2007) [Per J. Carpio, En Banc]; and Salcedo II v. Commission on Elections, 371 Phil. 377, 389 (1999) [Per J. Gonzaga-Reyes, En Banc].

197 See Gonzalez v. Commission on Elections, 660 Phil. 225 (201 l) [Per J. Villarama, En Banc]; Justimbaste v. Commission on Elections, 593 Phil. 383 (2008) [Per J. Carpio Morales, En Banc]; Tecson v. Commission on Elections, 468 Phil. 421 (2004) [Per J. Vitug, En Banc]

198 See Jalover v. Osmeiia, G.R. No. 209286, September 23, 2014, 736 SCRA 267 [Per J. Brion, En Banc]; Hayudini v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 207900, April 22, 2014, 723 SCRA 223 [Per J. Peralta, En Banc]; Mitra v. Commission on Elections, 636 Phil. 753 (2010) [Per J. Brion, En Banc]; Velasco v. Commission on Elections, 595 Phil. 1172 (2008) [Per J. Brion, En Banc]; and Ugdoracion, Jr. v. Commission on Elections, 575 Phil. 253 (2008) [Per J. Nachura, En Banc].

199 Romua/dez-Marcos v. Commission on Elections, 318 Phil. 329, 380 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

200 Salcedo 11 v. Commission on Elections, 371 Phil. 377, 390 (1999) [Per J. Gonzaga-Reyes, En Banc].

201 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3871, Petitioner's Memorandum ..

202 327 Phil. 521 (1996) [Per J. Panganiban, En Banc].

203 J. Puno, Concurring Opinion in Frivaldo v. Commission on Elections, 327 Phil. 521, 578 (1996) [Per J. Panganiban, En Banc].

204 Guzman v. Commission on Elections, 614 Phil. 143, 153 (2009) [Per J. Bersamin, En Banc].

205 Romualdez-Marcos v. Commission on Elections, 318 Phil. 329, 380 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

206 Id. at. 366.

207 Id. at 367.

208 CONST., art. VI, sec. 6 provides:

ARTICLE VI. The Legislative Department

. . . .

SECTION 6. No person shall be a Member of the House of Representatives unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and, on the day of the election, is at least twenty-five years of age, able to read and write, and, except the party-list representatives, a registered voter in the district in which he shall be elected, and a resident thereof for a period of not less than one year immediately preceding the day of the election.

209 Romualdez-Marcos v. Commission on Elections, 318 Phil. 329, 380 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

210 371Phil.377 (1999) [Per J. Gonzaga-Reyes, En Banc].

211 Id. at 381.

212 Id. at390-391.

213 Id. at391.

214 See Talaga v. Commission on Elections, 696 Phil. 786 (2012) [Per J. Bersamin, En Banc]; Gonzalez v. Commission on Elections, 660 Phil. 225 (2011) [Per J. Villarama, Jr., En Banc]; Mitra v. Commission on Elections, 636 Phil. 753 (2010) [Per J. Brion, En Banc]; Maruhom v. Commission on Elections, 611 Phil. 501 (2009) [Per J. Chico-Nazario, En Banc]; Velasco v. Commission on Elections, 595 Phil. 1172 (2008) [Per J. Brion, En Banc]; Justimbaste v. Commission on Elections, 593 Phil. 383 (2008) [Per J. Carpio Morales, En Banc]; and Tecson v. Commission on Elections, 468 Phil. 421 (2004) [Per J. Vitug, En Banc].

215 706 Phil. 534 (2013) [Per J. Perlas-Bernabe, En Banc].

216 Id. at 551.

217 Id. at 542-543

218 Id. at 543

219 Id.

220 Id. at 544.

221 Id. at 545.

222 Id. at 546

223 Id. at 546.

224 Id. at 547.

225 Id. at 561.

226 Id. at 543.

227 Id.

228 Id. at 550-55 l.

229 Id. at 551.

230 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3860, Petitioner's Memorandum.

231 G.R. No. 206698, February 25, 2014, 717 SCRA 312, 322-323 [Per J. Peralta, En Banc].

232 G.R. No. 207900, April 22, 2014, 723 SCRA 223, 246 [Per J. Peralta, En Banc].

233 G.R. No. 209286, September 23, 2014, 736 SCRA 267, 282 [Per J. Brion, En Banc].

234 G.R. No. 207105, November 10, 2015

<http://sc.judiciary.gov.ph/pdf/web/viewer.html?file=/jurisprudence/20l5/november2015/207105.pdf>8-9 [Per J. Bersamin, En Banc].

235 Batas Pambansa Blg. 881 (l 985), Omnibus Election Code, sec. 78.

236 Salcedo II v. Commission on Elections, 371 Phil. 377, 389 (1999) [Per J. Gonzaga-Reyes, En Banc].

237 Id.

238 Id. See also Lluz v. Commission on Elections, 55 l Phil. 428, 445-446 (2007) [Per J. Carpio, En Banc].

239 Salcedo II v. Commission on Elections, 371 Phil. 377, 389 (1999) [Per J. Gonzaga-Reyes, En Banc].

240 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 3862, Petitioner's Memorandum.

241 See Romualdez-Marcos v. Commission on Elections, 318 Phil. 329 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

242 J. Mendoza, Separate Opinion in Romualdez-Marcos v. Commission on Elections, 318 Phil. 329, 463 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

243 The grounds under Section 40 of the Local Government Code may likewise be raised against a candidate for a local elective position.

244 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 4619, COMELEC Memorandum.

245 Id.

246 Id. at 5092-5093, Respondent's Memorandum.

247 See RULES OF COURT, Rule 131. See also Matugas v. Commission on Elections, 465 Phil. 299, 307 (2004) [Per J. Tinga, En Banc], citing Cortes v. Court of Appeals, 443 Phil. 42 (2003) [Per J. Austria-Martinez, Second Division] in that "one who alleges a fact has the burden of proving it."

248 See J. Tinga, Dissenting Opinion in Tecson v. Commission on Elections, 468 Phil. 421, 612 (2004) [Per J. Vitug, En Banc], citing Bautista v. Judge Sarmiento, 223 Phil. 181, 185-186 (1985) [Per J. Cuevas, Second Division].

249 See Advincula v. Atty. Macabata, 546 Phil. 431, 446 (2007) [Per J. Chico-Nazario, Third Division], citing Uytengsu III v. Baduel, 514 Phil. 1(2005) [Per J. Tinga, Second Division] in that "the burden of proof lies on the party who makes the allegations - ei incumbit probation, qui decit, non qui negat; cum per rerum naturam.factum negantis probation nulla sit."

250 See Jison v. Court of Appeals, 350 Phil. 138 ( 1998) [Per J. Davide, Jr., First Division].

251 See,.for example, Salcedo II v. Commission on Elections, 371 Phil. 377 (1999) [Per J. Gonzaga-Reyes, En Banc].

252 RULES OF Cornn, Rule 133, sec. 5.

253 See Jison v. Court of Appeals, 350 Phil. 138 ( 1998) [Per J. Davide, Jr., First Division].

254 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 4627, COMELEC Memorandum.

255 128 Phil. 815 (1967) [Per J. Zaldivar, En Banc].

256 J. Carpio, Dissenting Opinion in Tecson v. Commission on Elections, 468 Phil. 421, 634 (2004) [Per J. Vitug, En Banc].

257 Tecson v. Commission on Elections, 468 Phil. 421, 473-474 (2004) [Per J. Vitug, En Banc].

258 Id. at 473-474 and 488.

259 Id. at 487-488.

260 Paa v. Chan, 128 Phil. 815, 817 (1967) [Perl. Zaldivar, En Banc].

261 Id. at 823.

262 614 Phil. 451, 479 (2009) [Per J. Quisumbing, Second Division].

263 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 4627, COMELEC Memorandum.

264 Go v. Ramos, 614 Phil. 451, 458 (2009) [Per J. Quisumbing, Second Division].

265 Id. at 475.

266 468 Phil. 421 (2004) [Per J. Vitug, En Banc]. C.J. Davide, Jr. with separate opinion, concurring; J. Puno was on leave but was allowed to vote, with separate opinion; J. Panganiban was on official leave; was allowed to vote but did not send his vote on the matter; J. Quisumbing joins the dissent of Justices Tinga and Morales; case should have been remanded; J. Ynares-Santiago concurs, and also with J. Puno separate opinion; J. Sandoval-Gutierrez concurs; with separate opinion; J. Carpio, with dissenting opinion; J. Austria-Martinez, concurs; with separate opinion; J. Corona, joins the dissenting opinion of Justice Morales; J. Carpio Morales, with dissenting opinion; J. Callejo, Sr, with concurring opinion; J. Azcuna, concurs in a separate opinion; J. Tinga, dissents per separate opinion.

267 Id. at 456.

268 Id. at 488.

[269 Id.

270 See J. Leonen, Dissenting Opinion in Chavez v. Judicial and Bar Council, G.R. No. 202242, April 16, 2013, 696 SCRA 496, 530 [Per J. Mendoza, En Banc].

271 See Atty. Macalintal v. Presidential Electoral Tribunal, 650 Phil. 326, 340 (2010) [Per J. Nachura, En Banc], citing J.M. Tuason & Co, Inc. v. Land Tenure Administration, 142 Phil. 393 (1970) [Per J. Fernando, Second Division].

272 Ang Bagong Bayani-OFW Labor Party v. Commission on Elections, 412 Phil. 308, 338 (2001) [Per J. Panganiban, En Banc].

273 Francisco v. House of Representatives, 460 Phil. 830, 885 (2003) [Per J. Carpio Morales, En Banc], citing J.M Tuason & Co .. Inc. v. Land Tenure Administration, 142 Phil. 393 (1970). This was also cited in Saguisag v. Ochoa, G.R. No. 212426, January 12, 2016

<http://sc.judiciary.gov.ph/pdf/web/viewer.html?file=/jurisprudence/20l6/january2016/212426.pdf>[Per C.J. Sereno, En Banc].

274 Francisco v. House of Representatives, 460 Phil. 830, 886 (2003) [Per J. Carpio Morales, En Banc].

275 272 Phil. 147 (1991) [Per C.J. Fernan, En Banc].

276 Id. at 162, as cited in Atty. Macalintal v. Presidential Electoral Tribunal, 650 Phil. 326, 341 (2010) [Per J. Nachura, En Banc].

277 486 Phil. 754 (2004) (Resolution) [Per J. Panganiban, En Banc].

278 Id. at 773.

279 G.R. No. 208062, April 7, 2015

<http://sc.judiciary.gov .ph/pdf/web/viewer.html?file=/jurisprudence/20l5/april2015/208062 .pdf> [Per J. Leonen, En Banc].

280 Id. at 26.

281 The adoption of the Philippine Bill of 1902, otherwise known as the Philippine Organic Act of 1902, crystallized the concept of "Philippine citizens." See Tecson v. Commission on Elections, 468 Phil. 421, 467-468 (2004) [Per J. Vitug, En Banc].

282 For example, the Civil Code of Spain became effective in the jurisdiction on December 18, 1889, making the first categorical listing on who were Spanish citizens. See Tecson v. Commission on Elections, 468 Phil. 421, 465 (2004) [Per J. Vitug, En Banc].

283 Sobejana-Condon v. Commission on Elections, 692 Phil. 407 (2012) [Per J. Reyes, En Banc]:

"Ambiguity is a condition of admitting two or more meanings, of being understood in more than one way, or of referring to two or more things at the same time. For a statute to be considered ambiguous, it must admit of two or more possible meanings."

284 See, for example, In the Matter of' Save the Supreme Court Judicial Independence and Fiscal Autonomy Movement v. Abolition of' Judiciary Development Fund, UDK-15143, January 21, 2015 <http://sc.judiciary.gov.ph/pdf/web/viewcr.html?file=/jurisprudence/20I5/january2015/ 15143 .pdf>[Per J. Leonen, En Banc], citing J. Leonen, Concurring Opinion in Belgica v. Ochoa, G.R. No. 208566, November 19, 2013, 710 SCRA I, 278-279 [Per J. Perlas-Bernabe, En Banc].

285 Francisco, Jr. v. House of Representatives, 460 Phil. 830, 887 [Per J. Carpio Morales, En Banc], citing Civil Liberties Union v. Executive Secretary, 272 Phil. 147, 169-170 (1991) [Per C.J. Fernan, En Banc].

286 CONST., art. IV, sec. 1(2) provides:

ARTICLE IV. Citizenship

SECTION 1. The following are citizens of the Philippines:

. . . .

(2) Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines[.]

287 CONST., art. II, sec. 1 provides:

ARTICLE II. Declaration of Principles and State Policies

Principles

SECTION 1. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. Sovereignty resides in the people and ALL government authority emanates from them. (Emphasis supplied).

[As the source of all governmental power, it must be presumed that certain powers are to be exercised by the people when it conflicts with any competence of a constitutional organ like the judiciary or the COMELEC.)

288 Rep. Act No. 9225 was approved on August 29, 2003.

289 CONST. art. IV, sec. 3.

290 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 4578, COMELEC Memorandum.

291 Rep. Act No. 9225 (2003), sec. 3.

292 692 Phil. 407 (2012) [Per J. Reyes, En Banc].

293 See Sobejana-Condon v. Commission on Elections, 692 Phil. 407 (2012) [Per J. Reyes, En Banc].

294 The 1935 Constitution was in effect when petitioner was born. However, the provisions are now substantially similar to the present Constitution, except that the present Constitution provides clarity for "natural born" status. For comparison, the 1935 provisions state:

SECTION 1. The following arc citizens of the Philippines.

(1) Those who are citizens of the Philippine Islands at the time of the adoption of this Constitution.

(2) Those born in the Philippine Islands of foreign parents who, before the adoption of this Constitution, had been elected to public office in the Philippine Islands.

(3) Those whose fathers are citizens of the Philippines.

(4) Those whose mothers are citizens of the Philippines and, upon reaching the age of majority, elect Philippine citizenship.

(5) Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.

SECTION 2. Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law.

295 C.J. Warren, Dissenting Opinion in Perez v. Brownwell, 356 U.S. 44 (1958).

296 Gov. Republic of' the Philippines, G.R. 202809, July 2, 2014, 729 SCRA 138, 149 [Per J. Mendoza, Third Division], citing BERNAS, THE 1987 CONSTITUTION OF Tf!E REPUBLIC OF TIIE PHILIPPINES, A COMMENTARY (2009 ed.).

297 Id.

298 Tecson v. Commission on Elections, 468 Phil. 421, 464-470 (2004) [Per J. Vitug, En Banc].

299 Id. at 464.

300 Id. at 465.

301 Id.

302 Id. at 465-466, citing The Civil Code of Spain, art. 17.

303 Id. at 466-467' citing RAMON M. VELA YO, PHILIPPINE CITIZENSHIP AND NATURALIZATION, 22-23 (1965).

304 Id. at 467.

305 Id. at 466, citing RAMON M. VELA YO, PHILIPPINE CITIZENSHIP AND NATURALIZATION 22-23 (1965).

306 The Philippine Bill of 1902 is otherwise known as the Philippine Organic Act of 1902.

307 Tecson v. Commission on Elections, 468 Phil. 421, 467--468 (2004) [Per J. Vitug, En Banc].

308 Id. at 468.

309 Tecson v. Commission on Elections, 468 Phil. 421 (2004) [Per J. Vitug, En Banc].

310 Tecson v. Commission on Elections, 468 Phil. 421, 469 (2004) [Per J. Vitug, En Banc].

311 Id.

312 CONST. (1935), art. Ill, sec. 1.

313 Tecson v. Commission on Elections, 468 Phil. 421, 469 (2004) [Per J. Vitug, En Banc].

314 CONST. (1973), art. Ill, secs. 1 and 2.

315 See, for example, Philippine Bill of 1902, sec. l, which provides that the highest positions were to be filled through appointment by the United States President:

Section l. That the action of the President of the United States in creating the Philippine Commission and authorizing said Commission to exercise the powers of government to the extent and in the manner and form and subject to the regulation and control set forth in the instructions of the President to the Philippine Commission, dated April seventh, nineteen hundred, and in creating the offices of Civil Governor and Vice-Governor of the Philippine Islands, and authorizing said Civil Governor and Vice-Governor to exercise the powers of government to the extent and in the manner and form set forth in the Executive Order dated June twenty-first, nineteen hundred and one, and in establishing four Executive Departments of government in said Islands as set forth in the Act of the Philippine Commission, entitled "An Act providing an organization for the Departments of the Interior, of Commerce and Police, of Finance and Justice, and of Public Instruction," enacted September sixth, nineteen hundred and one, is hereby approved, ratified, and confirmed, and until otherwise provided by law the said Islands shall continue to be governed as thereby and herein provided, and all laws passed hereafter by the Philippine Commission shall have an enacting clause as follows. "By authority of the United States, be it enacted by the Philippine Commission." The provisions of section eighteen hundred and ninety-one of the Revised Statutes of eighteen hundred and seventy-eight shall not apply to the Philippine Islands.

Future appointments of Civil Governor, Vice-Governor, members of said Commission and heads of Executive Departments shall be made by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

316 CONST. ( 1973 ), art. III, sec. 4.

317 See Charles Gordon, Who Can Be President of" the United States: The Unresolved Enigma, 28 Md. L. Rev. 1, 5 (1968).

318 Id. at 3-4.

319 Id. at 5.

320 409 Phil. 633 (2001) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc).

321 Id. at 651.

322 Id. at 656.

323 See Rep. Act No. 9139 (2000), sec. 5 provides:

SECTION 5. Petition for Citizenship. - (1) Any person desiring to acquire Philippine citizenship

under this Act shall file with the Special Committee on Naturalization created under Section 6 hereof: a petition of five (5) copies legibly typed and signed, thumbmarked and verified by him/her, with the latter's passport-sized photograph attached to each copy of the petition, and setting forth the following:

. . . .

Com. Act No. 473, sec.7 provides:

SECTION 7. Petition for Citizenship. - Any person desiring to acquire Philippine citizenship shall file with the competent court, a petition in triplicate, accompanied by two photographs of the petitioner, setting forth his name and surname; his present and former places of residence; his

occupation; the place and date of his birth; whether single or married and if the father of children, the name, age, birthplace and residence of the wife and of the children; the approximate date of his or her arrival in the Philippines, the name of the port of debarkation, and, if he remembers it, the name of the ship on which he came; a declaration that he has the qualifications required by this Act, specifying the same, and that he is not disqualified for naturalization under the provisions of this Act; that he has complied with the requirements of section five of this Act; and that he will reside continuously in the Philippines from the date of the filing of the petition up to the time of his admission to Philippine citizenship. The petition must be signed by the applicant in his own handwriting and be supported by the affidavit of at least two credible persons, stating that they arc citizens of the Philippines and personally know the petitioner to be a resident of the Philippines for the period of time required by this Act and a person of good repute and morally irreproachable, and that said petitioner has in their opinion all the qualifications necessary to become a citizen of the Philippines and is not in any way disqualified under the provisions of this Act. The petition shall also set forth the names and post-office addresses of such witnesses as the petitioner may desire to introduce at the hearing of the case. The certificate of arrival, and the declaration of intention must be made part of the petition.

324 See Rep. Act No. 9139 (2000), sec. 3 provides:

SECTION 3. Qualifications. - Subject to the provisions of the succeeding section, any person desiring to avail of the benefits of this Act must meet the following qualifications:

(a) The applicant must be born in the Philippines and residing therein since birth;

(b) The applicant must not be less than eighteen (18) years of age, at the time of filing of his/her petition;

(c) The applicant must be of good moral character and believes in the underlying principles of the Constitution, and must have conducted himself/herself in a proper and irreproachable manner during his/her entire period of residence in the Philippines in his relation with the duly constituted government as well as with the community in which he/she is living;

(d) The applicant must have received his/her primary and secondary education in any public school or private educational institution duly recognized by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports, where Philippine history, government and civics arc taught and prescribed as part of the school curriculum and where enrollment is not limited to any race or nationality: Provided, That should he/she have minor children of school age, he/she must have enrolled them in similar schools;

(e) The applicant must have a known trade, business, profession or lawful occupation, from which he/she derives income sufficient for his/her support and if he/she is married and/or has dependents, also that of his/her family: Provided, however, That this shall not apply to applicants who are college degree holders but arc unable to practice their profession because they arc disqualified to do so by reason of their citizenship;

(f) The applicant must be able to read, write and speak Filipino or any of the dialects of the Philippines; and

(g) The applicant must have mingled with the Filipinos and evinced a sincere desire to learn and embrace the customs, traditions and ideals of the Filipino people. Comm. Act No. 473, sec.2 provides:

SECTION 2. Qualifications. - Subject to section four of this Act, any person having the following qualifications may become a citizen of the Philippines by naturalization:

First. He must be not less than twenty-one years of age on the day of the hearing of the petition;

Second. He must have resided in the Philippines for a continuous period of not less than ten years;

Third. He must be of good moral character and believes in the principles underlying the Philippine Constitution, and must have conducted himself in a proper and irreproachable manner during the entire period of his residence in the Philippines in his relation with the constituted government as well as with the community in which he is living.

Fourth. He must own real estate in the Philippines worth not less than five thousand pesos, Philippine currency, or must have some known lucrative trade, profession, or lawful occupation;

Fifth. He must be able to speak and write English or Spanish and any of the principal Philippine languages;

Sixth. He must have enrolled his minor children of school age, in any of the public schools or private schools recognized by the Office of Private Education of the Philippines, where Philippine history, government and civics are taught or prescribed as part of the school curriculum, during the entire period of the residence in the Philippines required of him prior to the hearing of his petition for naturalization as Philippine citizen.

325 Rep. Act No. 9139 (2000), sec. 4 provides:

SECTION 4. Disqualifications. - The following are not qualified to be naturalized as Filipino citizens under this Act:

(a) Those opposed to organized government or affiliated with any association or group of persons who uphold and teach doctrines opposing all organized governments;

(b) Those defending or teaching the necessity of or propriety of violence, personal assault or assassination for the success or predominance of their ideas;

(c) Polygamists or believers in the practice of polygamy;

(d) Those convicted of crimes involving moral turpitude;

(c) Those suffering from mental alienation or incurable contagious diseases;

(t) Those who, during the period of their residence in the Philippines, have not mingled socially with Filipinos, or who have not evinced a sincere desire to learn and embrace the customs, traditions and ideals of the Filipinos;

(g) Citizens or subjects with whom the Philippines is at war, during the period of such war; and

(h) Citizens or subjects of a foreign country whose laws do not grant Filipinos the right to be naturalized citizens or subjects thereof.

Com. Act No. 4 73 (1939), sec. 4 provides:

SECTION 4. Who are Disqualified. - The following can not be naturalized as Philippine citizens:

(a) Persons opposed to organized government or affiliated with any association or group of persons who uphold and teach doctrines opposing all organized governments;

(b) Persons defending or teaching the necessity or propriety of violence, personal assault, or assassination for the success and predominance of their ideas;

(c) Polygamists or believers in the practice of polygamy;

(d) Persons convicted of crimes involving moral turpitude;

(e) Persons suffering from mental alienation or incurable contagious diseases;

(f) Persons who, during the period of their residence in the Philippines, have not mingled socially with the Filipinos, or who have not evinced a sincere desire to learn and embrace the customs, traditions, and ideals of the Filipinos; ·

(g) Citizens or subjects of nations with whom the United States and the Philippines are at war, during the period of such war;

(h) Citizens or subjects of a foreign country other than the United States, whose laws do not grant Filipinos the right to become naturalized citizens or subjects thereof.

326 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 4627, COMELEC Memorandum.

327 Id. at 4636.

328 Bengson v. House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal, 409 Phil. 633 (200 l) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

329 Rep. Act No. 9225 (2003), sec. 2.

330 Civil Liberties Union v. Executive Secretary, 272 Phil. 147, 162 ( l 99 l) [Per C.J. Fernan, En Banc].

331 CONST., art. VII, sec. 2 provides:

ARTICLE VII. Executive Department

. . . .

SECTION 2. No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election.

332 CONST., art. VII, sec. 3.

333 CONST., art. VI, sec. 3 provides:

ARTICLE VI. The Legislative Department

. . . .

SECTION 3. No person shall be a Senator unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, and, on the day of the election, is at least thirty-five years of age, able to read and write, a registered voter, and a resident of the Philippines for not less than two years immediately preceding the day of the election.

334 CONST., art. VI, sec. 6 provides:

ARTICLE VI. The Legislative Department

SECTION 6. No person shall be a Member of the House of Representatives unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines and, on the day of the election, is at least twenty-five years of age, able to read and write, and, except the party-list representatives, a registered voter in the district in which he shall be elected, and a resident thereof for a period of not less than one year immediately preceding the day of the election.

335 CONST., art. VIII, sec. 7(1) provides:

ARTICLE VIII. Judicial Department

. . . .

SECTION 7. (l) No person shall be appointed Member of the Supreme Court or any lower collegiate court unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines. A Member of the Supreme Court must be at least forty years of age, and must have been for fifteen years or more a judge of a lower court or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines.

336 CONST., art. IX-B, sec. l (l) provides:

ARTICLE IX. Constitutional Commissions

. . . .

B. The Civil Service Commission

SECTION l. (l) The Civil Service shall be administered by the Civil Service Commission composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, with proven capacity for public administration, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the elections immediately preceding their appointment.

337 CONST., art. IX-C, sec. l (l) provides:

ARTICLE IX. Constitutional Commissions

. . . .

C. The Commission on Elections

SECTION l. (1) There shall be a Commission on Elections composed of a Chairman and six Commissioners who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, holders of a college degree, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the immediately preceding elections. However, a majority thereof: including the Chairman, shall be Members of the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years.

338 CONST., art. IX-D, sec. 1(1) provides:

ARTICLE IX. Constitutional Commissions

. . . .

D. Commission on Audit

SECTION 1. (1) There shall be a Commission on Audit composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners, who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, certified public accountants with not less than ten years of auditing experience, or members of the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the elections immediately preceding their appointment. At no time shall all Members of the Commission belong to the same profession.

339 . CONST., art. XI, sec.8 provides:

ARTICLE XI. Accountability of Public Officers

. . . .

SECTION 8. The Ombudsman and his Deputies shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines, and at the time of their appointment, at least forty years old, of recognized probity and independence, and members of the Philippine Bar, and must not have been candidates for any elective office in the immediately preceding election. The Ombudsman must have for ten years or more been a judge or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines.

340 CONST., art. XII, sec. 20 provides:

ARTICLE XII. National Economy and Patrimony

. . . .

SECTION 20. The Congress shall establish an independent central monetary authority, the members of whose governing board must be natural-born Filipino citizens, of known probity, integrity, and patriotism, the majority of whom shall come from the private sector. They shall also be subject to such other qualifications and disabilities as may be prescribed by law. The authority shall provide policy direction in the areas of money, banking, and credit. It shall have supervision over the operations of banks and exercise such regulatory powers as may be provided by law over the operations of finance companies and other institutions performing similar functions.

341 CONST., art. XIII, sec. 17(2) provides:

ARTICLE XIII. Social Justice and Human Rights

. . . .

Human Rights

SECTION 17. . . .

(2) The Commission shall be composed of a Chairman and four Members who must be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and a majority of whom shall be members of the Bar. The term of office and other qualifications and disabilities of the Members of the Commission shall be provided by law.

342 Rep. Act No. 3537 (1963), sec. l. Section thirty-eight of Republic Act Numbered Four hundred nine, as amended by Republic Act Numbered Eighteen hundred sixty and Republic Act Numbered Three thousand ten, is further amended to read as follows:

Sec. 38. The City Fiscal and Assistant City Fiscals. - There shall be in the Office of the City Fiscal one chief to be known as the City Fiscal with the rank, salary and privileges of a Judge of the Court of First Instance, an assistant chief to be known as the first assistant city fiscal, three second assistant city fiscals who shall be the chiefs of divisions, and fifty-seven assistant fiscals, who shall discharge their duties under the general supervision of the Secretary of Justice. To be eligible for appointment as City Fiscal one must be a natural born citizen of the Philippines and must have practiced law in the Philippines for a period of not less than ten years or held during a like period of an office in the Philippine Government requiring admission to the practice of law as an indispensable requisite. To be eligible for appointment as assistant fiscal one must be a natural born citizen of the Philippines and must have practiced law for at least five years prior to his appointment or held during a like period an office in the Philippine Government requiring admission to the practice of law as an indispensable requisite. (Emphasis supplied)

343 Rep. Act No. 353 7 (1963).

344 Examples of these are: the Land Transportation Office Commissioner, the Mines and Geosciences Bureau Director, the Executive Director of Bicol River Basin, the Board Member of the Energy Regulatory Commission, and the National Youth Commissioner, among others.

345 Examples of these are pharmacists and officers of the Philippine Coast Guard, among others.

346 Among these incentives are state scholarships in science and certain investment rights.

347 Sameer v. Cabiles, G.R. No. 170139, August 5, 2014 <http://sc.judiciary.gov.ph/pdf/web/viewer.html?file=/jurisprudence/2014/august2014/ 170139 .pdf> 18 [Per J. Leonen, En Banc].

348 People v. Cayat, 68 Phil. 12, 18 (1939) [Per J. Moran, First Division].

349 Section 4(b).

350 Ratified on August 21, 2000.

351 See United Nations Treaty Collection, Convention on the Rights of' the Child <https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no= I V-11 &chapte1=4& lang=en> (visited March 7, 2016).

352 Ratified on October 23, 1986.

353 See Bayan v. Zamora, 396 Phil. 623, 657-660 (2000) [Per J. Buena, En Banc], citing the Vienna Convention on the Laws of Treaties.

354 561 Phil. 386 (2007) [Per J. Austria-Martinez, En Banc].

355 Id. at 397-398.

356 Rep. Act No. 8552 (1998), sec. 2(b) provides:

Section 2 (b). In all matters relating to the care, custody and adoption of a child, his/her interest shall be the paramount consideration in accordance with the tenets set forth in the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of the Child; UN Declaration on Social and Legal Principles Relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption, Nationally and Internationally; and the Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption. Toward this end, the State shall provide alternative protection and assistance through foster care or adoption for every child who is neglected, orphaned, or abandoned.

357 See also Rep. Act No. 9523 (2009), An Act Requiring the Certification of the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) to Declare a "Child Legally Available for Adoption" as a Prerequisite for Adoption Proceedings, Amending for this Purpose Certain Provision of Rep. Act No. 8552, otherwise known as the Inter-country Adoption Act of 1995, Pres. Dec. No. 603, otherwise known as the Child and Youth Welfare Code, and for Other Purposes.

SECTION 2. Definition of Terms. - As used in this Act, the following terms shall mean:

(1) Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) is the agency charged to implement the provisions of this Act and shall have the sole authority to issue the certification declaring a child legally available for adoption.

(3) Abandoned Child refers to a child who has no proper parental care or guardianship, or whose parent(s) have deserted him/her for a period of at least three (3) continuous months, which includes a foundling.

358 DFA Order No. 11-97, Implementing Rules and Regulations for Rep. Act No. 9239 (1997), Philippine Passport Act.

359 Pres. Decree No. 1986, sec. 2 provides:

Section 2. Composition; qualifications; benefits. - The BOARD shall be composed of a Chairman, a Vice-Chairman and thirty (30) members, who shall all be appointed by the President of the Philippines. The Chairman, the Vice-Chairman, and the members of the BOARD, shall hold office for a term of one (1) year, unless sooner removed by the President for any cause; Provided, That they shall be eligible for re-appointment after the expiration of their term. If the Chairman, or the Vice-Chairman or any member of the BOARD fails to complete his term, any person appointed to fill the vacancy shall serve only for the unexpired portion of the term of the BOARD member whom he succeeds.

No person shall be appointed to the BOARD, unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, not less than twenty-one (21) years of age, and of good moral character and standing in the community; Provided, That in the selection of the members of the BOARD due consideration shall be given to such qualifications as would produce a multi-sectoral combination of expertise in the various areas of motion picture and television; Provided, further, That at least five (5) members of the BOARD shall be members of the Philippine Bar. Provided, finally That at least fifteen (15) members of the BOARD may come from the movie and television industry to be nominated by legitimate associations representing the various sectors of said industry.

The Chairman, the Vice-Chairman and the other members of the BOARD shall be entitled to transportation, representation and other allowances which shall in no case exceed FIVE THOUSAND PESOS (P5,000.00) per month.

360 571 Phil. 170 (2008) [Per J. Chico-Nazario, Third Division].

361 Id. at 189-190.

362 374 Phil. 810 (1999) [Per J. Quisumbing, Second Division].

363 Id. at 822.

364 See Lua v. O'Brien, et al., 55 Phil. 53 (1930) [Per J. Street, En Banc]; Vda. De Laig, et al. v. Court of Appeals, 172 Phil. 283 (1978) [Per J. Makasiar, First Division]; Baloloy v. Huller, G.R. No. 157767, September 9, 2004, 438 SCRA 80 [Per J. Callejo, Sr., Second Division]; and Heirs of Celestial v. Heirs of Celestial, G.R. No. 142691, August 5, 2003, 408 SCRA 291 [Per J. Ynares-Santiago, First Division].

365 Ang Tibay v. Court of Industrial Relations, 69 Phil. 635 (1940) [Per J. Laurel, En Banc].

366 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 5, Petition.

367 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 4874, Petitioner's Memorandum.

368 Id.

369 Id.

370 Id.

371 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 4566, Annex C of the Solicitor General's Memorandum, Certification issued on February 9, 2016 by the Philippine Statistics Office, signed by Deputy National Statistician Estela T. De Guzman.

372 CONST., art. VII, sec. 2.

373 Fule v. Court of Appeals, 165 Phil. 785, 797 (1976) [Per J. Martin, First Division].

374 KENNAN ON RESIDENCE AND DOMICILE 26, 31-35, as cited in In re: Wilfred Uytengsu v. Republic of the Philippines, 95 Phil. 890 (1954) [Per J. Concepcion, En Banc].

375 Id.

376 Id.

377 555 Phil. 115 (2007) [Per J. Velasco, Jr, Second Division].

378 Id. at 123-124.

379 Id. at 601.

380 Gallego v. Vera, 73 Phil. 453, 455-456 (1941) [Per J. Ozaeta, En Banc]; Romualdez-Marcos v. Commission on Elections, 318 Phil. 329 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc]; and Co v. Electoral Tribunal of the House of Representatives, 276 Phil. 758 (1991) [Per J. Gutierrez, Jr., En Banc].

381 52 Phil. 645 (1928) [Per J. Villareal, En Banc].

382 Id at 651.

383 Gallego v. Vera, 73 Phil. 453 (1941) [Per J. Ozaeta, En Banc].

384 Co v. Electoral Tribunal of the House of Representatives, 276 Phil. 758 (1991) [Per J. Gutierrez, Jr., En Banc].

385 Id at 792.

386 Limbona v. Commission on Elections, 578 Phil. 364, 374 (2008) [Per J. Ynares-Santiago, En Banc].

387 73 Phil. 453 (1941) [Per J. Ozaeta, En Banc].

388 Id. at 455-456, citing Nuval vs. Guray, 52 Phil. 645 (1928) [PerJ. Villareal, En Banc] and 17 Am. Jur., section 16, pp. 599-601.

389 Limbona v. Commission on Elections, 578 Phil. 364, 374 (2008) [Per J. Ynares-Santiago, En Banc]. Gender bias corrected.

390 Ugroracion, Jr. v. Commission on Elections, 575 Phil. 253, 263 (2008) [Per. J. Nachura, En Banc].

391 Macalintal v. Commission on Elections, 453 Phil. 586, 634---635 (2003) [Per J. Austria-Martinez, En Banc].

392 Ugroracion v. Commission on Elections, 575 Phil. 253, 264 (2008) [Per J. Nachura, En Banc].

393 Sabili v. Commission on Elections, 686 Phil. 649, 701 (2012) [Per J. Sereno, En Banc].

394 In re Eusebio v. Eusebio, 100 Phil. 593, 598 (1956) [Per J. Concepcion, En Banc].

395 Id.

396 Id. at 598.

397 Id. See also Romualdez-Marcos v. COMELEC, 318 Phil. 329 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

398 100 Phil. 593 (1956) [Per J. Concepcion, En Banc).

399 Id. at 598-599, citing I BEALE, THE CONFLICTS OF LAW 129.

400 96 Phil. 294 (1956) [Per J. Padilla, Second Division).

401 Id. at 300.

402 J. Puno, Concurring and Dissenting Opinion in Macalintal v. Commission on Elections, 453 Phil. 586, 719 (2003) [Per J. Austria-Martinez, En Banc].

403 Romualdez- Marcos v. Commissio.11 on Elections, 318 Phil. 329 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

404 Macalintal v. Commission on Elections, 453 Phil. 586 (2003) [Per J. Austria-Martinez, En Banc].

405 Romualdez- Marcos v. Commission on Elections, 318 Phil. 329 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

406 U.S. CONST, art. 2, sec. 1: " ... No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty five years, and been fourteen Years a resident within the United States[.]"

407 U.S. CONST, art. 2, sec. 1: " ... No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty five years, and been fourteen Years a resident within the United States[.]"

408 3 JOSEPH STORY, COMMENTARIES ON THE CONSTITUTION 1472-1473 (1833).

409 Id.

410 Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916, Sections 13 - Election and Qualification of Senators.That the members of the Senate of the Philippines, except as herein provided, shall be elected for terms of six and three years, as hereinafter provided, by the qualified electors of the Philippines. Each of the senatorial districts defined as hereinafter provided shall have the right to elect two senators. No person shall be an elective member of the Senate of the Philippines who is not a qualified elector and over thirty years of age, and who is not able to read and write either the Spanish or English language, and who has not been a resident of the Philippines for at least two consecutive years and an actual resident of the senatorial district from which chosen for a period of at least one year immediately prior to his election; and 14 Election and Qualifications of Representatives. That the members of the House of Representatives shall, except as herein provided, be elected triennially by the qualified electors of the Philippines. Each of the representative districts hereinafter provided for shall have the right to elect one representative. No person shall be an elective member of the House of Representatives who is not a qualified elector and over twenty-five years of age, and who is not able to read and write either the Spanish or English language, and who has not been an actual resident of the district from which elected for at least one year immediately prior to his election: Provided, That the members of the present Assembly elected on the first Tuesday in June, nineteen hundred and sixteen, shall be the members of the House of Representatives from their respective districts for the term expiring in nineteen hundred and nineteen.

411 Philippine Autonomy Act of 1916, Section 21 (a).Title, appointment, residence.-That the supreme executive power shall be vested in an executive officer, whose official title shall be "The Governor-General of the Philippine Islands." He shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States, and hold his office at the pleasure of the President and until his successor is chosen and qualified. The Governor-General shall reside in the Philippine Islands during his official incumbency, and maintain his office at the seat of Government.

412 LOC. GOV. CODE, sec. 39 provides:

SECTION 39. Qualifications. - (a) An elective local official must be a citizen of the Philippines; a registered voter in the barangay, municipality, city, or province or, in the case of a member of the sangguniang panlalawigan, sangguniang panlungsod, or sangguniang bayan, the district where he intends to be elected; a resident therein for at least one (1) year immediately preceding the day of the election; and able to read and write Filipino or any other local language or dialect.

(b) Candidates for the position of governor, vice-governor, or member of the sangguniang panlalawigan, or mayor, vice-mayor or member of the sangguniang panlungsod of highly urbanized cities must be at least twenty-three (23) years of age on election day.

(c) Candidates for the position of mayor or vice-mayor of independent component cities, component cities, or municipalities must be at least twenty-one (21) years of age on election day.

(d) Candidates for the position of member of the sangguniang panlungsod or sangguniang bayan must be at least eighteen (18) years of age on election day.

(e) Candidates for the position of punong barangay or member of the sangguniang barangay must be at least eighteen (18) years of age on election day.

(f) Candidates for the sangguniang kabataan must be at least fifteen (15) years of age but not more than twenty-one (21) years of age on election day.

413 Gallego v. Vera, 73 Phil. 453, 459 (1941) [Per J. Ozaeta, En Banc].

414 Torayno, Sr. v. Commission on Elections, 392 Phil. 342, 345 (2000) [Per J. Panganiban, En Banc].

415 Gallego v. Vera, 73 Phil. 453, 459 (2000) [Per J. Ozaeta, En Banc].

416 Aquino v. Commission on Elections, 318 Phil. 467 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

417 Id. at 449.

418 596 Phil. 354 (2009) [Per J. Chico-Nazario, En Banc].

419 Japzon v. Commission on Elections, 596 Phil. 354, 369-370 (2009) [Per J. Chico-Nazario, En Banc].

420 Caballero v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 209835, September 22, 2015 <http://sc.judiciary.gov .ph/pdf/web/viewer .html?file=/jurisprudence/2015/septem ber2015/209835. pdf> [Per J. Peralta, En Banc].

421 Coquilla v. Commission on Elections, 434 Phil. 861 (2002) [Per J. Mendoza, En Banc].

422 Caballero v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 209835, September 22, 2015 <http://sc.judiciary.gov.ph/pdf/web/viewer.html?file=/jurisprudence/2015/september2015/209835 .pdf>[Per J. Peralta, En Banc].

423 Romualdez-Marcos v. Commission on Elections, 318 Phil. 329 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

424 578 Phil. 364 (2008) [Per J. Ynares-Santiago, En Banc].

425 Limbona v. COMELEC, 578 Phil. 364, 374 (2008) [Per J. Ynares- Santiago, En Banc].

426 Gallego v. Vera, 13 Phil. 453, 456 (1941) [Per J. Ozaeta, En Banc].

427 318 Phil. 329 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

428 Id.

429 Faypon v. Quirino, 96 Phil. 294, 298 (1956) [Per J. Padilla, Second Division].

430 Romualdez-Marcos v. COMELEC, 318 Phil. 329 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

431 Faypon v. Quirino, 96 Phil. 294, 298 (1956) [Per J. Padilla, Second Division].

432 Limbona v. COMELEC, 578 Phil. 364, 374 (2008) [Per J. Ynares- Santiago, En Banc]

433 276 Phil. 758 (1991) [Per J. Gutierrez, Jr., En Banc].

434 Id. at 794.

435 636 Phil. 753 (2010) [Per J. Brion, En Banc].

436 See Mitra v. COMELEC, 636 Phil. 753 (2010) [Per J. Brion, En Banc].

437 596 Phil. 354 (2009) [Per J. Chico-Nazario, En Banc].

438 318 Phil. 329 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

439 Id

440 Id.

441 See Perez v. COMELEC, 375 Phil. 1106 (1999) [Per J. Mendoza,En Banc].

442 See Pundaodaya v. COMELEC, 616 Phil. 167 (2009) [Per J. Ynares-Santiago, En Banc].

443 See Dumpit-Michelena v. COMELEC, 511 Phil. 720 (2005) [Per J. Carpio, En Banc].

444 See Dumpit-Michelena v. COMELEC, 511 Phil. 720 (2005) [Per J. Carpio, En Banc].

445 Sabili v. Commission on Elections, 686 Phil. 649 (2012) [Per J. Sereno, En Banc].

446 Id.

447 See Japzon v. COMELEC, 596 Phil. 354 (2009) [Per J. Chico- Nazario, En Banc].

448 Jalover v. Osmena, G.R. No. 209286, September 23, 2014, 736 SCRA 267, 284 [Per J. Brion, En Banc], citing Fernandez v. HRET, G.R. No. 187478, December 21, 2009, 608 SCRA 733.

449 Mitra v. Commission on Elections, 636 Phil. 753-815 (2010) [Per J. Brion, En Banc].

450 Id.

451 Id.

452 Id.

453 Id.

454 Id. at 772.

455 Id.

456 Id.

457 Id. at 789.

458 Sabili v. Commission on Elections, 686 Phil. 649 (2012) [Per J. Sereno, En Banc).

459 Id. at 685.

460 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697, Vol. V), p. 3667, COMELEC Comment.

461 434 Phil. 861 (2002) [Per J. Mendoza, En Banc].

462 See Japzon v. COMELEC, 596 Phil. 354 (2009) [Per J. Chico-Nazario, En Banc].

463 Caballero v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 209835, September 22, 2015 <http://sc.judiciary.gov.ph/pdf/web/viewer.html?file=/jurisprudence/2015/september2015/209835 .pdf>[Per J. Peralta, En Banc].

464 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697, Vol. I), pp. 236-237, Resolution of the COMELEC En Banc dated December 23, 2015.

465 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700, Vol. I), pp. 372-373, Resolution of the COMELEC En Banc dated December 23, 2015.

466 596 Phil. 354 (2009) [Per J. Chico-Nazario, En Banc].

467 Id. at 369-370.

468 Caballero v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 209835, September 22, 2015, http://sc.judiciary.gov. ph/pdf/web/viewer .html?file=/jurisprudence/20l5/september2015/209835.pdf[Per J. Peralta, En Banc].

469 Id.

470 See Department of Foreign Affairs, Visa Guidelines/Requirements <http://www.dfa.gov.ph/guidelinesrequirements>(visited March 7, 2016).

471 RONGXING Guo, CROSS-BORDER MANAGEMENT: THEORY, METHOD, AND APPLICATION 368 (2015).

472 Id.

473 See Department of Foreign Affairs, Visa Guidelines/Requirements <http://www.dfa.gov.ph/guidelinesrequirements>(visited March 7, 2016).

474 Section 500) references or distinguishes an "immigrant" from a "nonimmigrant." This may tempt one into concluding that an "immigrant" must be exclusively or wholly equated with a "permanent resident." However, the concept of a nonimmigrant, provided in Section 9, also encompasses returning permanent residents. Thus, a line cannot be drawn between "immigrants" and "nonimmigrants" that exclusively and wholly equates an "immigrant" with a "permanent resident." Section 9(e) of the Philippine Immigration Act of 1940 states:

SEC. 9. Aliens departing from any place outside the Philippines, who are otherwise admissible and who qualify within one of the following categories, may be admitted as nonimmigrants:

(e) A person previously lawfully admitted into the Philippines for permanent residence, who is returning from a temporary visit abroad to an unrelinquished residence in the Philippines; and

475 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697, Vol. VI), pp. 4064-4065, Petitioner's Memorandum, citing Bl Form V-I-011-Rev, Conversion to Non-Quota Immigrant Visa of a Former Filipino Citizen Naturalize in a Foreign Country (taken from www.immigration.gov.ph).

476 Rep. Act No. 6768 (1989), sec. 2 provides:

SEC. 2. Definition of Terms. - For purposes of this Act:

(a) The term "balikbayan" shall mean a Filipino citizen who has been continuously out of the Philippines for a period of at least one (1) year, a Filipino overseas worker, or former Filipino citizen and his or her family, as this term is defined hereunder, who had been naturalized in a foreign country and comes or returns to the Philippines;

477 Rep. Act No. 6768 (1989), sec. 2(a), as amended.

478 G.R. No. 207264, October 22, 2013, 708 SCRA 197 [Per J. Perez, En Banc].

479 Coquilla v. COMELEC, 434 Phil. 861, 875 (2002) [Per J. Mendoza, En Banc].

480 Id.

481 Japzon v. COMELEC, 596 Phil. 354, 369-370 (2009) [Per J. Chico-Nazario, En Banc].

482 Reyes v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 207264, June 25, 2013, 699 SCRA 522 [Per J. Perez, En Banc].

483 Id. at 543.

484 Caballero v. Commission on Elections, G.R. No. 209835, September 22, 2015 <http://sc.judiciary.gov.ph/pdf/web/viewer.html?file=/jurisprudence/20l5/september2015/209835 .pdf>[Per J. Peralta, En Banc].

485 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), pp.151-157, Petition.

486 CONST., art. VII, sec. 4, par. 3 states: "Unless otherwise provided by law, the regular election for President and Vice President shall be held on the second Monday of May."

487 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697, Vol. VI), p. 4016, Petitioner's Memorandum.

488 Id. at 4017.

489 Id.

490 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-221700), p. 254, COMELEC First Division Resolution (SPA Nos. 15-002(DC), 15-007 (DC), and 15-139 (DC)).

491 Article 110. The husband shall fix the residence of the family. But the court may exempt the wife from living with the husband if he should live abroad unless in the service of the Republic.

492 Art. 152. The family home, constituted jointly by the husband and the wife or by an unmarried head of a family, is the dwelling house where they and their family reside, and the land on which it is situated.

493 CONST., art. II, sec. 14.

494 TSN, February 9, 2016 Oral Arguments, pp. 101-102.

495 Id.

496 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 4026, Petitioner's Memorandum.

497 Id. at 21.

498 Rollo (G.R. No. 221698-700), p. 254.

499 Id. at 4027.

500 Id. at 4028.

501 G.R. No. 209286, September 23, 2014, 736 SCRA 267 [Per J. Brion, En Banc].

502 Id. at 284.

503 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 241, COMELEC Resolution dated December 23, 2015.

504 See Elena Leones vda. de Miller v. Atty. Rolando Miranda, A.C. 8507, November 10, 2015<http://sc.judiciary.gov.ph/pdf/web/viewer.html?file=/jurisprudence/20l5/november2015/8507 .pdf>[Per J. Perlas-Bernabe, First Division].

505 318 Phil. 329 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

506 Id. at 380.

507 Id.

508 375 Phil. 1106 (1999) [Per J. Mendoza, En Banc].

509 Id.

510 Id. at 1117-1119.

511 Rufina Patis Factory v. Alusitain, 478 Phil. 544, 558 (2004) [Per J. Carpio Morales, Third Division].

512 RULES OF COURT, Rule 129, sec. 4.

513 Romualdez-Marcos v. COMELEC, 318 Phil. 329, 382 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

514 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 29, Petition.

515 Id. at 290.

516 Id.

517 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 4037, Petitioner's Memorandum. Emphasis supplied.

518 Mitra v. COMELEC, 636 Phil. 753, 786 (2010) [Per J. Brion, En Banc].

519 Id. at 788.

520 Rollo (G.R. No. 221697), p. 4047--4048.

521 Id.

522 Id.

523 Id.

524 Id.

525 318 Phil. 329 (1995) [Per J. Kapunan, En Banc].

526 Id. at 377-378.


The Lawphil Project - Arellano Law Foundation

CONCURRING OPINION

JARDELEZA, J.:

The Philippine Constitution requires that a person aspiring for the presidency must be a natural- born Filipino citizen and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding the election.1The question is whether the petitioner, as a foundling and former resident citizen of the United States (US), satislies these requirements.

I

I first consider the issue lf jurisdiction raised by the parties.

A

Petitioner Mary Grace Natividad S. Poe-Llamanzares (Poe) contends that in the absence of any material misrepresentation in her certificate of candidacy (COC), the public respondent Commission on Elections (COMELEC) had no jurisdiction to rule on her eligibility. She posits that the COMELEC can only rule on whether she intended to deceive the electorate when she indicated that she was a natural-born Filipino and that she has been a resident for 10 years and 11 months. For the petitioner, absent such intent, all other attacks on her citizenship and residency are premature since her qualifications can only be challenged through the post-election remedy of a petition for quo warranto. On the other hand, the COMELEC argues that since citizenship and residency are material representations in the COC affecting the qualifications for the office of President, it necessarily had to rule on whether Poe's statements were true. I agree with the COMELEC that it has jurisdiction over the petitions to cancel or deny due course to a COC. As a consequence, it has the authority to determine therein the truth or falsity of the questioned representations in Poe's COC.

Section 782 of the Omnibus Election Code (OEC) allows a person to file a verified petition seeking to deny due course to or cancel a COC exclusively on the ground that ;my of the material representations it contains, as required under Section 74,3 is false. The representations contemplated by Section 78 generally refer to qualifications for elective office,4 such as age, residence and citizenship, or possession of natural-born Filipino status.5 It is beyond question that the issues affecting the citizenship and residence of Poe are within the purview of Section 78. There is also no dispute that the COMELEC has jurisdiction over Section 78 petitions. Where the parties disagree is on whether intent to deceive is a constitutive element for the cancellation of a COC on the ground of false material representation.

The divide may be attributed to the two tracks of cases interpreting Section 78. On the one hand, there is the line originating from Salcedo II v. COMELEC, decided in 1999, where it was held that "[a]side from the requirement of materiality, a false representation under section 78 must consist of a deliberate attempt to mislead, misinform, or hide a fact which would otherwise render a candidate ineligible."6 On the other hand, in the more recent case of Tagolino v. House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal, we stated that "the ( deliberateness of the misrepresentation, much less one's intent to defraud, is of bare significance in a Section 78 petition as it is enough that the person's declaration of a material qualification in the COC be false."7

To reconcile these two cases, it is important to first understand the coverage of Section 78. The provision refers to material representations required by Section 74 to appear in the COC. In turn, Section 74 provides for the contents of the COC, which includes not only eligibility requirements such as citizenship, residence, and age, but also other information such as the candidate's name, civil stat us, profession, and political party affiliation. Section 78 has typically been applied to representations involving eligibility requirements, which we have likened to a quo warranto petition under Section 253 of the OEC.8

Understated in our jurisprudence, however, are representations mentioned in Section 74 that do not involve a candidate's eligibility. In this regard, there appears to be a prevailing misconception that the "material representations" under Section 78 are limited only to statements in the COC affecting eligibility.9 Such interpretation, however, runs counter to the clear language of Section 78, which covers "any material representation contained therein as required under Section 74." A plain reading of this phrase reveals no decipherable intent to categorize the information required by Section 74 between material and nonmaterial much less to exclude certain items explicitly enumerated therein from the coverage of Section 78. Ubi lex non distinguit, nec nos distinguere debemus. When the law does not distinguish, neither should the court.10 The more accurate interpretation, one that is faithful to the text, is that the word "material" describes-not qualifies-the representations required by Section 74. Therefore, the declarations required of the candidate by Section 74 are all material.11 In enumerating the contents of the COC, Section 74 uses the word "shall" in reference to non-eligibility related matters, including "the political party to which he belongs," "civil status," "his post office address; for all election purposes," "his profession or occupation," and "the name by which he has been baptized, or ... registered in the office of the local civil registrar or any other name allowed under the provisions of existing law or ... his Hadji name after performing the prescribed religious pilgrimage·." The presumption is that the word "shall" in a statute is used in an imperative, and not in a directory, sense.12 The mandatory character of the provision, coupled with the requirement that the COC be executed under oath,13 strongly suggests that the law itself considers certain non-eligibility-related information as material-otherwise, the law could have simply done away with them. What this means relative to Section 78 is that there are material representations which may pertain to matters not involving a candidate's eligibility.14

It is apparent that the interests sought to be advanced by Section 78 are twofold. The first is to protect the sanctity of the electorate's votes by ensuring that the candidates whose names appear in the ballots are qualified and thus mitigate the risk or votes being squandered on an ineligible candidate. The second is to penalize candidates who commit a perjurious act by preventing them from running for public office. This is a policy judgment by the legislature that those willing to perjure themselves are not fit to hold an elective office, presumable with the ultimate aim of protecting the constituents from a candidate who committed an act involving moral turpitude.15 In a way, this protectionist policy is not dissimilar to the underlying principle for allowing a petition for disqualification based on the commission of prohibited acts and election offenses under Section 68. These two considerations, seemingly overlooked in Salcedo, are precisely why the "consequences imposed upon a candidate guilty of having made a false representation in his certificate of candidacy are grave to prevent the candidate from running or, if elected, from serving, or to prosecute him for violation of the election laws."16

Therefore, there are two classes of material representations contemplated by Section 78: (l) those that concern eligibility for public office; and (2) those erstwhile enumerated in Section 74 which do not affect eligibility. Tagolino applies to the former; Salcedo to the latter. This is a logical distinction once we connect the factual settings of the two cases with the aforementioned state interests. Ironically, Salcedo, oft-cited in Section 78 cases as authority for requiring intent in cases involving eligibility-related representations, actually did not concern a representation in the COC affecting the candidate's eligibility. Salcedo involved a candidate who used the surname of her husband of a void marriage. Her COC was challenged on the ground that she had no right l to use such surname because the person she married had a subsisting marriage with another person. We held that petitioner therein failed to discharge the burden of proving that the alleged misrepresentation regarding th1~ candidate's surname pertains to a material matter, and that it must equally be proved that there was an intention to deceive the electorate as to the would-be candidate's qualifications for public office to justify the cancellation of the COC.17 The rationale is that the penalty of removal from the list of candidates is not commensurate to an honest mistake in respect of a matter not affecting one's eligibility to run for public office. "It could not have been the intention of the law to deprive a person of such a basic and substantive political right to be voted for a public office upon just any innocuous mistake."18 Notably, a finding in Salcedo that the candidate had no intention to deceive the electorate when she used her married name, notwithstanding the apparent invalidity of the marriage, would have been sufficient to arrive at the same conclusion (that is, allowing her to run) without making a sweeping rule that only matters pertaining to eligibility are material.

By contrast, Tagolino involved a false representation with respect to a candidate's residence and its subsequent effect on the substitution by a replacement candidate. The false representation affected the one-year residency requirement imposed by the Constitution on members of the House of Representatives19-in other words, it went into the eligibility of the candidate. "[A]n express; finding that the person committed any deliberate misrepresentation is of little consequence in the determination of whether one's COC should be deemed cancelled or not."20 It is the fact of eligibility, not the intent to deceive, that should be decisive in determining compliance with constitutional and statutory provisions on qualifications for public office. This reading is more in accord with the text of Section 78, which does not specify intent as an element for a petition to prosper. In this context, the term "material misrepresentation" is a misnomer because it implies that the candidate consciously misrepresented himself. But all Section 78 textually provides is that "any material representation . . . is false." Thus, in resolving a Section 78 petition, truth or falsity ought to be the definitive test. The COMFLEC's duty, then, is to make findings of fact with respect to the material representations claimed to be false.

The need to apply Tagolino to the first class is highlighted by an inherent gap in Salcedo's analysis, which failed to take into account a situation where a candidate indicated in good faith that he is eligible when he is in fact not. It is not inconceivable that a child, for example, born in 1977, but whose parents simulated the birth certificate to make it appear that he was born in 1976, would· believe himself to be qualified to run for president in the 2016 elections. However, if the simulation of birth is proved, and hospital records and family history show that he was indeed born in 1977, then he would fall short of the minimum age requirement prescribed by the Constitution. If Salcedo is to be followed to a tee, the COMELEC cannot cancel his COC because he acted in good faith. This would lead to a situation where the portion of the electorate who voted for the ineligible candidate would face the threat of disenfranchisement should the latter win the elections and face a quo warranto challenge. In the latter proceeding, not even good faith can cure the inherent defect in his qualifications. Tagolino is therefore preferable in instances involving eligibility-related representations because it fills this gap. Indeed the law should not be interpreted to allow for such disastrous consequences.

In fact, in cases involving eligibility-related representations, the Court has never considered intent to deceive as the decisive element, even in those that relied on Salcedo. In Tecsun v. COMELEC,21 which involved a question on the eligibility of Fernando Poe, Jr. for the 2004 presidential elections by way of a Section 78 petition, the~ Court determined whether he was a natural born citizen of the Philippine~;. Intent to deceive the electorate was never discussed. In Ugdoracion v. COMELEC,22 which involved residency, the Court determined that the candidate lost his residency when he became a US green card holder despite his mistaken belief that he retained his domicile in the Philippines. The candidate-, invoking the legal definition of domicile, claimed that even if he was physically in the US, he always intended to return the Philippines. The Court, placing emphasis on his permanent resident status in the US, merely inferred his intent to deceive when he failed to declare that he was a green card holder. Then in Jalosjos v. COMELEC,23 also involving residency, the Court found that the claim of domicile was contradicted by the temporary nature of the candidate's stay. This time, the Court simply deemed that "[w]hen the candidate's claim of eligibility is proven false, as when the candidate failed to substantiate meeting the required residency in the locality, the representation of eligibility in the COC constitutes a 'deliberate attempt to mislead, misinform, or hide the fact' of i neligibility."24

The Court owes candor to the public. Inferring or deeming intent to deceive from the fact of falsity is, to me, just a pretense to get around the gap left by Salcedo, i.e., an ineligible candidate who acted in good faith. I believe the more principled approach is to adopt Tagolino as the controlling rule. The decision in Agustin v COMELEC25 is a step towards that direction: "[ e ]ven if [the COMELEC] · made no finding that the petitioner had deliberately attempted to mi:-;lead or to misinform as to warrant the cancellation of his COC, the COMELEC could still declare him disqualified for not meeting the requisite. eligibility .... " Of course, Salcedo remains applicable to cases where the material representation required by Section 74 does not relate to eligibility, st1ch as in Villafuerte v. COMELEC,26 which, similar to Salcedo, involved a candidate's name.27

B

The 1987 Constitution d1'signated the Supreme Court en bane, acting as the Presidential Electoral Tribunal (PET), as the "sole judge of all contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications of the President or Vice-President."28 Poe argue·; that allowing the COMELEC to rule on the eligibility of the candidate regardless of intent would be tantamount to the usurpation of the PET's authority (and that of the electoral tribunals of both the Senate and the House of Representatives) as the sole judge of qualifications. This, however, is an incorrect reading of the provision. The phrase "contests relating to the election, returns, and qualifications" is a legal term of art that is synonymous to "election contests." "As used in constitutional provisions, election contest relates only to statutory contests in which the contestant seeks not only to oust the intruder, but also to have Himself inducted into the office."29 Thus, an election contest can only contemplate a post-election30 post-proclamation.31 while the power of electoral tribunals is Exclusive,32 full, clear, and complete,33 it is nonetheless subject to a temporal limitation-their jurisdiction may only be invoked after the election is held and the winning candidate is proclaimed.34

Notably, the Constitution neither allocates jurisdiction over pre-election controversies involving the eligibility of candidates nor forecloses legislative provision for such remedy. Absent such constitutional proscription, it is well within the plenary powers of the legislature to enact a law providing for this type of pre-election remedy, as it did through Section 78.35 In this regard, Poe's statement that the COMELEC essentially arrogated unto itself the jurisdiction to decide upon the qualifications of candidates is inaccurate. It is Congress that granted the COMELEC such jurisdiction; the COMELEC only exercised the jurisdiction so conferred. When the COMELEC takes cognizance of a Section 78 petition, its actions are not repugnant to, but are actually in accord with, its constitutional mandate to enforce and administer all laws relative to the conduct of an election.36 To be clear, the proceeding under Section 78 is not an election contest and therefore does not encroach upon PET's jurisdiction over election contests involving the President and Vice-President.

We have already recognized that a Section 78 petition is one instance-the only instance-where the qualifications of a candidate for elective office can be challenged before an election.37 Although the denial of due course to or the cancellation of the COC is ostensibly based on a finding that the candidate made a material representation that is false,38 the determination of the factual correctness of the representation necessarily affects eligibility. Essentially, the ground is lack of eligibility under the pertinent constitutional and statutory provisions on qualifications or eligibility for public office,39 similar to a petition for quo warranto which is a species of election contest. "The only difference between the two proceedings is that, under Section 78, the qualifications for elective office are misrepresented in the COC and the proceedings must be initiated before the elections, whereas a petition for quo warranto under Section 253 may be brought on the basis of two grounds-(1) ineligibility or (2) disloyalty to the Republic of the Philippines, and must be initiated within ten days after the proclamation of the election results."40 Put simply, the main distinction is the time the action is filed.41 If a person fails to file a Section 78 petition within the 25-day period prescribed in the OEC, the election laws afford him another chance to raise the ineligibility of the candidate by filing a petition for quo warranto.42

The reason why the COMELEC, pursuant to a valid law, is allowed to determine a candidate's constitutional and statutory eligibility prior to the election is not difficult to fathom. As earlier alluded to, there is legitimate value in shielding the electorate from an ineligible candidate. In addition, there are sound fiscal considerations supporting this remedy. These include the more efficient allocation of COMELEC's resources, ultimately funded by taxpayers' money, and a check on unnecessary campaign spending, an activity with minimal economic utility. A contrary ruling could lead to the de facto disenfranchisement of those who voted for a popular but ineligible candidate. The possibility of a constitutional and political crisis arising from such a result is one we dare not risk.

II

Article VII, Section 2 of the 1987 Constitution lays down the eligibility requirements for the office of President:

No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen or the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election.

Citizenship is determined by the organic law in force at the time of birth.43 When Poe was found in 1968, the 1935 Constitution was still in effect. It enumerated the following as citizens of the Philippines: (l) those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of the 1935 Constitution; (2) those born in the Philippines of foreign parents who, before the adoption of the 1935 Constitution, had been elected to public office; (3) those whose fathers are citizen of the Philippines; (4) those whose mothers are citizens of the Philippines and, upon reaching the age of majority, elect Philippine citizenship; and ( 5) those who are naturalized in accordance with law.44 For obvious reasons, the first two classes are not applicable to the present controversy. I therefore limit my discussion to the remaining three classes.

The 1987 Constitution defines "natural-born citizens" as those who are Filipino citizens "from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship."45 Children born of filipino fathers under the 1935 Constitution fall under this category. By express declaration, the 1987 Constitution also considered those born of Filipino mothers who elect Philippine citizenship by age of majority as natural-born citizens.46 On the other hand, those who become Filipino citizens through the naturalization process are evidently excluded from the constitutional definition. Therefore, there an· two kinds of Filipino citizens recognized under the Constitution: natural born citizens and naturalized citizens.47 Only the former are eligible to be President of the Philippines .

Poe contends that she is a natural-born citizen because there is a presumption under international law that a foundling is a citizen of the place where he was born. She further argues that the deliberations of the 1934 Constitutional Convention reveal an intent by the framers to consider foundlings as Filipino citizens from birth. In any case, she believes that she has proved, by substantial evidence, that she is a natural-born citizen. The Solicitor General supports the Second and third arguments of Poe.

On the other hand, the COMELEC and private respondents maintain that because she is a foundling whose parentage is unknown, she could not definitively prove that either her father or mother is a Filipino. They dispute the applicability of international conventions which the Philippines is not a party to, while those which have been ratified require implementing legislation. Assuming arguendo that she was a natural-born citizen, respondents are unanimous that she lost such status when she became a naturalized American citizen. Her subsequent repatriation under RA 9225 only conferred upon her Filipino citizenship but not natural-born status.

I take their arguments in turn.

A

The power of a state to confer its citizenship is derived from its sovereignty. It is an attribute of its territorial supremacy.48 As a sovereign nation, the Philippines has the inherent right to determine for itself, and according to its own Constitution and laws, who its citizens are49 International law, as a matter of principle, respects such sovereign determination and recognizes that the acquisition and loss of citizenship fall within the domestic jurisdiction of each state.50 Domestic rules on citizenship vary greatly from sovereign to sovereign,51 a necessary consequence of divergent demography, geography, history, and culture among the many states. As explained in the Nottebohm Case:

[T]he diversity of demographic conditions has thus far made it impossible for any general agreement to be reached on the rules relating to nationality, although the latter by its very nature affects international relations. It has been considered that the best way of making such rules accord with the varying demographic conditions in different countries is to leave the fixing of such rules to the competence of each State.52

Thus, "[t]here is no rule of international law, whether customary or written, which might be regarded as constituting any restriction of or exception to, the jurisdiction or [individual states to determine questions of citizenship]."53 The foregoing considerations militate against the formation of customary law in matters concerning citizenship, at least not one directly enforceable on particular states as advocated by Poe. Accordingly, the provisions of the 1930 Hague Convention and 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness purportedly conferring birth citizenship upon foundlings, or creating a presumption thereof, cannot be considered customary.

At this juncture, it may not be amiss to explain that another reason why we judiciously scrutinize an invocation of customary international law based on treaties the Philippines has not acceded to is out of deference to the President's treaty-ratification power54 and the Senate's treaty-concurring power.55 The doctrine of separation of powers dictates that, unless the existence of customary international Jaw is convincingly shown, courts of law should not preempt the executive and legislative branches' authority over the country's foreign relations policy, including the negotiation, ratification, and approval of treaties.56

In respect of international covenants that the Philippines is a party to, Poe invokes the following which allegedly recognize her right to natural-born citizenship: the Convent ion on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The CRC and the ICCPR both speak of a child's "right to acquire a nationality." A plain reading indicates that the right simply means that a child shall be given the opportunity to become a Filipino citizen.57 It does not by itself create an enforceable right to birth citizenship. The obligation imposed upon states parties is for them to either enact citizenship statutes specifically for children or to equally extend to children the benefits of existing citizenship laws. In the Philippines' case, the Constitution grants birth citizenship to those born of Filipino parents and our naturalization statutes provide for derivative citizenship of children born of non-Filipino parents.58 The Philippines is, therefore, compliant with this specific obligation under the CRC and the ICCPR.

The same can be said about the UDHR, even though it uses a slightly different wording.59 Preliminarily, it must be clarified that the UDHR is technically not a treaty and therefore, it has no obligatory character. Nonetheless, over time, it has become an international normative standard with binding character as part of the law of nations. In other words, it has acquired the force of customary international law.60 The "right to a nationality" under the UDHR must be interpreted as being subject to the conditions imposed by domestic law, given the broad scope of the declaration, i.e., it covers "everyone." A contrary interpretation would effectively amount to an unqualified adoption of the jus soli principle, which would be repugnant to our constitutional structure. Such interpretation would, in fact, be contrary to the intent of the UDHR itself. The correlative state obligation under the UDHR is for a state not to withdraw or withhold the benefits of citizenship from whole sections of the population who can demonstrate a genuine and effective link with the country.61 It does not purport to indiscriminately grant citizenship to any person. Taking into consideration the historical co11text of the UDHR,62 it may be said that the right, really, is one against statelessness; and the obligation is a negative duty not to create or perpetuate statelessness.63 It proscribes an arbitrary deprivation of citizenship and an unreasonable discrimination in the operation of naturalization law against stateless persons.

Finally, the CRC, ICCPR, and UDHR all refrained from imposing a direct obligation to confer citizenship at birth. This must be understood as a deliberate recognition of sovereign supremacy over matters relating to citizenship. It bears emphasis that none of the instruments concern themselves with natural-born and naturalized classifications. This is because this distinction finds application only in domestic legal regimes. Ergo, it is one for each sovereign to make.

B

The 1935 Constitution did not explicitly address the citizenship of foundlings. For the COMELEC and private respondents, the silence means exclusion, following the maxim expressio unius est exclusio alterius. They point to the jus sanguinis principle adopted by the Constitution to conclude that a foundling who cannot establish a definite blood relation to a Filipino parent is not natural-born. For Poe and the Solicitor General, the deliberations of the 1934 Constitutional Convention indicate the intention to categorize foundlings as citizens and the textual silence "does not indicate any discriminatory animus against them." They argue that the Constitution does not preclude the possibility that the parents of a foundling are in fact Filipinos.

In interpreting the silence of the Constitution, the best guide is none other than the Constitution itself.64 As Prof. Laurence Tribe suggests, giving meaning to constitutional silence involves the twin tasks of articulating the relevant constitutional norns that determine how the silence ought to be interpreted and propounding principles of statutory construction consistent with these norms.65 There is no question that since 1935, the Philippines has adhered to the jus sanguinis principle as the primary basis for determining citizenship. Under the 1935 Constitution, a child follows the citizenship of the parents regardless of the place of birth, although there was a caveat that if only the mother is Filipino, the child has to elect Philippine citizenship by age of majority. Determining a person's parentage, of course, requires a determination of facts in an appropriate proceeding. Consequently, to arrive at a correct judgment, the fundamental principles of due process and equal protection66 demand that the parties be allowed to adduce evidence in support of their contentions, and for the decision-maker to make a ruling based on the applicable quantum of evidence.

1

The appropriate due process standards that apply to the COMELEC, as a quasi-judicial tribunal, are those outlined in the seminal case of Ang Ti bay v. Court of Industrial Relations.67 Commonly referred to as the "cardinal primary rights" in administrative proceedings, these include: (1) the right to a hearing, which includes the right of the party interested or affected to present his own case and submit evidence in support thereof~ (2) not only must the party be given an opportunity to present his case and to adduce evidence tending to e:tablish the rights which he asserts, but the tribunal must consider the evidence presented; (3) while the duty to deliberate does not impose the obligation to decide right, it does imply a necessity which cannot be disregarded, namely, that of having something to support its decision; (4) not only must there be some evidence to support a finding or conclusion, but the evidence must be "substantial;" (5) the decision must be rendered on the evidence presented at the hearing, or at least contained in the record and disclosed to the parties affected; (6) the tribunal must act on its or his own independent consideration of the law and facts of the controversy; and ('7) the tribunal should render its decision in such a manner that the parties to the proceeding can know the various issues involved, and the reasons for the decision rendered.68 The COMELEC failed to comply with the third and fourth requirements when it first, decided the question of foundlings on a pure question of law, i.e., whether foundlings are natural-born, without making a determination based on the evidence on record and admissions of the parties of the probability or improbability that Poe was born of Filipino parents; and second, by concluding that Poe can only prove her parentage thro11gh DNA or other definitive evidence, set a higher evidentiary hurdle than mere substantial evidence.

The COMELEC's starting position is that foundlings are not natural-born citizens69 unless they prove by DNA or some other definitive evidence70 that either of their biological parents are Filipino citizens. Thus, it limited its inquiry to the question of whether the 1935 Constitution considered foundlings as natural-born citizens. In effect, the COMELEC has created a conclusive or irrebuttable presumption against foundlings, i.e., they are not natural-born citizens. This is true notwithstanding the apparently benign but empty opening allowed by the COMELEC. By definition, foundlings are either "deserted or abandoned ... whose parents, guardian or relatives are unknown," or "committed to an orphanage or charitable or similar institution with unknown facts of birth and parentage."71 Considering these unusual circumstances common to all foundlings, DNA or other definitive evidence would, more often than not, not be available. A presumption disputable only by an impossible, even cruel, condition is, in reality, a conclusive presumption.

In this jurisdiction, conclusive presumptions are looked upon with disfavor on due process grounds. In Dycaico v. Social Security System, the Court struck down a provision in Republic Act No. 8282 or the Social Security Law "because it presumes a fact which is not necessarily or universally true. In the United States, this kind of presumption is characterized as an irrebuttable presumption and statutes creating permanent and irrebutable presumptions have long been disfavored under the due process clause."72 The case involved a proviso in the Social Security Law which disqualified the survivi11g spouses whose respective marriages to SSS members were contracted after the latter's retirement. The Court found that this created the presumption that marriages contracted after the retirement date of SSS members were sham and therefore entered into for the sole purpose of securing the benefits under the Social Security Law. This conclusive presumption violated the due process clause because it deprived the surviving spouses of the opportunity to disprove the presence of the illicit purpose.

In the earlier case of Government Service Insurance System v. Montesclaros, the Court similarly found as unconstitutional a proviso in Presidential Decree No. 1146 or the Revised Government Service Insurance Act of 1977 that prohibits the dependent spouse from receiving survivorship pension if such dependent spouse married the pensioner within three years before the pensioner qualified for the pension. In finding that the proviso violated the due process and equal protection guarantees, the Court stated that "[t]he proviso is unduly oppressive in outrightly denying a dependent spouses claim for survivorship pension if the dependent spouse contracted marriage to the pensioner within the three-year prohibited period," and "[t]here is outright confiscation of benefits due the surviving spouse without giving the surviving spouse an opportunity to be heard."73

The same consideratio11s obtain here. The COMELEC 's approach presumes a fact which is not .necessarily or universally true. Although the possibility that the parents of a foundling are foreigners can never be discounted, this is not always the case. It appears that because of its inordinate focus on trying to interpret the Constitution, the COMELEC disregarded the incontrovertible fact that Poe, like any other human being, has biological parents. Logic tells us that there are four possibilities with respect to the biological parentage of Poe: (1) both her parents are Filipinos; (2) her father is a Filipino and her mother is a foreigner; (3) her mother is a Filipino and her father is a foreigner; and (4) both her parents are foreigners. In three of the four possibilities, Poe would be considered as a natural-born citizen.74 In fact, data from the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) suggest that, in 1968, there was a 99.8n% statistical probability that her parents were Filipinos.75 That Poe's parents are unknown does not automatically discount the possibility that either her father or mother is a citizen of the Philippines. Indeed, the verba legis interpretation of the constitutional provision on citizenship as applied to foundlings is that they may be born of a Filipino father or mother. There is no presumption for or against them. The COMELEC's duty under a Section 78 petition questioning a candidate's citizenship qualification is to determine the probability that her father or mother is a Filipino citizen using substantial evidence. And there lies the second fault of the COMELEC: regardless of who had the burden of proof, by requiring DNA or other definitive evidence, it imposed a quantum of evidence higher than substantial evidence.

In proceedings before the COMELEC, the evidentiary bar against which the evidence presented is measured is substantial evidence, which is defined as such relevant evidence as a reasonable mind might accept as adequate to support a conclusion.76 This is the least demanding in the hierarchy of evidence, as compared to the highest, proof beyond reasonable doubt applicable to criminal cases, and the intermediate, preponderance of evidence applicable to civil cases.77 When the COMELEC insisted that Poe must present DNA or other definitive evidence, it effectively subjected her to a higher standard of proof, that of absolute certainty. This is even higher than proof beyond reasonable doubt, which requires only moral certainty; in criminal cases, neither DNA evidence78 nor direct evidence79 are always necessary to sustain a conviction. The COMELEC's primary justification is the literal meaning of jus sanguinis, i.e., right of blood. This, however, is an erroneous understanding because jus sanguinis is a principle of nationality law, not a rule of evidence. Neither is it to be understood in a scientific sense. Certainly, the 1935 Constitution could not have intended that citizenship must be proved by DNA evidence for the simple reason that DNA profiling was not introduced until 1985.

Since the COMELEC created a presumption against Poe that she was not a natural-born citizen and then set an unreasonably high burden to overcome such presumption, it unduly deprived her of citizenship, which has been described as "the right to have rights,"80 from which the enjoyment of all other rights emanates. The Commission on Human Rights (CHR), in its amicus submission, accurately described the bundle of rights that flow from the possession of citizenship: '' [it is] oftentimes the precursor to other human rights, such as the freedom of movement, right to work, right to vote and be voted for, access to civil service, right to education, right to social security, freedom from discrimination, and recognition as a person before the law."81

The purpose of evidence is to ascertain the truth respecting a matter of fact.82 Evidence is relevant when it induces belief in the existence or non-existence of a fact in issue or tends in any reasonable degree to establish its probability or improbability.83 It is a fundamental requirement in our legal system that questions of fact must be resolved according to the proof.84 Under the due process clause, as expounded in Ang Tibay, the COMELEC was duty-bound to consider all relevant evidence before arriving at a conclusion. In the proceedings before the COMELEC, Poe presented evidence that she is 5 feet 2 inches tall, has brown eyes, low nasal bridge, black hair and an oval-shaped face, and that she was found abandoned in the Parish Church of Jaro, Iloilo. There are also admissions by the parties that she was abandoned as an infant, that the population of Iloilo in 1968 was Filipino, and that there were no international airports in Iloilo at that time. Poe's physical features, which are consistent with those of an ordinary Filipino, together with the circumstances of when and where she was found are all relevant evidence tending to establish the probability that her parents are Filipinos. Thus, the COMELEC gravely abused its discretion when it failed or refused to consider these. On the other hand, the private respondents presented absolutely no evidence before the COMELEC that would tend to establish the improbability that both of Poe's parents are Filipino citizens, and instead chose to rely solely on the undisputed fact that Poe is a foundling. The COMELEC's stance that "the probability that [Poe] might be born of a Filipino parent is not sufficient to prove her case"85 is a blatant misunderstanding of the purpose of evidence. Tribunals, whether judicial or quasi-judicial, do not deal in absolutes, which is why we lay down rules of evidence. The determination of facts in legal proceedings is but a weighing of probabilities.86 "[A judge] must reason according to probabilities, drawing an inference that the main fact in issue existed from collateral facts not directly proving, but strongly tending to prove, its existence. The vital question in such cases is the cogency of the proof afforded by the secondary facts. How likely, according to experience, is the existence of the primary fact if certain secondary facts exist?"87 This is different from a mere "possibility" that is borne out of pure conjecture without proof.

To my mind, the foregoing evidence, admissions on record, data from the PSA, which we may take judicial notice of,88 showing that 99.55% of the population of Iloilo province in 1970 were Filipinos89 and that 99.82% of children born in the Philippines in 1968 are natural-born Filipinos,90 and absence of contrary evidence; adequately support the conclusion that Poe's parents are Filipinos and, consequently, that she is a natural-born citizen. If circumstantial evidence is sufficient to establish proof beyond reasonable doubt,91 then it should also be sufficient to hurdle the lower threshold of substantial evidence, particularly in the present case where there are a number of circumstances in favor of Poe.

2

The COMELEC's unwarranted presumption against Poe, and foundlings in general, likewise violates the equal protection clause. In Dycaico, the Court ruled that the proviso in the Social Security Law disqualifying spouses who contracted marriage after the SSS members' retirement were unduly discriminated against, and found that the "nexus of the classification to the policy objective is vague and flimsy."92 In Montesclaros, the Court considered as "discriminatory and arbitrary" the questioned proviso of the GSIS Act that created a category for spouses who contracted marriage to GSIS members within three years before they qualified for the pension.93

The COMELEC's de facto conclusive presumption that foundlings are not natural-born suffers from the same vice. In placing foundlings at a disadvantaged evidentiary position at the start of the hearing then imposing a higher quantum of evidence upon them, the COMELEC effectively created two classes of children: (1) those who know their biological parents; and (2) those whose biological parents are unknown. As the COMELEC would have it, those belonging to the first class face no presumption that they are not natural-born and, if their citizenship is challenged, they may prove their citizenship by substantial evidence. On the other hand, those belonging to the second class, such as Poe, are presumed not natural-born at the outset and must prove their citizenship with near absolute certainty. To illustrate how the two classes are treated differently, in Tecson,94 which involved Poe's adoptive father, the COMELEC did not make a presumption that Fernando Poe was not a nat11ral-born citizen. Instead, it considered the evidence presented by both pa1 ties and ruled that the petition before it failed to prove by substantial evidence that Fernando Poe was not natural-born. On certiorari, the Court sustained the COMELEC. In this case, the COMELEC presumed that Poe was not natural-born and failed or refused to consider relevant pieces of evidence presented by Poe. Evidently, the COMELEC's only justification for the different treatment is that Fernando Poe knew his biological parents, while herein petitioner does not.

I find the COMELEC's classification objectionable on equal protection grounds because, in the first place, it is not warranted by the text of the Constitution. The maxim expressio unius est exclusio alterius is just one of the various rules of interpretation that courts use to construe the Constitution; it is not the be-all and end-all of constitutional interpretation. We have already held that this maxim should not be applied if it would result in incongruities and in violation of the equal protection guarantee.95 The more appropriate interpretive rule to apply is the doctrine of necessary implication, which holds that

No statute can be enacted that can provide all the details involved in its application. There is always an omission that may not meet a particular situation. What is thought, at the time of enactment, to be an all-embracing legislation may be inadequate to provide for the unfolding events of the future So-called gaps in the law develop as the law is enforced. One of the rules of statutory construction used to fill in the gap is the doctrine of necessary implication. The doctrine states that what is implied in a statute is as much a part thereof as that which is expressed.96

When the 1935 Constitution referred to "those whose fathers [or mothers] are citizens of the Philippines," it necessarily included foundlings whose fathers or mothers are Filipino citizens. As previously discussed, the parentage of foundlings may be proved by substantial evidence. Conversely, foundlings whose parents are both foreigners are excluded from the constitutional provision. This; would be the case if in an appropriate proceeding there is deficient relevant evidence to adequately establish that either of the parents is a Filipino citizen.

Another useful interpretive rule in cases with equal protection implications is the one embodied in Article 10 of the Civil Code: "In case of doubt in the interpretation or application of laws, it is presumed that the lawmaking body intended right and justice to prevail." "When the statute is silent or ambiguous, this is one of those fundamental solutions that would respond to the vehement urge of conscience."97 Indeed, it would be most unkind to the delegates of the 1934 Constitutional Convention to ascribe upon them any discriminatory animus against foundlings in the absence of any positive showing of such intent. It is conceded that the exact reason why the Convention voted down Sr. Rafols' proposal to explicitly include "children of unknown parent:;" may never fully be settled. Srs. Montinola, Bulson, and Roxas all had their respective views on why the amendment was not necessary.98 The parties herein have diametrically opposed interpretations on the proposal: the respondents argue that the fact that the amendment is defeated should be conclusive-after all, not all delegates expressed their views-and th;1t the deliberations were not submitted to the people for ratification; Poe contends that the deliberations reveal that rules of international law already considers foundlings as citizens of the place where they are found, thus making the inclusion unnecessary; and finally, the Solicitor General maintains that the silence may be fully explained in terms of linguistic efficiency and the avoidance of redundancy. These are all valid points, but I believe the only thing we can unquestionably take away from the deliberations is that there was at least no intent to consider foundlings as stateless, and consequently deprive them of the concomitant civil and political rights associated with citizenship.

My second objection is that-as the Solicitor General points out foundlings are a "discrete and insular"99 minority who are entitled to utmost protection against unreasonable discrimination applying the strict scrutiny standard. According to this standard government action that impermissibly interferes with the exercise 1if a "fundamental right" or operates to the peculiar class disadvantage of a "suspect class" is presumed unconstitutional. The burden is on the government to prove that the classification is necessary to achieve a compelling state interest and that it is the least restrictive means to protect such interest.100The underlying rationale for the heightened judicial scrutiny is that the political processes ordinarily relied upon to protect minorities may have broken down.101 Thus, one aspect of the judiciary's role under the equal protection clause is to protect discrete and insular minorities from majoritarian prejudice or indifference.102

The fundamental right warranting the application of the strict scrutiny standard is the right to a nationality embodied in the UDHR-properly understood in the context of preventing statelessness and arbitrary denial of citizenship. Citizenship has been described as "man's basic right for it is nothing less than the right to have rights," and the effects of its loss justly have been called "more serious than a taking of one's property, or the imposition of a fine or other penalty."103 It is the individual's "legal bond [with the state] having as its basis a social fact of attachment, a genuine connection of existence, interests and sentiments, together with the existence of reciprocal rights and duties."104 Although the COMELEC primarily argues that Poe is not natural-horn, its rigid exclusionary approach,105 taken to its logical conclusion, would actually have deprived Poe of her Filipino citizenship-natural-born or otherwise. This is an infringement of a fundamental right that threatens to deprive foundlings not only of their civil and political rights under domestic law but also deny them of the state's protection on an international level.

Foundlings also comprise a suspect class under the strict scrutiny analysis. The traditional indicia of "suspectness" are (1) if the class possesses an "immutable characteristic determined solely by the accident of birth,"106 or (2) when the class is "saddled with such disabilities, or subjected to such a history of purposeful unequal treatment, or relegated to such a position of political powerlessness as to command extraordinary protection from the majoritarian political process."107 Thus, in the US, suspect classes for equal protection purposes include classifications based on race, religion, alienage, national origin, and ancestry.108 In the Philippines, the Court has extended the scope to include distinctions based on economic class and status,109 and period of employment contract.110 Here, the COMELEC's classification is based solely' on the happenstance that foundlings were abandoned by their biological parents at birth and who, as a class, possess practically no political power.111 The classification is therefore suspect and odious to a nation committed to a regime of equality.112

Applying the strict scrutiny standard, the COMELEC failed to identify a compelling state interest to justify the suspect classification and infringement of the foundling fundamental right.113 Indeed, the Solicitor General, appearing as Tribune of the People,114 disagrees with the COMELEC's position. When the Solicitor General acts as the People's Tribune, it is incumbent upon him to present to the court what he considers would legally uphold the best interest of the government although it may run counter to the position of 1he affected government office.115 In such instances, the Court has considered his opinion and recommendations "invaluable aid[s] in the disposition of the case."116 His opinion that there is no compelling state interest to justify discrimination against foundlings, while in no way conclusive upon the Court, must be afforded weight.

It may nonetheless be deduced that the interest sought to be protected by the COMELEC is the same as the concern of John Jay, the future first US Chief Justice, when he suggested to George Washington that it would be wise "to provide a ... strong check into the admission of Foreigners into the administration of our national government; and to declare expressly that the Command in chief of the American (sic) army shall not be given to, nor devolve on, any but a natural born Citizen."117 The rationale behind requiring that only natural-born citizens may hold certain high public offices is to insure that the holders or these high public offices grew up knowing they were at birth citizens of the Philippines. It flows from the presumption that, in their formative years, they knew they owed from birth their allegiance to the Philippines aid that in case any other country claims their allegiance, they would be faithful and loyal to the Philippines. This is particularly true to the President who is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.118 To be sure this interest is compelling because the Constitution itself demands it. Nonetheless, it can only be used where the issue involves the bright-line between natural-born and naturalized citizens. It cannot be used as justification in a case where no clear constitutional line has been drawn, i.e., between foundlings and persons who know their parents. It finds no application in this case where there was absolutely no evidence, not even an allegation, that Poe's parents were foreign nationals. I simply find the risk that a Manchurian candidate119 was planted by a foreign sovereign in the form of a foundling too remote to justify an en masse discrimination against all foundlings. If the underlying premise for the natural-born requirement is that natural-born citizens consider themselves as Filipino citizens since birth, then foundlings surely fit into this category as well.

In any case, the COMELEC failed to adopt the least restrictive means to protect such interest.120 by imposing a heavy burden upon Poe just because she was abandoned as an infant with unknown facts of birth and parentage, the COMELEC haphazardly acted without regard to the far-reaching consequences to a discrete and insular minority. Needless to say, a more narrowly tailored approach would avoid making a sweeping presumption. The COMELEC 's fixation with a scientific application of the jus sanguinis principle, as opposed to a legal one guided by rules of evidence, led to its discriminatory interpretation of the Constitution. It acted with "an evil eye and unequal hand,"121 denying foundlings equal justice guaranteed by the same fundamental law. This is grave abuse of discretion.

C

The COMELEC and private respondent Amado Valdez both argue that even assuming that Poe was a natural-born citizen; she forever lost such status when she became a naturalized American in 2001. Her repatriation in 2006 only restored her Filipino citizenship, but not her natural-born status. They cite as legal basis the constitutional definition of natural-born citizens, i.e., those who are citizens from birth without having to perform any act to acquire or perfect their Philippine citizenship.122 Poe and the Solicitor General refute this by invoking the Court's ruling in Bengson Ill v. HRET,123 where it was held that the act of repatriation allows a former natural-born citizen to recover, or return to, his original status before he lost his Philippine citizenship.

The COMELEC and Valdez, without stating it directly, are asking for a reexamination of Bengson. Valdez, on the one hand, frames his argument by differentiating RA 9225 from Republic Act No. 2630 (RA 2630), the old repatriation law in effect at that time Bengson was decided. He argues that RA 9225 had a more tedious process than RA 2630. On the other hand, the COMELEC points to the text of RA 9225 noting that it only mentioned reacquisition of citizenship, not reacquisition of natural-born status. These are, of course, thin attempts to differentiate this case from Bengson. But the problem is that they never directly question the legal soundness of Bengson. And, to me, this half-hearted challenge is insufficient justification to depart from stare decisis.

Time and again, the Court has held that it is a very desirable and necessary judicial practice that when a court has laid down a principle of law as applicable to a certain state of facts, it will adhere to that principle and apply it to all future cases in which the facts are substantially the same. Absent any powerful countervailing considerations, like cases ought to be decided alike.124 The reason why we adhere to judicial precedents is not only for certainty and predictability in our legal order but equally to have an institutional safeguard for the judicial branch. As articulated by the US Supreme Court in Planned Parenthood v. Casey,

There is a limit to the amount of error that can plausibly be imputed to prior Courts. If that limit should be exceeded, disturbance of prior rulings would be taken as evidence that justifiable reexamination of principle had given way to drives for particular results in the short term. The legitimacy of the Court would fade with the frequency of its vacillation.125

In the Philippines, using as reference the cited US case, we have adopted a four-point test to justify deviation from precedent, which include the determination of: ( 1) whether the older doctrine retained the requirements of "practical workability;" (2) whether the older doctrine had attracted the kind of reliance that would add a special hardship to the consequences of overruling it and "add inequity to the cost of repudiation;" (3) whether the related principles of law have developed in a different direction so as to render the older rule "no more than the remnant of an abandoned doctrine;" and, ( 4 )whether the contextual facts of the older doctrine have so changed a·; to deprive the old rule of "significant application or justification."126; Thus, before we could venture into a full blown reexamination of Bengson, it was necessary for respondents to have shown, at the first instance, that their case hurdled the foregoing test.

III

It is well settled in election law that residence is synonymous with domicile.127 Domicile denotes a fixed permanent residence where, when absent for business or pleasure, or for like reasons, one intends to return.128 To establish domicile, three elements must concur: (1) residence or bodily presence in the new locality; (2) an intention to remain there (animus manendi); and (3) an intention to abandon the old domicile (animus non revertendi ).129

There is no question that Poe has complied with the first requirement. She has been residing in the Philippines together with her children since May 24, 2005, save for brief travels abroad. The point of contention between the parties is whether Poe satisfied the concurrent requisites of animus manendi et non revertendi. In the proceedings before the COMELEC, Poe presented evidence that: she and her husband enrolled their US-based children in Philippine schools in June 2005; they purchased a condominium in the second half 2005 which was intended to be used as the family abode; they made inquiries with property movers as early as March 2005 and actually relocated household. goods, furniture, cars, and other personal properties to the Philippines during the first half of 2006; she secured a Tax Identification Number from tl1e Bureau of Internal Revenue in July 2005; her husband notified the US Postal Service that they will no longer be using their former US address in M:.1rch 2006; they sold their family home in the US in April 2006; her husband resigned from his work in the US to join the family in May 2006; and her application for reacquisition of Filipino citizenship and her application for derivative citizenship of her minor children, which were subsequently approved on July 18, 2006. The COMELEC, however, relied on the declaration in her 2013 COC for Senator, where she stated that she was a resident for 6 years and 6 months, which would peg her residency in November 2006. Even if the previous COC was not controlling, the COMELEC determined that the earliest Poe could have established domicile here was when the BI approved her application to reacquire her Filipino citizenship on July 18, 2006. It emphasized that when Poe entered the Philippines in May 2005, she did so as a foreign national availing of a balikbayan visa-free entry privilege valid for one year. In other words, she was a temporary visitor. Citing Coquilla v. COMELEC,130 the COMELEC ruled that Poe should have either secured an Immigrant Certificate of Residence or reacquired Filipino citizenship to be able to waive her non-resident status.

Unlike residence which may be proved by mere physical presence, animus manendi et non revertendi refers to a state of mind. Thus, there is no hard and fast rule to determine a candidate's compliance with the residency requirement.131 Its determination is essentially dependent on evidence of contemporary and subsequent acts that would tend to establish the fact of intention. Although the appreciation of evidence is made on a case-to-case basis, there are three basic postulates to consider: first that a man must have a residence or domicile somewhere; second, that where once established it remains until a new one is acquired; and third, a man can have but one domicile at a time.132 In addition, the Court has devised reasonable standards to guide tribunals in evaluating· the evidence.

In Mitra v. COMELEC,133 the Court recognized that the establishment of domicile may be incremental. The Court considered the following "incremental moves" undertaken by Mitra as sufficient to establish his domicile: (1) his expressed intent to transfer to a residence outside of Puerto Princesa City to make him ·eligible for a provincial position; (2) his preparatory moves; (3) the transfer of registration as a voter; ( 4) his initial transfer through a leased dwelling; (5) the purchase of a lot for his permanent home; and (6) the construction of a house on the said lot which is adjacent to the premises he was; leasing pending the completion of his house.

In Fernandez v. HRET,134 the Court held that the transfer of domicile must be bona fide. In ruling in favor of the petitioner whose residency was challenged in a quo warranto proceeding, the Court found that there are real and substantial reasons for Fernandez to establish a new domicile in Sta. Rosa, Laguna for purposes of qualifying for the May 2007 elections. The ruling was based on a finding that: (a) Fernandez and his wife owned and operated businesses in Sta. Rosa since 2003; (b) their children attended schools in Sta. Rosa at least since 2005; (c) although ownership of property should never be considered a requirement for any candidacy, Fernandez purchased residential properties in that city even prior to the May 2007 election; and ( d) Fernandez and his spouse subsequently purchased another lot in April 2007, about a month before election day, where they have constructed a home for their family's use as a residence.

In Japzon v. COMELEC ',135 also involving residency, the Court ruled that residence is independent of citizenship. The Court found that although respondent Ty did not automatically reestablish domicile in the Philippines upon reacquisition of citizenship under RA 9225, his subsequent acts proved his intent to establish ;i new domicile in the Philippines. The Court based its finding on the following circumstances: (a) he applied for a Philippine passport indicating in his application that his residence in the Philippines was in General Macarthur, Eastern Samar; (b) for the years 2006 and 2007, Ty voluntarily submitted himself to the local tax jurisdiction of General Macarthur by paying community tax and securing CTCs from the said municipality stating therein his local address; ( c) thereafter, Ty applied for and was registered as a voter in the same municipality; and (d) Ty had also been bodily present in General Macarthur except for short trips abroad.

In Romualdez-Marcos v. COMELEC,136 one of the issues presented was an apparent mistake with regard to the period of residency stated in the COC of Imelda Marcos, which would have made her ineligible. In finding that Marcos was eligible, the Court held that "[i]t is the fact of residence, not a statement in a ce11ificate of candidacy which ought to be decisive in determining whether or not an individual has satisfied the [C]onstitution's residency qualifications requirement."137

Guided by the foregoing, it is clear to me that Poe has adequately established her animus manendi et non revertendi by substantial evidence. There are real and substantial reasons for her establishment of domicile in the Philippines. Her father died on December 2004, which Poe claims, was crucial in her decision to resettle in the Philippines for good. She and her family then began the incremental process of relocating by making preparatory inquiries with property movers as early as March 2005. She then entered the Philippines in May 2005 and enrolled her children in Philippine schools for the academic year starting in June 2005. It cannot be overemphasized that it defies logic that one would uproot her children from US schools and transfer them to schools in a different country if the intent was only to stay here temporarily. The intent to stay in the Philippines permanently is further reinforced by the purchase of real property to serve as the family abode and relocation of household goods, furniture, cars, and other personal properties from the US. The sale of their family residence in the US and her husband's arrival in the Philippines to join the family all but confirmed her abandonment of her US domicile and a definitive intent to remain in the Philippines. Poe has also been physically present in the Philippines since May 2005, and the fact that she returned after short trips abroad is strongly indicative that she considers the Philippines as her domicile. Her subsequent act: of acquiring Filipino citizenship for herself and her minor children, renouncing her US citizenship, and holding public office are all consistent with the intent formed as early as 2005. Although these acts are subsequent to May 2005, they are relevant because they tend to prove a specific intent formed at an earlier time.138 Taken together, these facts trump an innocuous statement in her 2013 COC.

The facts that Poe did not renounce her US citizenship until 2010 and used her US passport between 2006 and 2010 do not affect her establishment of domicile in the Philippines. The circumstance that Poe, after leaving the US and fixing her residence in the Philippines, may have had what is called a "floating intention" to return to her former domicile upon some indefinite occasion, does not give her the right to claim such former domicile as her residence. It is her establishment of domicile in the Philippines with the intention of remaining here for an indefinite time that severed the respondent's domiciliary relation with her former home.139 This is consistent with the basic rule that she could have only one domicile at a time.

I now discuss the effect of the fact that Poe entered the country in May 2005 as an American citizen under the balikbayan visa-free program. There is no dispute among the parties that citizenship and residence are distinct concepts. A· foreign national can establish domicile here without undergoing naturalization. Where there is disagreement is whether Poe could have established her domicile in the Philippines in May 2005 considering that her entry was through the balikbayan program, which is valid for one year. Respondents, on the one hand, believe it was not possible because of the temporary nature of her stay. For them, Poe should have first secured an Immigrant Certificate of Residence or repatriated earlier than July 2006. On the other hand, Poe contends that to require either would be to add a fourth requisite to the establishment of domicile.

In principle, I agree with the COMELEC's proposition that "a foreigner's capacity to establish her domicile in the Philippines is ... limited by and subject to regulations and prior authorization by the BID."140 This appears to be based on rulings of US federal courts, which distinguish "lawful" from "unlawful" domicile.141 The requisites for domicile remain the same, i.e., physical presence, animus manendi, and animus non revertendi. But "[i]n order to have a 'lawful domicile,' then, an alien must have the ability, under the immigration laws, to form the intent to remain in the [country] indefinitely.142 The basis for this is the sovereign's inherent power to regulate the entry of immigrants seeking to establish domicile within its territory. It is not an additional requisite for the establishment of domicile; rather, it is a precondition that capacitates a foreigner to lawfully establish domicile. This is the import of the statement in Coquilla that "an alien [is] without any right to reside in the Philippines save as our immigration laws may have allowed him to stay."143

The point of inquiry, therefore, is if, under our immigration laws, Poe has the ability to form the intent to establish domicile. In resolving this issue, the analysis in the US case of Elkins v. Moreno144 is instructive. In Elkins, the US Supreme Court resolved the question of whether a holder of a "G-4 visa" (a nonimmigrant visa granted to officers or employees of international treaty organizations and members of their immediate families) cannot acquire Maryland domicile because such a visa holder is incapable of demonstrating an essential element of domicile-the intent to live permanently or indefinitely in Maryland (a "legal disability"). In resolving the issue, the US Court analyzed federal immigration laws and found that where the US Congress intended to restrict a nonimmigrant's capacity to establish domicile, it did so expressly. Since there was no similar restriction imposed on G-4 aliens, the US Court considered the legislature's silence as pregnant, and concluded tha1 the US Congress, while anticipating that permanent immigration would normally occur through immigrant channels, was willing to allow non-restricted nonimmigrant aliens to adopt the US as their domicile.145

In the Philippines, the primary immigration law is Commonwealth Act No. 613 (CA 613) or the Philippine Immigration Act of 1940. In defining certain nonimmigrant classes, Congress explicitly limited the purpose for entry into the Philippines. For example, a nonimmigrant student's entry is "solely for 1he purpose of study."146 In other instances, it uses language that identifies specific purpose and the transient nature of the nonimmigrant's entry.147 By including such restrictions on intent, it may be deduced that Congress aimed to exclude aliens belonging to these restricted classes if their real purpose in coming to the Philippines was to immigrate permanently. This is further supported by Section 37(d) of the Act which provides as ground for deportation the nonimmigrant's violation of any limitation or condition under which he was admitted.

But Congress made no such clear restrictions in Republic Act No. 9174 (RA 9174), which amended Republic Act No. 6768 (RA 6768).148 The law allows balikbayans who hold foreign passports to enter the Philippines visa-free for a period of one year, except for those considered as restricted nationals.149 It defines a balikbayan as "a Filipino citizen who has been continuously out of the Philippines for a period of at least one (1) year, a Filipino overseas worker, or former Filipino citizen and his or her family, as this term is defined hereunder, who had been naturalized in a foreign country and comes or returns to the Philippines."150 unlike the restricted classes of nonimmigrant's under the Immigration Act, there was no definite restriction on intent or purpose imposed upon balikbayans, although there was a temporal restriction on the validity of the visa-free entry. Taken alone, the one-year limit may be interpreted as an implied limitation. However, RA 9174 expressly declared that one of the purposes of establishing a balikbayan program is to "to enable the balikbayan to become economically self-reliant members of society upon their return to the country."151 To this end, the law instructs government agencies to "provide the necessary entrepreneurial training and livelihood skills programs and marketing assistance to a balikbayan, including his or her immediate family members, who shall avail of the kabuhuyan program in accordance with the existing rules on the government's reintegration program."152 This is a clear acknowledgement by Congress that it is possible for a balikbayan to form the intent needed to establish his domicile in the Philippines. Notably, there are no qualifications, such as acquisition of permanent resident status or reacquisition of Filipino citizenship, before a balikbayan may avail of the kabuhayan program. Applying the well-established interpretive rule that a statute must be so construed as to harmonize and give effect to all its provisions whenever possible,153 the one-year visa-free entry does not create a legal disability which would prevent balikbayans from developing animus manendi.

The amendments introduced by RA 9174 to RA 6768 differentiate the present case from Coquilla In that case, decided prior to the enactment of RA 9174, the Court concluded that a visa-free balikbayan visitor could not have established domicile in the Philippines prior to a waiver of his nonresident status. This is because under RA 6768, the only declared purpose was "to attract and encourage overseas Filipinos to come and visit their motherland." Coupled with the one-year visa-free limit, this most likely led to the Court's interpretation that a balikbayan's entry was merely temporary. However, with the amendments introducing the reintegration provisions, a balikbayan is no longer precluded from developing an intent to stay permanently in the Philippines; Therefore, Poe, who entered the Philippines after the effectivity of RA 9174, had the ability to establish a lawful domicile in the Philippines even prior to her reacquisition of Filipino citizenship.

For the foregoing reasons, I vote to GRANT the petitions.

FRANCIS H. JARDELEZA
Associate Justice


Footnotes

1 CONSTITUTION, Art. VII, Sec. 2. No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election.

2 OMNIBUS ELECTION CODE, Sec. 78. Petition to deny due course to or cancel a certificate of candidacy. - A verified petition seeking to deny due course or to cancel a certificate of candidacy may be filed by the person exclusively on the ground that ally material representation contained therein as required under Section 74 hereof is false. The petition may be filed at any time not later than twenty-five days from the time of the filing of the certificate of candidacy and shall be decided, after due notice and hearing, not later than fifteen days before the election.

3 OMNIBUS ELECTION CODE, Sec. 74 par. I. Contents of certificate of candidacy. - The certificate of candidacy shall state that the person filing it is announcing his candidacy for the office stated therein and that he is eligible for said office; if for Member of the Batasang Pambansa, the province, including its component cities, highly urbanized city or district or sector which he seeks to represent; the political party to which he belongs; civil status; his date of birth; residence; his post office address for all election purposes; his profession or occupation; that he will support and defend the Constitution of the Philippines and will maintain true faith and allegiance,· thereto; that he will obey the laws, legal orders, and decrees promulgated by the duly constituted authorities; that he is not a permanent resident or immigrant to a foreign country; that the obligation imposed by his oath is assumed voluntarily, without mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that the facts stated in the certificate of candidacy are true to the best of his knowledge.

4 Salcedo II v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 135E,86, August 16, 1999, 312 SCRA 447, 458; Ugdoracion, .Jr. v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 179851, April 18, 2008, 552 SCRA 231, 239; Lluz v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 172840, June 7, 2007, 523 SCRA 456, 471; Talago, v. COMELEC, G.R. Nos. 196804 & 197015, October 9, 2012, 683 SCRA 197, 234.

5 Tagolino v. House of Representatives Electoral Tribunal, G.R. No. 202202, March 19, 2013, 693 SCRA 574, 596; Gonzalez v. COMELEC, ( 1 R. No. 192856, March 8, 2011, 644 SCRA 761, 781; Salcedo II v. COMELEC, supra at 457-459

6 Supra at 459.

7Supra at 592.

8 Fermin v. COMELEC, G.R. Nos. 179695 & 182369, December 18, 2008, 574 SCRA 782, 792-794 ;

9 This can also be traced to Salcedo, supra at 458: "the material misrepresentation contemplated by section 78 of the Code refer to qualifications fo1 elective office." Yet, Salcedo left open the possibility that a candidate's stated name in the COC may fall within the coverage of Section 78, supra at 459: "The use of a surname, when not intended to mislead or deceive the public as to one's identity, is not within the scope of the provision." (Emphasis added)

10 Ejercito v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 212398 November 25, 2014, 742 SCRA 210, 299; Yu v. SamsonTatad, G.R. No. 170979, February 9, 2(1 I 1, 642 SCRA 421, 428; People v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 164185, July 23, 2008, 559 SCRA 449, 459.

11 The form of the COC prescribed by the COMELEC contains items not enumerated in Section 74, such as "nickname or stage name," "name to appear in the ballot," and "gender." It is with respect to these items that a distinction between material and nonmaterial is proper.

12 Codoy v. Calugay, G.R. No. 123486, August 12, 1999, 312 SCRA 333, 342; Gonzales v. Chavez, G.R. No. 97351, february 4, 1992, 205 SCRA 816, 837; Lacson v. San Jose-Lacson, G.R. Nos. L-23482, L- 23767 & L-24259, August 30, 1968, 24 SCRA 837, 848.

13 OMNIBUS ELECTION CODE, Sec. 73 par. (I). Certificate of candidacy. - No person shall be eligible for any elective public office unless he files a sworn certificate of candidacy within the period fixed herein. (Emphasis added)

14 The statement of the law in Fermin v. COMELEC, supra at 792, is thus more accurate:

[T]he denial of due course to or the cancellation of the COC is not based on the lack of qualifications but on a finding that the candidate made a material represe11tation that is false, which may [or may not] relate to the qualifications required of the public office he/she is running for.

15 "The crime of perjury undisputedly involves moral turpitude." Republic v. Guy, G.R. No. L-41399, July 20, 1982, 115 SCRA 244, 254.

16 Salcedo II v. COMELEC, supra at 458.

17 Id at 458-460.

18 Id. at 458.

19 CONSTITUTION, Art. VI, Sec. 6.

20 Tagolino v. House (l Representatives Electoral Tribunal, G.R. No. 202202, March 19, 2013, 693 SCRA 574.592.

21 G.R. Nos. 161434, 161634, 161824, March 3, 2004, 424 SCRA 277.

22 G.R. No. 179851, April 18, 2008, 552 SC RA 231.

23 G.R. No. 193314, June 25, 2013, 699 SCRA 507

24 Id at 516-517.

25 G.R. No. 207105, November 10, 2015

26 G.R. No. 206698, February 25, 2014, 717 SCRA 312.

27 The foregoing analysis is limited to the interpretation of Section 78 in relation to Section 74. It is not intended to affect the existing doctrine involving the penal provisions of the OEC, specifically Section 262 vis-a-vis Section 74, as enunciated in Lluz v COMELEC, G.R. No. 172840, June 7, 2007, 523 SCRA 456.

28 CONSTITUTION, Art. Vil, Sec. 4 par. (7).

29 Vera v. Avelino, G.R. No. L-543, August 11, 1946, 77 Phil. 192, 209.

30 Tecson v. COMELEC, supra at 325.

31 Limkaichongv. COMELEC, G.R. Nos. DX831-32, 179120, 179132-33, April I, 2009, 583 SCRA 1, 33.

32 Gonzalez v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 192851•, March 8, 2011, 644 SCRA 761, 790-791.

33 Veloso v. Board ()(Canvassers, G.R. No. 15620, July I 0, 1919, 39 Phil. 886, 888.

34 The word "sole" was originally used to bar either House of Congress (and the courts) from interfering with the judgment of the other House (Angara v. Electoral Commission, G.R. No. 45081 , July 15, 1936, 63 Phil. 139, 162):

The original provision re1c·arding this subject in the Act of Congress of July I, 1902 (sec. 7, par. 5) laying down the rule that "the assembly shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its members", was taken from clause 1 of section 5, Article I of the Constitution of the United States providing that "Each House shall be the Judge of the Electio11s, Returns, and Qualifications of its own Members, .... " The Act or Congress of August 29, 1916 (sec. 18, par. I) modified this provision by the insertion of the word "sole" as follows: "That the Senate and House of Representatives, respectively, shall be the sole judges o( the elections, returns, and qualifications of their elective members, .. " apparently in order to emphasize the exclusive character of the jurisdiction conferred upon House of the Legislature over the particular cases therein specified.

35 CONSTITUTION, Art. VI, Sec. 1. See also 1 Occeña v. COMELEC, G.R. No. L-52265, January 28, 1980, 95 SCRA 755.

36 CONSTITllTION, Art. IX(C), Sec. 2( l ).

37 Gonzalez v. COMELEC, supra at 777; k11ar v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 83820, May 25, 1990, 185 SCRA 703, 708.

38 Fermin v. COMELEC, G.R. Nos. 179695 & 182369, December 18, 2008, 574 SCRA 782, 792.

39 .Jalosjos, Jr. v. COMELEC, G.R. Nos. l93237, 193536, October 9, 2012, 683 SCRA I, 45 (Brion, J, dissenting) citing Fermin v. COMELEC, supra.

40 Salcedo ll v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 135886, August 16, 1999,312SCRA447,457.

41 Fermin v. COMELEC, supra at 794.

42 Loong v. COM ELEC, G. R. No. 93986, December 22, 1992, 216 SC RA 760, 768-769.

43 Tan Chong v. Secretary of labor, G.R. Nos. 47616 & 47623, September 16, 1947, 79 Phil. 249, 258.

44 1935 CONSTITUTION, Art. IV, Sec. I.

45 CONSTITUTION, Art. IV, Sec. 2.

46 Id.

47 Bengson III . HRET, G.R. No. 142840, May 7, 2001, 357 SCRA 545 557-558.

48 PAUL WELS, NATIONALITY AND STATELESSNESS IN INTERNATIONAL LAW, I0I (1979).

49 Roa v. Collector of Customs, G.R. No. 1011, October 30, 1912, 23 Phil., 315, 320-321, citing US v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 US 649 ( 1898).

50 HANS KELSEN, PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW 374-375 (2nd ed. 1979, Tucker rev. ed. 1967); IAN BROWNLIE, PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW 385 (5th ed. 1998).

51 GERHARD VON GLAI IN, LAW AMONG NATIONS: INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW 177 (1965).

52 Nottebohm Case (Second Phase) (Liechtenstein v. Guatemala). Judgment , 1955 I.C.J., 4,23 : April 6).

53 League of Nations Committee of Experts for the Progressive Codification of International Law, Nationality, 20 AJIL 21, 23 (1926).

54 Bayan (Bagong Alyansang Makabayan) v. Zamora, G.R. No. 138570, October 10, 2000, 342 SCRA 449, 494-495.

55 CONSTITUTION, Art. VI, Sec. 21.

56 For an incisive analysis on the constituti1lnal status of international law principles as interpreted by the Supreme Court, see MERLIN M. MAGALLONA, THE SUPREME COURT AND INTERNATIONAL LAW (2010). Dean MagaIIona argues that " ... in cases \1 here State sovereignty is at stake, the Court could have been a decisive factor in reshaping it along the cc\i\tours of integrity of the Filipino nation." Id. at iii. "The heavy burden of judicial interpretation in proble111-; of international law lies in the involvement of the sovereign integrity of the Philippine Republic and in the modality by which the will of the national community finds juridical expression." Id. at 119.

57 Notably, both the CRC and ICCPR speak of children in general, not just foundlings; they apply to Filipino children, foreign children domiciled in the Philippines, and foundlings alike. This only highlights that the conventions could not have conte111plated an automatic grant of citizensJ1ip without imposing the jus soli principle on all state-parties.

58 See Commonwealth Act No. 473, Sec. 15 Republic Act No. 9225, Soc. 4.

59 UDHR, Art. 15(1). Everyone has the right to a nationality.

60 MERLIN M. MAGALLONA, FUNDAMENTAL OF PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW 255-258 (2005).

61 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, THE STATE OF THE WORLD'S REFUGEES: A HUMANITARIAN AGENDA, available at http: 1 www.unhcr.org/3eb7ba7d4.pdf.

62 Id. The UDHR was precipitated by citizenship issues arising from large-scale population movements and formation of new states after World War l it is in this context that the "right to a nationality" should be understood. Notable events include the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian, German, and Ottoman empires leading to the establishment of new states, such as Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Yugoslavia, the restoration of the former state of Poland, a11d the simultaneous adjustment of many international borders in the area directly or indirectly affected by tile conflict. "Some five million people were moved, ... which evidently required the states concerned and the international community as a whole to address some complex citizenship questions." Then in th1· 1940s, there was the decolonization and partition of India in 1947 and the subsequent movement of Hindus and Muslims between India and Pakistan; the conflict over Palestine and the creation of Israel in 1948. Creating a Palestinian Diaspora in the Middle East and beyond; and the Chinese revolution of 1949, which led to the establishment of a communist government on the mainland and a nationalist government on tile island of Taiwan.

63 Commission on Human Rights, Memora11dum (As Amicus Curiae Submission), p. I0, citing Reports of Special Rapporteurs and Other Documents Considered During the 48th " Session, [1996] 2 Y.B. lnt'I L. Comm' n 126, UN Doc. A/CN .4/SER.A/l 996/ Add. I (Part I).

The right to a nationality as a human right is conceivable as a right of an individual vis-a-vis a certain State, deriving, under certain conditions, from international law. As the case may be, it is the right to be granted the nationality of the successor State or not to be deprived of the nationality of the /'1 successor State. The obligation not to create statelessness, however, is a State-to-State erga omnes obligation, conceivable either as a corollary of the above right to a nationality or as an autonomous obligatio11 existing in the sphere of inter-State relations only and having no direct legal consequences in the relationship between State and individuals. (Emphasis added)

64 Optima statuti interpretatrix est ipsum statum (The best interpreter of a statute is the statute itself). Serana v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 16205". January 22, 2008, 542 SCRA 224, 245.

65 Laurence Tribe, Toward a Syntax of the Unsaid: Construing the Sounds of Congressional and Constitutional Silence, 57 IND. L.J 515 (I 982).

66 CONSTITUTION, Art. Ill, Sec. I.

67 G.R. No. 46496, February 27, 1940, 69 Phil. 635.

68 Id. at 642-644.

69 COMELEC En Banc Resolution, SPA Nos. 15-002, 15-007 & 15-139, p. 17:

The fact that Respondent was a foundling with no known parentage or blood relative effectively excluded her from the coverage of the definition of a natural-born citizen'' (at p. 15). "To reiterate, natural-born citizenship is founded on the principle of jus sanguinis. Respondent is a foundling. Her parentage is unknown. There is thus no basis to hold that respo11dent has blood relationship with a Filipino parent. This Commission therefore cannot rule or presume that Respondent possesses blood relationship with a Filipino citizen when it is certain that such relationship is indemonstrable.

70 COMELEC First Division Resolution, SPA Nos. 15-002, 15-007 & 15-139, p. 25:

To be a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, however, Respondent must be able to definitively show her direct blood relationship with a Filipino parent and-consistent with Section 2, Article IV of the 1987 Constitution-demonstrate that no other act was necessary for her to complete or perfect her Filipino citizenship.

TSN, February 9, 2016, pp. 64-65:

J. JARDELEZA: Now, 11 when you say that the petitioner has only one type of evidence that ca" prove her parentage and that's only DNA [?]

COMM. LIM: Seemingly for now...

J. JARDELEZA: And what is the meaning of seemingly for now"?

COMM. LIM: That is what a reasonable mind could possibly approximate, because we have a situation where a child is of unknown biological parents. From the premise that the parents are biologically unknown it cannot admit of proof that parentage exists, identity wise that is otherwise the pan~1ls would be known. So in a situation such as this, Your Honor, it is our respectful submission that some other modality other than the surfacing of the parents, other than evidence of family relations, one plausible evidence would be what Justice Carpio suggested, DNA. And although we did not discuss that in our decisions not being necessary any111ore to a disposition of the issues before us, this humble representation accepts that suggestion to be very sound. Because in all fairness, a foundling status need not be attached to a person forever.

71 Rule on Adoption, A.M. No. 02-6-02-SC (2002), Sec. 3(e).

72 Dycaico v. SSS, G.R. No. 161357, N01·ember 30, 2005, 476 SCRA 538, 558-559 citing Jimenez v. Weinberger, 417 US 628 ( 1974); U.S. Department of Agriculture v. Murry, 413 US 508, 37 ( 1973); Vlandis v. Kline, 412 US 441 (1973). See Cleveland Board of Education v. Lafleur, 414 U.S. 632 (1974) which involved school board rules that mandated 1naternity leaves for teachers beginning their fifth or sixth month of pregnancy and prohibited reemployment prior to a semester at least 3 months after delivery. The US Supreme Court found that the mandatory leave requirement conclusively presumed "that every pregnant teacher who reaches the fifth or sixth month of pregnancy is incapable of continuing," while the 3-month delay conclusively presumed the teacl1LT's unfitness to work during that period. This conclusive presumption is "neither 'necessarily [nor] 1miversally true,' and is violative of the Due Process Clause." In his concurring opinion, Justice Powell applied an equal protection analysis and found the school board rules "either counterproductive or irrationally over inclusive" and therefore violative of equal protection. See also GERALD GUNTHER, CONSTITUTIONAL LAW: CASES AND MATERIALS 888-897 (1975).

73 GSIS v. Montesclaros, G.R. No. 146494 July 14, 2004, 434 SCRA 441, 449.

74 If she falls under the third category, her acts of obtaining a Philippine passport and registering as a voter may be considered as election of Filipino citizenship. (In re FlorencioMallare, A.C. No.533, September 12, 1974, 59 SCRA 45, 52. Art IV, Sec.2 of the 1987 Constitution provides that those who elect Filipino citizenship are deemed natural-born.)

75 OSG Memorandum, Exhibits C & D.

76 Subili v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 193261, 1\pril 24, 2012, 670 SCRA 664, 683.

77 Salvador v. Philippine Mining Service Corp, G.R. No. 148766, January 22, 2003, 395 SCRA 729, 738.

78 People v. Cabigquez, G.R. No. 185708, September 29, 20I0, 631 SCRA 653, 671.

79 Zabala v. People, G.R. No. 210760, Jan11:1ry 26, 2015, 748 SCRA 246, 253.

80 Gov. Bureau of Immigration, G.R. Nos. 191810, June 22, 2015, (Velasco, J., dissenting) citing CJ Warren's dissenting opinion in Perez v. Br, 11vnell, 356 U.S. 44, 64 (1958).

81 Commissions on Human Rights, Memorandum (As Amicus Curiae Submission), p. 12.

82 RULES OF COURT, Rule 128, Sec. 1.

83 RULES OF COURT, Rule 128, Sec. 4.

84 U.S. v. Provident Trust Co., 291 U.S. 2 7' (1934)

85 Rollo, p. 180.

86 See RULES OF COURT, Rule 128, Sec. 4; Rule 130, Sec. 51, par. (a)(3); Rule 133, Sec. 1.

In filiation cases, Sec. 3(f) of the Rule on DNA Evidence (A.M. No. 06-11-5-SC) refers to the "Probability of Parentage". It is "the numerical estimate for the likelihood of parentage of a putative parent compared with the probability of a random match of two unrelated individuals in a given population."

"Preponderance of evidence is a phrase which, in the last analysis, means probability of the truth." Sevilla v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 150284, November 22, 20I0, 635 SCRA 508, 515-516. (Emphasis added)

"Probability, and not mere possibility, is required; otherwise, the resulting conclusion would proceed from deficient proofs." Sea Power Shipping Enterprises, Inc. v. Salazar, G.R. No. 188595, August 28, 2013, 704 SCRA 233, 251.

87 Joaquin v. Navarro, G.R. Nos. L-5426-28, May 29, 1953, 93 Phil. 257, 269 citing I Moore on Facts, Sec. 596.

88 RULES OF COURT, Rule 129, Section 2. Judicial notice, when discretionary. - A court may take judicial notice of matters which are of public knowledge, or are capable of unquestionable demonstration, or ought to be known to judges because of their judicial functions. See Bagabuyo v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 176970, December 8, 2008, 573 SCRA 290,309.

89 Poe Memorandum, p. 205.

90 OSG Memorandum, Exh. C

91 RULES OF COURT, Rule 133, Sec. 4.

92 Dycaico v, SSS, G.R. No. 161357, Novernher 30, 2005, 476 SCRA 538,553.

93 GSIS v, Montesclaros, G.R. No. 146494, July 14, 2004, 434 SCRA 441, 453.

94 G.R. Nos. 161434, 161634 & 161824, March 3, 2004, 424 SCRA 277.

95 Chua v. Civil Service Commission, G.R. No. 88979, February 7, 1992, 206 SCRA 65, 77.

96 Id.; Department of' Environment and Natural Resources v. United Planners Consultants, Inc., G.R. No. 212081, February 23, 2015.

97 Padilla v. Padilla. G.R. No. 48137, October 3, 1947, 74 Phil. 377. 387.

98 Sr. Montinola saw no need for the amendment because he believed that this was already covered by the Spanish Code. Sr. Bulson thought that it would be best to leave the matter to the hands of the legislature.

Sr. Roxas believed that foundlings are rare· cases and that it would be superfluous to include them in the Constitution because, in his view, this was already covered by international law.

99 First coined by Justice Stone in the famous "Footnote Four" in U.S. v. Carotene Products Co., 304 U.S. 144 ( 1938), where the US Supreme Court established that state-sanctioned discriminatory practices against discrete and insular minorities are entitled to a diminished presumption of constitutionality. Cited in Central Bank Employees Ass 'n, Inc. v. Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, G.R. No. 148208, December 15, 2004, 446 SCRA 299, 488 (Carprio-Morales, .I. dissenting); White Light Corp. v. City ()f Manila, G.R. No. 122846, January 20, 2009, 576 SCRA 416. -l36; Ang Ladlad LGBT Party v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 190582, April 8, 20 I 0, 618 SCRA 32, 87-99 (Puno CJ., concurring); Garcia v. Drilon, G.R. No. 179267, June 25, 2013, 699 SCRA 352, 447-451 (Leonardo-De Castro, J., concurring).

100 Disini, .Jr. v. Secretary of Justice, G.R. No. 203335, February 18, 2014, 716 SCRA 237, 30 I.

101 .Johnson v. Robison, 415 U.S. 361 (1974); In one article, Justice Powell, although not in entire agreement with the theory of Footnote Four, summarized many scholars' formulation of the theory as follows:

The fundamental character of our government is democratic. Our constitution assumes that majorities should rule and that the government should be able to govern. Therefore, for the most part, Congress and the state legislatures should be allowed to do as they choose. But there are certain groups that cannot participate effectively in the political process. And the political process therefore cannot be trusted to protect these groups in the way it protects most of us. Consistent with these premises, the theory continues, the Supreme Court has two special missions in our scheme of government:

First, to clear away impediments to participation, and ensure that all groups can engage equally in the process; and

Second, to review with heightened scrutiny legislation inimical to discrete and insular minorities who are unable to protect themselves in the legislative process.

Lewis F. Powell, Jr., "Carolene Products" Revisited, 82 COLUM. L. REV. 1087, 1088-1089.

102 Richmond v .J.A. Croson Co., 488 U.S. 169 (1989).

103 Fedorenko v. U.S., 449 U.S. 490, 522-.523 (1981),

104 Nottebohm Case (Second Phase) (Liechtenstein v. Guatemala), Judgment, 1955 I.C.J., 4, 23 (April 6).

105 "Neither will petitioner (Poe) fall under Section I, paragraphs 3, 4, and 5." COMELEC Memorandum, p. 56.

106 Frontiero v. Richardson, 411 U.S.677 6